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October 28, 1980 - Image 6

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Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1980-10-28

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4

Page 6-Tuesday, October 28, 1980-The Michigan Daily
All aspects of athletic dep't to be examined

FRANK LANGELLA
GLYNNIS O'CONNOR
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MYTH: Under Title IX an institution
must spend equal amounts of money on
male and female athletes and provide
equal benefits to both sexes.
FACT: The law states that an in-
stitution must provide overall equal op-
portunity to members of both sexes.
This interpretation means that iden-
tical benefits, opportunities, and
treatments are not required, provided
the overall effect of any difference is
negligible.
The Department of Education will be
examining the University's entire
athletic program because of this policy,
explained department spokeswoman
Jane Glickman. She said that even
though complaints filed against a
school may have concerned alleged
discrepancies in only one sport or only
one program component, such as
recruiting, the Department of
Education must investigate every
aspect of a school's program before it
can determine if a university is in
violation of Title IX.
THE TEAM of six investigators from
the Office of Civil Rights will be using a

140-page manual to help them conduct
the investigation at the University. A
copy of the manual reviewed by the
Daily shows that this week's in-
vestigation should be a detailed, in-
depth review of the Athletic Depar-
tment.
During the next four days, and
possibly next week, the investigators
will be interviewing the people who
filed complaints, University budget of-
ficials, Athletic Director Donald
Canham, associate athletic directors,
coaches, a sampling of student athletes,
University Title IX Coordinator
Virginia Nordby, and officials respon-
sible for awarding athletic financial
aid. Anyone who wishes to talk to the
investigators should contact Nordby.
The investigative team has already
requested and examined data on the
athletic department's expenditures for
last year, the current budget, and
projections for the athletic department
finances in future years.
THE MANUAL instructs in-
vestigators to compare the levels of
financial support in each component of
the men's and women's programs to
help them identify areas which require
in-depth on-site reviews.
The manual states that the athletic
program of one sex need not be a car-
bon copy of the program for the op-
posite sex and says that differences are
allowed as long as the particular needs

of specific sports are met to an
equivalent degree.
If, for example it was found that
men's basketball received substan-
tially more funds and privileges than
women's basketball,\the investigators
might not necessarily find the Univer-
sity in violation. Another sport favoring
women to a proportional degree would
probably exonerate the University.
However, if the single descrepancy in
women's basketball was large enough
OCR could consider it alone as a
violation of Title IX.
There are four types of non-
discriminatory factors which may
justify a lack of equivalency in different
areas of an athletic program:
" Unique aspects of a particular
sport, such as football, could justify dif-
ferences that are inherent in the basic
operation of the sport;
* Special circumstances of a tem-
porary nature, such as a large equip-
ment expenditure for a certain sport in
one year are justifiable;
" Differences in activities directly
associated with the operation of a com-
petitive event in a single sex sport can
be justified under Title IX. For exam-
ple, the overall support provided for
event management (crowd control,
etc.) may differ in the men's and
women's programs;
" Differences between the men's and
women's athletics which favor women

because of a school's voluntary affir-
mative action program will be justified.
The following is a synopsis of how the
investigators will examine and analyze
some of the major program componen-
ts.
Athletic Financial Assistance
Title IX rewuires that financial aid to
athletes should be available on a "sub-
stantially proportional basis" to the
number of male and female participan-
ts in the school's program.
To analyze the financial aid data, the
investigators must compare the par-,
ticipation rates for each sex with the
proportion of aid awarded to each sex.
The two values should be "substantially
proportional."
For example, if males constitute 75
percent of the athletes in a school's
athletic program and receive 90 per-
cent of the scholarship aid then the data
tenatively indicates that the school is
not in compliance. If the figures are
closer, such as 75 and 77 percent
respectively, then the institution would
probably be in compliance.
"Schools are allowed to distribute
financial aid unevenly between male
and female athletes if the disparity can
be justified by legitimate, non-
discriminatory factors, such as the
higher cost of out-of-state tuition at
public institutions (provided there are
no sex-based restrictions on its

availability), and program develop-
ment," the manual states.
Opportunity to Receive Coaching
and Academic Tutoring
Availability and quality of coaching
and the opportunity to receive tutoring
assistance will be assessed. The in-
vestigators will look at salaries paid to
coaches, experience of coaches, and
participant-coach ratios.
The manual states that even if the in-
stitution's policies and practices
discriminate against coaches the in-
stitution will not violate the
requirements of Title IX unless the
discrimination against coaches or
tutors has an adverse impact on oppor-
tunities provided athletes.
Recruitment of Student Athletes
Examination of the recruiting com-
ponent of a school's program will in-
clude reviewing:
" whether coaches have substantially
equal opportunities to recruit;
" whether the financial and other
resources made available for recruit-
ment in male and female athletic
programs are equivalently adequate-to
meet the needs of each program; and,
* whether the differences in'benefits,
opportunities, and treatment afforded
prospective student athletes of each sex
have a disproportionately limiting effect
upon the recruitment of students of
either sex.

r

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A Daily News Analysis
The athletic department budget
always has been an elusive document.
Specific team expenditures have rarely
been publicized, and just last month a
state legislator threatened to withhold,
approval of several University con-
struction projects if he wasn't allowed
to see budget figures for the
Wolverines' self-supporting athletic
department.
The figures printed in this issue were
released to the Daily under the
Michigan Freedom of Information Act.
The casual reader should be
cautioned against inferring too much
into the differences between expen-
ditures for men's and women's teams.
There is no way one can tell whether the
University is in compliance with Title
IX just by looking at the figures. It
takes a team of six specially-trained
and experienced investigators to decide
that question.
BUT IT IS possible to look at some of
the measures the investigators will be
using in their review of the athletic
department.
The approximate head counts listed
in this issue are estimates for the num-
ber of athletes on last year's teams ac-
cording to Athletic Department
Assistant Business Manager Bob
DeCarolis.
According to those figures, there
were approximately 544 athletes par-

A look at review method?

ticipating in varsity sports last year.
An estimated 27.5 percent of those
athletes were women, and 72.5 percent
were men.
Last year the University awarded
$1,196,630 to athletes in the form of full
and partial scholarships. $985,731, or
82.3 percent, went to male athletes and
$210,899, or 17.6 pecent, went to female
athletes.
ACCORDING TO THE manual the
investigators will be using, the Office of
Civil Rights will compare the Univer-
sity's proportion of scholarship money
awarded to women (17.6 percent) to
their participation rate (27.5 percent).
If the office finds this approximate 10
percent difference to be a substantial
one, they may ask the University if
there are any non-discriminatory
reasons for the discrepency. '
According to DeCarolis, an estimated
90 percent of the scholarship money
awarded to out-of-state students is
awarded to male athletes, in part
because the National Collegiate
Athletic Association recruiting
regulations (for men's athletics) make
it much easier to recruit tout-of-state
athletes than do the Association for In-
tercollegiate Athletics for Women
regulations.
Out-state scholarships cost the depar-
tment more than in-state scholarships,
and since many more men are on out-
of-state scholarships the cost of men's
scholarships is proportionally higher.

ALSO, DeCAROLIS added, the pool of
qualifed women athletes is sometimes
smaller than the pool of men; and so
fewer scholarships are granted.
Another consideration in the Title IX
analysis, as stated in the manuel and
the policy interpretation, is comparigg
total per capita spending on men's .and
women's programs.
The total spent on men was $4,563,374,@
and $620,566 was spent on women. When
those figures are divided by the total
number of participants in each
program, $11,582 was spent for each
male athlete and $4,137 was spent for
each female athlete.
THIS, DOES NOT prove one way or
the other the University's compliance
with Title IX. It could even be a
deceiving figure.
One example of how expenditures*
could be looked at differently is by
looking at the amount that coaches are
concerned with in determining tie
amount of money they receive for their
sport from the athletic department,
which throughout, this article will-be
called the working budgets.
The working budget totals for mien
and .women were $1,680,938 and
$318,272, respectively. When this total is
divided by the total number of par-
ticipants in each program the results
are an average of $4,266 spent on each
male athlete and $2,122 spent on each
female athlete. That computation is not
one suggested specifically by the
manual, and does not necessarily prove
o' disprove compliance.
Another consideration stated in the
manual is the ratio of participants to
the coaches. Approximate figures
gathered by the Daily show that there
are 12 full-time and nine part-time
women's coaches. There are ap-O
proximately 24 full-time and ten part-
time (including four graduate assistan-
ts) men's coaches.
When these totals are divided into
the number of male and female par-
ticipants a ratio of athletes per coach is
derived. In this case there are 12.5 par-
ticipants per full-time coach availale
to women and 16.4 participants per fgll-
time coach for men and 39.4 participan-
ts per part time coach.

I Student Newspaper at The University of Michigan
F1
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THE HUNCHBACK OF NOTRE DAME
No, it's not about the captain of the Fighting Irish football team. Quasimoto,
deformed and mistreated, tries to help the only peson who ever did him a
kindness-the woman he loves. A wonderful portrayal of the hunchback by
CHARLES LAUGHTON. CEDRIC HARDWICKE, MAUREEN O'HARA. "That's the
most beautiful ugliness I've seen. C
7:00 & 9:15-LORCH HALL AUDITORIUM
Wednesday: MR. SMITH GOES TO WASHINGTON
Thursday: ALL THE KING'S MEN
CINEMA GUILD what owayto go

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