The Michigan Daily-Wednesday, January 21, 1981-Page 5
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By PAM KRAMER
The trauma for many of the Americans held
hostage in Iran for 444 days did not end yesterday,
according to psychological experts, who say effec-
ts of the experience may include prolonged
anxiety, guilt, and family problems.
"A mind can be overwhelmed by both bad and
good things," said Emanuel Tanay, a Detroit
forensic psychiatrist and professor at Wayne State
University. "Liberation can also be injurious; it is
stressful," he said.'
TANAY, WHO has had experience examining
victims of prisoner of war camps, concentration
camps, and terrorist imprisonments, suggested
that the hostages should go through a "decom-
pression" process before returning to their homes
in theUnited States.
"When concentration camp survivors were
liberated by GIs (during World War II) many of
them died because the GIs did not know how to
handle the situation," he said. For example,
Tanay said, "You don't feed them with a normal
American diet after they've been starving (for a
long period), because their systems couldn't han-
The same is true of human feelings, he con-
tinued. "That's where we made our mistake in
Vietnam. They (the hostages) need a period of
convalescent isolation before they can be expected
to return to their homes."
THE HOSTAGES will remain in Germany for
five to seven days where they will be brought up to
date on world events, according to C. Richard
Spates, special assistant to the director of the
Michigan Department of Mental Health. They will
also be encouraged to share experiences, get to
know one another, and establish a network of con-
tacts among themselves in preparation for their
"Given the fact that 15 months of their lives
have been erased, this process is necessary," said
The effect of the Iranian experience on in-
dividual hostages will depend heavily on their
ability to cope with stressful situations in the past,
SOME OF THE victims will come out of the
situation with definite psychological and/or
physical effects. Others, he said, may be.
relatively unaffected in the long run.
"This tremendous outpouring of joy you see now
diminishes. These hostages have caused
emotional stress, unintentionally, of course,"
Tanay said, explaining that he thinks the Iranians
"effectively traumatized" not only the families of
the hostages, but the entire country.
"And the hostages have changed, also," he said,
explaining that these factors could lead to
problems in family relationships.
Those hostages who are affected often cannot
overcome the stigma attached to counseling, st
they suffer a different kind of isolation, Spates ex-
plained. Already existing tendencies toward
ulcers and heart problems may be irritated by the
stress, and psychosomatic illnesses could also
become a serious problem.
Another after effect is a guilt feeling the
hostages may have when they return, Tanay said,
adding that because the ultimate goal is to sur-
vive, hostages sometimes do things they consider
unheroic. "You need to have a sense of empathy
(for them) . . . When they're welcomed as heroes,
that is nice and pleasant, but it also creates guilt."
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KEY FIGURES in the 141-month Iranian crisis include (clockwise from top
left): The late shah of Iran, Mohammed Reza Pahlavi; Iran's chief hostage
negotiator, Behzad Nabavi; Iranian religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini;
.and U.S.;Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher.
in West Germany
(Continued from Page 1)
precedent in modern diplomatic
A U.S. Army spokesperson said
earlier the hostages would be served
a Thanksgiving dinner of roast.
turkey during the two-hour, 35-
nMinute flight to the Rhein-Main Air
Base near Wiesbaden, where they
will be admitted to a U.S. Air Force
hospital for a period of "decom-
Former Secretary of State Cyrus
Vance arrived at the German air
base early today to prepare to
welcome the Americans taken cap-
tive while he headed the State
The ex-hostages arrived in Algiers
shortly after 1 a.m. today (8 .m.
EST yesterday, following a refueling
stop in Athens, Greece.
Algerian Foreign Minister
Mohammed Benyahia said his coun-
try was turning over the hostages to
the United States "as an act of
trust" to Iran. He said the respon-
sibility had been a "heavy one."
In Washington, a State Depar-
tment official said the Americans
had confirmed that all 52 hostages
were on the plane from Tehran that
refueled in Athens.
CARTER AND former Secretary
of State Edmund Muskie, in new
roles as President Reagan's envoys,
are leaving for Wiesbaden today to
greet the hostages on behalf of a
Plans had called, for the three
Algerian planes - one with the
hostages and two carrying Algerian
mediators and their luggage - to
refuel in Ankara, Turkey. In a last
minute change that surprised both
U.S. and Turkish officials, the
planes flew to Greece instead.
Meanwhile, the relatives of
Michigan hostages were overjoyed
at the release of the 52 Americans.
Marjorie Keon of St. Louis, found
herself on "Cloud Nine" yesterday.
For her brother, Howard Ode of
Midland, it was "one of the happiest
days of my life."
Robert Ode, the brother of Howard
Ode and .Mrs. Keon, was at 64 the
oldest of the captives. A native of
Michigan, Ode grew up in Manistee
and later moved to the Washington
D.C. area. His wife, Rita, now lives
in Sun City West, Ariz.
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