ge4 Sunday, September 4, 1981 The Michigan Daily
view life in
,KWhen the school bell rings at the end of the
day in Poland, Kasta Kwiecinska and Ewa
Mp~lkiewicz and their classmates hurry out of
the school, books and ration cards - in their
Ockpacks. However, instead of going home to
study or socialize, the students go to ration
lees, which in the last year, have become a
typical after-school activity for Polish high
CWaiting in line now consumes from two to
ourthours each day, so in order to compensate
~or the study time lost while standing in line,
i two young women and their friends now
ing their books, and study while waiting.
"IF YOU WALK down the street and see a
4ine, you get in it," said Kwiecinska, through an
terpreter "The only problem is you ;never
::know what's at the end. One time I waited for
,chocolate, but when I got to the end of the line I
was handed mayonaise."
ecently in the United States visiting
,their relatives, Kwiecinska, 16, from Katowice,
"Poland, and Malkiewicz, 18, from Zabzre,
Poland, talked about' the effects of Poland's
political and economic situation on their lives.
The woman said their education. is par-
ticularly influenced both by the current ten-
'sjons in Polarid and by the political situation in
general. Both attend a lyceum, or high school,
"in Poland, and plan to attend a university upon
graduating from the lyceum.
THE STUDY of history is one area
significantly affected by thePolish government,
"The history of Poland is taught a bit dif-
,ferently now than a year ago," Malkiewicz
4said. "We formerly used schoolbooks written
3by the government; now the teacher makes up
lectures with about half the facts omitted."
-There are certain things which some teachers
.refuse to discuss, for example, the pact made'
eto divide Poland in 1939.
"My teacher says, 'I'd rather not discuss it,'
and then he leaves the room while another
student explains it. There are two groups of
teachers-those who'd like to tell the truth, and
those who are afraid, who don't want to be ac-
cused by the government," Malkiewicz said.
WHILE HISTORY may be one area which of-
fers few satisfactory answers to Polish studen-
ts, Polish education as a whole is quite com-
prehensive. Students compete aggressively in
their classes in order to perform well on the
examinations required for graduation. They
must pass both written and oral exams in four
subject areas before graduating.
Once the women pass the lyceum and have
passed university entrance exams, they will
have met university admission requiremen-
ts-technically. But Polish students must
possess additional qualities based on social
background, gender and social activities, to get:
into a university.
The women, whose fathers are both
engineers, come from "disadvantaged"
backgrounds, as far as having the ideal social
circumstances for admittance to a university.
. IN POLAND, points are given to university
applicants - laborers and farmers' children
getting more, professionals' childrer getting
Preference is given to the worker class, since
Poland is a "people's" country, and the worker
is the idealized symbol of the system. The
Communist ideal to to educate the poor, and'
since Kwiecinska and Malkiewicz are children
of more affluent, educated citizens, their needs
take less precedence with the Communist
educational ideal. Women also have a more dif-
ficult time getting into a university, they said.
Malkiewicz, who will graduate from high
school in June, said if she does not get accepted
to a university, she has the option of going to a
past-high school to learn a skill such as watch-
By Lisa Crumrine
making. She can also reapply, since a student
gains'points each time he or she.applies to a
Once admitted to a university, Polish studen-
ts have few financial worries, because the
education is free. Books, however, are a
problem, since they are expensive and difficult
"IT'S VERY HARD to get into the dor-
mitories," said Malkiewicz. "I will live with
my family, and Kasia will live with friends.
There is no food in the formitories, and they are
"I don't see how students in the dorms will
live this year," agreed Kwiecinska.
Since February, all foodstuffs in Poland have
been rationed, and even if Polish students have
a ration card, they often have a difficult time
trying to find the correct line for the food or
goods they need. Even such things as
detergent, soap, toothpaste, matches and
medicine are in extremely short supply. .
"IT'S HARD to get jobs, even part-time ones.
It could be the policy of the government to keep
young people -from gaining purchasing power
- if supplies are depleted by the young, that's
bad, since it makes the economy even worse,"
"If you try very hard, you might get a job as
the gas station. There's no job experience until .
you graduate. The pay is so little if you do get
one, it isn't worth your time,'.' said Kwiecinska.
While the economic situation sounds grim,
the two women described their prospects for
the future optimistically.
THEIR ENTHUSIASTIC outlook reflects the
staunch belief they hold in the Solidarity
movement, in its strides toward economic
recovery and political freedom for Poland.
Polish university students have organized
Solidarity unions on their campuses. The
movement was originated in the Gdansk ship
yards as a predominantly blue-collar group,
but it has spread, encompassing people of all
Despite the discouraging economic situation,
Polish young people refuse to stop believing in
the integrity and strength of Solidarity. They
are realistic, knowing that change will take"
time, but nonetheless, Kwiecinska and
Malkiewicz firmly believe that they and their
generation are the hope of Poland. They feel
that if anything will pull Poland back to its feet,.
it will be the young people.
"AMONG MY friends, there is hardly anyone
who wants to leave the country. If there are
relatives in another country, the older
generation wants to leave, but the young people
are going to stay and improve the country,"
Kwiecinska, too, expressed similar feelings.
"We feel it can't be worse, that it is the height
of the crisis. Only a Russian invasion would
make it worse."
Polish young people are keenly aware of the
political situation, and politics is an everyday
topic of conversation among the women's
friends. The topic of food comes up, for exam-
ple, which leads to a political discussion. Fin-
ding someone who agrees completely with the
system is rare, said Kwiecinska.
THE GROWTH OF the Solidarity movement
has certainly stirred Poles to action, the poten-
tial effects of which may not be measureable
yet. The women said they beleive Solidarity
has already had some good effects, such as the
formation of labor unions, and the easing of
"Solidarity enlightens the broad population
as it is. It points out the shortcomings of the
system to get people to do something about it."
said Kwiecinska. "Through the influence of
Solidarity, the Polish government is simply,
unable to take any harsh steps."
One of Solidarity's biggest achievements,
said Malkiewicza, is the revealing of corrup-
tion and deceit in the government.
THERE IS much more freedom of speech
now than there used to be. The government
used to use lies to cover up its wrongdoings.
Solidarty rectifies it, tells them that it isn't so.
It points out to people how for so long, they've
been taken advantage of," Malkiewicza said.
"These people are not so apathetic any more.
There is a bigger sense of unity among-the
people. Before; the people felt lonesome, now
mass unity is emerging, and the people are
begining to act in accord."
Malkiewicza explained that the economic.
conditions are not discouraging the people, that
belief in Solidarity overshadows their worry
over financial troubles.
The combination of the Catholic Church and
Solidarity working together has produced an
enhanced sense of unity, particularly since the
Pope is from Poland. The security of the Polish
people increased with the election of the Pope,
and the pairing of the Church and Solidarity is
a powerful weapon to inspire people to be more
aware of the political situation.
Poland may be stagnating economically, but
with the prevailing attitude among the young
people, the country seems on the upswing
spiritually, as the Polish people unite in a
common spirit of optimism for the future.
Said Malkiewicza: "The young people know.
they are the hope for the future. They realize
that perhaps a better life can be fodnd abroad,
but only the rats leave the sinking ship."
Crumrine is a Daily staff writer. Kaz
Cimoszko served as translator.
Edited and managed by students at The University of Michigan
Vol. XCII, No: 10
420 Maynard St.
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
he faculty ser
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tment and an1
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f losing som
orials represent a majority op
pinion of the Daily's Editorial Board
Paltry pay hikes
R, University President It should be painfully obvious to
hapiro appeared before Shapiro and the rest of the ad-
nate to explain to faculty ministration that paltry pay raises will
University's financial not keep quality faculty at the Univer-
ttempt to justify an sity-no matter how committed they
iy raise. He also started are to academics at Michigan. Many
is now unforgettable faculty members are now earnestly
better" plan for the seeking employment at other equally
nd warmed of pending prestigious, but higher paying in-
riction and reductions. stitutions.
not judged by the number The University must make a
do, but the number of significant effort to provide a more
vell," he said. substantial pay hike for the faculty
mbers shook their heads; -members in order to maintain the
ey would try to suffer "quality" Shapiro and other ad-
year and a few started ministrators taut so often.
yment elsewhere. Faculty members, however, must be
faculty members are realistic. A close examination of the
haking their heads. University's financial situation would
rsity cutbacks various indicate that a salary increase of over
ng a geography depar- 10 percent is unthinkable. Never-
extension service on the theless, the administration should
to save some additional make' every attempt to procure a
tate appropriations have larger pay hike for the faculty.
e. than expected and If the administrators make a truly
es will only rise 5.5 per- "good faith" effort to increase
salaries, most faculty members will not
versity is in great danger be so quick to ditch the University, and
ie of its most qualified the high quality of research and
ers. teaching here can be preserved.
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In a huge coordinated raid this
August, federal agents in Miami
rounded up 44 suspected drug
traffickers who, over atwo-year
period, had laundered nearly
$200 million in profits through an
FBI undercover front. This suc-
cessful "sting" followed earlier
arrests this year that netted some
of the largest marijuana and
cocaine rings ever busted.
Yet officials of the Drug Enfor-
cement Administration adnit
that they still intercept only a
tiny fraction-on the order of 5'
percent-of the illicit drugs
pouring across our borders.
IN FACT, DEA agents are
warning of a new heroin
"epidemic" as the bumper opium
crops of South and Southeast Asia
come tosmaturity. Despite the
vast sums of money spent each
year on drug control-upward of
$10 billion, by some
estimates-we are no closer than
ever to stamping out drug use.
Now, in desperation, both
houses of Congress, with support
from the Reagan administration,
have voted separate bills to per-
mit the U.S. military to join
federal and local law enfor-
cement agencies in doing battle
against the drug traffic.
But the experience of
numerous other countries
suggests that it would be an
enormous mistake to embroil our
military and intelligence agen-
cies in the drug war. Almost in-,
variably, such policies elsewhere
have.led to a steady erosion of
cii lih r..e nn - a mnr..n :-
By John Marshall
Don 't use
phenomenon occurred in
nationalist China after 1928, when
the regime of Chaing Kai-shek
first turned drug traffic control
over to the military under the
guise of opium "suppression."
Instead, the military sought to
monopolize the distribution of
narcotics to raise money for its
During World War II, Chiang
transferred control of the traffic
to the head of his secret police,
who traded opium across enemy
lines with the Japanese.
Ironically, many of those very
police were trained by unwitting
aunts nf the FBT-and the TTS
tment in 1977. Fleury also is said
to direct a notorious local "death
squad" that liquidates opponents
without formal arrest or trial.
Last year's "Cocaine coup" in
Bolivia actually put a group of
drug-trafficking colonels and
generals in charge of the gover-
nment, much to the displeasure
of the Carter and Reagan ad-
THE PARAGUAYAN army is
primarily financed not through
taxes but through trade in con-
traband, including heroin. The
three top traffickers, according
to U.S. government files, are
Gtn?1 Alndre sRodrigue.
corruption are a former head of
the judicial police and numerous
In April 1974 Argentina's
minister of social welfare, Jose
Lopez Rega, took delivery of U.S.
automatic weapons, and * other
equipment to fight the drug traf-
fic-even as he was personally
masterminding the country's
largest cocaine ring. One month
later his shadowy Argentine An-
ticommunist Alliance began a
two-year campaign of terror with
the assassination of a popular lef-
These examples all come from
the Third World, but the West
hasn't been immune from the
same disease. When "French
Connection" traffickers began
talking in the early 1970s, they
,quickly implicated leading mem-
bers of SDECE, the French in-
telligence agency, and of the
Gaullist "parallel police," SAC,
in running the traffic for their
own personal and institutional
profit. Only the Gaullists' loss of
power, and the threat of a
diplomatic war by the United*
States, forced the French to clean
up their act.
Thus far, America has escaped
the worst of these abuses only by
keeping its drug enforcement
operations decentralized. Critics
complain, rightly, that past en-
forcement'hasn't been effective.
But to mobilize against drugs
the U.S. military-half of whose
soldiers; according to ree,40t
studies, abuse drugs then#-
selves-and the CIA, which bas
X 1 114 1 ;