The Michigan Daily-Wednesday, June 7, 1978-Page 11
Soviets blame MX for SALT stall
WASHINGTON (AP)-A missile
that may never be built suddenly has
emerged as a critical obstacle to
agreement between the United States
and the Soviet Union on a new strategic
arms limitation treaty.
The Pentagon calls the missile the
MX, now only a drawing-b'oard concept
which is scheduled for testing in the
early 1980s and deployment in the mid
to late 1980s.
THE LATEST Soviet proposal in the
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT) would ban new missiles on both
sides until 1985. This would preclude
U.S. development of the MX, raising
both strategic and political problems
for the United States.
As a result, the Carter administration
rejected the Soviet proposal. The ad-
ministration now is trying to come up
with alternatives for the next round of
SALT talks, administration arms ex-
perts, speaking privately, said yester-
The key advantage of the MX would
have over exisiting U.S. missile
systems is its mobility. Military
strategists have begun worrying in
recent years that increasingly accurate
Soviet missiles will soon be capable of a
pre-emptive first strike called a "coun-
SUCH AN ATTACK would be aimed
at the silos that house the American
land-based missile force, with the in-
tent of destroying the missiles before
they could be launched.
Some defense strategists dismiss the
possibility of such an attack, saying it is
too technically difficult to pull off and
too risky, because it would leave the
U.S. submarine force free to retaliate.
But Pentagon plannes, who must
worry about the worst possibilities, say
they want a missile that would be in-
vulnerable to a counterforce attack.
THE MX IS supposed to fill that need.
It would be housed in,20-mile tren-
ches and could be moved along inside the
trenches so that Soviet attackers would
not know where to aim. In addition, the
missile would be equipped with sub-
stantialy better propulsion and guidan-
ce systems than the Minuteman III
missile now has. It probably would also
have numerous, maneuverable
But construction of 300 or more tren-
ches has come to look overwhelmingly
expensive and environmentally unac-
ceptable to critics of the concept. They
also doubt whether the missile trench
would not be taken out of operation by a
direct hit regardless of where the
missile was placed inside it.
CONGRESS THUS far has authorized
research and development of the MX
missile, but a substantial fight is likely
if and when lawmakers are asked to
pay for the missile itself and its tren-
Nonetheless, the administration has
been careful to keep the MX option open
in the SALT Negotiations, the sources
said. At first the American position
called for a freeze on new missile
systems until 1980, which would not
have Interfered with the MX schedule.
The Soviets countered with a
proposal to allow both sides to develop
one single warhead missile and then
ban new missiles on both sides until
1985. That would have allowed them to
finish modernizing their missile fleet
but would not have permitted U.S.
development of the MX.
On the surface, the proposal seemed
similar to positions taken previously by
the United States. But administration
sources say it would have given the ad-
vantage to the Soviets. The United
States would be prevented from
deploying the MX as a counter to the
Soviets' improved accuracy.
Any agreement which precluded
development of the MX would give
SALT opponents a clear-cut, easily un-
derstandable issue to use against the
treaty-one which would make it ap-
pear the Carter administration had
caved in to the Soviets.
DES MOINES, Iowa (AP) - Old
dogs can't learn new tricks, but cows
can, according to Wallaces Farmer,
a rural magazine.
Scientists at Purdue University
have trained cows to come to the
barn when a buzzer sounds. Resear-
chers trained the cows by
simultaneously activating a buzzer
when the milking parlor door was
opened. If the cows did not enter the
parlor within a required time period,
they were given a mild electric
shock, the magazine reports.
When the experiment started, only
19 per cent of the cows entered the
milking parlor on time. By day
seven, 99 per cent entered on time.
COURT RULES ON MANDATORY LEAVES:
Cities liable for rights
WASHINGTON (AP)-The Supreme Essentially, the court ruled that a
Court ruled yesterday that cities may city may be brought to court by an in-
be sued by persons charging them with dividual if an official city policy-or
civil rights violations. even a "custom" that has the same ef-
The decision, stemming from a New feet as policy-allegedly violated the
York City dispute over forced, unpaid individual's civil rights.
maternity leaves, reversed a 1861 THE DECISION, coming on a 7-2 split
ruling by the high court that had said of the justices, also means that a city or
just the opposite. city official may be sued if an official's
THE DECISION could subject the challenged act was carried out as a
nation's cities to a flood of new matter of city policy. If an official acts
lawsuits-many seeking money from outside the scope of city policy, the of-
city treasuries. ficial could be sued.
The case involved a battle by several Chief Justice Warren Burger and
New York City municipal employees to Justice William Rehnquist dissented.
obtain back pay for time lost due to the In an opinion for both, Rehnquist
forced maternity leave. noted the the 1961 decision-which gave
persons the right to sue city officials for
alleged civil rights violations not em-
braced by any official policy-had
spawned numerous lawsuits since. He
said yesterday's decision invited
numerous new suits.
"THE DECISION in Monroe vs. Pape
was the fountainhead of the torrent of
civil rights litigation of the last 17
years," he said. "At the same time, the
doctrine of municipal immunity enun-
ciated in Monroe has protected
municipalities and their limited
treasuries ...," Rehnquist said.
"None of the members of this court
can foresee the practical consequences
of today's removal of that protection,"
The ruling could carry immediate
-repercussions for New York City.
The test case stemmed, from a con-
troversy that began in 1971 when
welfare worker Jane Monell and a
group of public school teachers were
forced to take unpaid maternity leave
n their seventh month of pregnancy.
MARC HAS MOVED
(Medieval and Renaissance collegium)
200 Tyler East Quad
Candidates file for primaries
(Continued from Page 1 $150,000 to his own primary campaign. previously held public office.'
akland County prosecutor who has In order to file, a candidate must both expected to rely o
ized Griffin for his decision to run. have 18,000 signatures, Payne repor- legislative record througho
E RACE FOR the Democratic tedly had only 11,000 on Monday but campaigns. Fitzgerald is sup
nation offers a much wider selec- said he filed with the hope that last- have the most financially
minute efforts made the difference. campaign.
acy, from Ann Arbor, and Payne, Governor William Milliken, unop- William Ralls was a memb
Detroit, are both attorneys and posed in the primary, will have to face Public Service Commissio
omers to campaigns and political one of five Democrats in the November Milliken appointee.
ions. 7 general election. They are State Sens. Former City Sheriff of
sembaum has made taxation one William Fitzgerald of Detroit and Johannes Spreen is also a con
s campaign issues by proposing an Patrick McCollough of Dearborn, the race.
ndment to the U.S. Constitution William Ralls, Zolton Ferency and
h would put a ceiling on the amount Oakland rCounty Sheriff Johannes
cal, state and federal taxes anyone Spreen.
d be forced to pay. LIBERAL activist Ferency has made
CHARD Vanderveen is a former three previous unsuccessful attempts to
Congressman from Grand Rapids. garner the governor's position and is
vin, former Detroit City Council described as the "perennial candidate""Y
dent, considers himself to be the by some.Yo
runner, according to a poll spon- State Sens. Fitzgerald (Detroit) and
d by his campaign office. McCollough (Dearborn) are the only
wer, a newspaper publisher of'Ann Democratic candidates who have 4 HOUR E
r, would be the wealthiest U.S.
tor if he is elected. Power has
aled recently that he and his wife PROCESSI
h, a .University Regent, may be "Peoplewho
has much as $19.3 million. Senator "ekgreat SAM E DA
tDanforth (R-Mo.) heir, to the lokget* S M DA
ton Purina fortune, is worth ap- are great" SEE OUR
imately $17.8 million.
YING THAT "money does talk in UNDER PIL
ics" Otterbacher recently called UM Stylists
egislation to reduce the influence of atheST OF
anal wealth in congressional racesA
rbacher said he hd Powet n id U N IQON
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