Rare, well-done .. .
NEW YORK (AP) - Hamburger
meat cooked too long at temperatures
above 300 degrees Fahrenheit may
produce cancer-causing substances,
but the extent of the risk is not yet
known, a biologist said yesterday.
Dr. Barry Commoner, of Washington
University's Center for the Biology of
Natural Substances in St. Louis,- said
the composition of the substances has
not been determined and, until that is
done, tests on animals cannot be per-
HE SAID research has shown that the
substances, called .mutagens, may
develop in hamburgers cooked at high
temperatures, which most often occur
Burgers new cancer
with frying pans, electric home ham-
burger-cooking appliances and large
electric grills used in some restaurants.
Commoner, a noted environmen-
talist, said the temperature needed to
cook hamburger directly on electric
appliances or metal frying pars is
much higher than the temperature
necessary to cook hamburger through
radiant heat in broilers or some
"Apparently the critical factors are
the cooking temperature and the time
of cooking," he said. "The tem-
peratures produced by a broiler or a
microwave oven are n
produced in an elect
maker, and therefore
a "browning tray" -
ceramic material - i
hamburger in mic
mutagens may form1
may become extremel
Mutagens, he said,
can cause genetic ch
say that almost all su
mutagens also are ca
The Michigan Daily-Tuesday, May 16, 1978-Page 11
" results also show that regardless of how
risk large or amall it eventually turna out to
be, the risk can be reduced to zero by
ot as hot as those choosing an appropriate cooking
tric hamburger- procedure."
eproduce bfewer Commoner said his research team
chose hamburger over other meats
becauae it waa eaaier to control the
, however, that if amount and compoaition of the meat
- often made of teated.
s ued in cooking He aaid mutagens also were found in
rowave ovens, some commercial food preparations
because the tray that include beef extract. He explained
y hot in the oven. that beef extract must contain 20 per
are agents that cent or less water and be prepared from
anges. Scientists beef stock - usually by boiling the
bstances that are stock for a long time to form a paste.
pable of causing Commoner said research in
laboratories at the center in St. Louis
moner said, "our found no mutagens in beef stock.
Guidelines for CIA
activities on campus
proposed by 'U' Board
(Continued from Page)
recruiters of employees or intelligence
operatives for the CIA, as "a par-
ticularly pernicious practice."
BRUCE FRIEDMAN, chairman of the
Civil Liberties Board, pointed out to the
Senate Assembly that the faculty
member working as a CIA recruiter
merely offers the name of a student to
At that point the CIA investigates the
individual, according to Friedman.
"The CIA can initiate a dossier on a
person without their prior knowledge,"
he said, adding this could have an effect
on the reat of his life.
The Board's statement also included
suggestions concerning foreign
national students within the University
community. The statement advised
professors to "pay special attention to
their relationships with foreign national
students and avoid compromising them
in any way."
THE BOARD suggested that
"statements of opinion such as political
beliefs" uttered by such foreign studen-
ts be held in confidence because those
students could suffer recrimination for
their words when they return to their
Assuming that those who work
secretly for the CIA or other intelligen-
ce agencies would not' readily reveal
their identity, the Board stated it was
the responsibility of the University
community to report possible violations
of -the guidelines "to allow public
scrutiny and discussion."
Friedman told the 50 professors in at-
tendance that, "In some ways this may
b the most important aspect of this
document." He said it could serve as a
BUT MANY of the faculty members
who offered comments on the policy
statement were not pleased with its
contents. The major complaint cen-
tered around the fact that the statement
could be interpreted to prohibit faculty
members and others from having
secret relationships with labor unions
or political parties.
Some professors argued that the
policy statement in its present form
would impinge their civil rights - par-
ticularly their freedom of speech.
But others were critical of the
statement for the opposite reason. "If
we accept this document we have sold
out," said an unidentified professor. He
argued that all relationships between
University personnel and intelligence
agencies should be public. "Citizenship
is an open matter," he said.
THE LANGUAGE of the statement
was criticized by several. Another
"The statement singled
out the use of University
personnel as covert re-
cruiters of employees or
intelligence operatives for
the CIA as 'a particularly
unidentified professor said the wording
of the document implied that what
these agencies were doing was inheren-
tly wrong. He argued that "some of
them (intelligence agencies) are doing
what I want done - preserving our
The same professor again criticized
the statement, saying it was "a tool to
limit my freedom of speech."
Although there was a suggestion to
withdraw the proposal for guidelines,
Livermore said the faculty must take a
stand on the issue. "It won't go away
because it's perplex or difficult," he
After leaving the meeting, Friedman
said he thought the points raised were
good. He said although many changes
would be made, he would not start from
scratch. "It would be fool-hardy to
abandon the whole thing," he said.
Friedman expressed confidence that
problems with language and content
could be worked out and that the Senate
Assembly would accept the policy
statement concerning relations bet-
ween University personnel and in-
telligence agencies at the June
Committee meets to
probe Nelson loans
By MICHAEL ARKUSH sequently introduced legislation to
legalize the sport.
A special Senate committee, for- Nelson claims he plans to pay back
med to decide whether charges that the loan and insists the money did not
State Sen. Earl Nelson (D-Lansing) influence him to introduce the
received funds from two lobbyists legislation. He also requested the
make him subject to any SENATE ac- Senate select a committee to in-
tion, held its second meeting yester- vestigate those charges. The Senate
day. quickly approved a resolution to
The committee organized the agen- establish such a committee.
das for its upcoming meetings and Yesterday's meeting was the
empowered its chairman, Sen. second meeting where procedural
Jerome Hart (D-Saginaw) to select an issues were discussed but no actual
attorney to advise the committee on evaluation of the charges was pur-
the normal legal technicalities sued. Hart believes the committee
associated with this type of case. will begin analyzing the significant
parts of the Nelson case early next
THE COMMITTEE, which includes week.
Sen. Basil Brown (D-Highland Park) Hart again indicated yesterday that
and Sen. Harry Demaso (R-Battle he expects the committee to submit
Creek), was appointed by Senate its recommendation to the Senate
Majority Leader William Faust last before the scheduled recess at the end
week to investigate charges that of June. He also said he believes the
Nelson accepted money from two lob- Senate will delay its recess until the
byists and then introduced legislation Nelson controversy is finally solved.
to benefit the pair. It has been Nelson was not available for com
charged that Nelson accepted a $5,0 ment yesterday. He has continually
loan from John MacLellan, a known stated he believes the committee will
proponent of dog racing, and sub- find him innocent of any wrongdoings.
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