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May 13, 1970 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1970-05-13

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Seventy-nine years of editorial freedom
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan

Interior department protects

420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, Mich.

News Phone: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



The pressure must not stop;
the problems continue

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is reprinted
with permission of Ramparts Magazine).
PRESIDENT NIXON'S mini-war on pol-
lution is directed from the Department
of the Interior where it has the primary
function of serving as a public relations
screen for Interior's more serious interests.
Traditionally the ally of and lobbyist for
the "oil and gas gang," Interior has al-
ways been the mediator between the in-
dustrialists and the White House. Al-
though it is officially a "conservationist"
agency, the Department is much busier
in its role as a brokerage handing out con-
tracts to competing interests. Overseeing
500 million acres of public land, as well
as 1.2 million square miles of territory on
the outer continental shelf, Interior is the
biggest real estate agency in the world.
The way it plays the real estate game
shows what presidents mean when they re-
fer to conservation.
Last year Interior's income was about
$1 billion, most of it consisting of royal-
ties from oil and gas leases on the outer
continental shelf (OCS). The government
has claimed control of the OCS since 1953,
and while some states are challenging fed-
eral jurisdiction, the government nonethe-
less manages the development of this ter-
ritory. The OCS begins in coastal waters
at the point where state control officially
stops - usually the three-mile limit -
and runs from there to the point where it
gradually slopes down to the ocean's
depths (a distance varying between 15 and
several hundred miles).
In the last few years various coastal na-
tions have begun exploring their shelf ter-
ritory with an eye to developing oil and
gas resources. This has meant a boom for

the oil industry, and the big companies
(seven of them dominate 70 per cent of
the world's oil business) have glutted world
markets with the enormous new supplies.
Of course, this oil glut is not felt within
the United States, for the oil import quota
program has the effect of insulating this
country from world markets, keeping for-
eign oil out and driving prices for domestic
oil to artificially high levels.
With this protection, and with the plen-
tiful supply of domestic oil, there is no
need to drill on the U.S. outer continental
shelf. Fossil fuels are plentiful in Alaska,
Canada, Venezuela and the Middle East,
and there is enough oil to meet U.S. de-
mands for 400 years in oil shale in the
Rocky Mountains. Despite this, the big oil
companies, anxious to maintain their ar-
tifically protected position in the American
market, insisted on developing the OCS,
and in response to their demands, the In-
terior Department has found it expedient
to lease out about one per cent of it. Most
of the leases are off Texas and Louisiana,
along with a small portion off Santa Bar-
bara, where the disastrous spill took. place
last year and where seepage continues.
IOR has limitless faith in industry. Not
only does the Department issue leases for
unnecessary new oil drilling, it also per-
mits that drilling to take place in loca-
tions it knows virtually nothing about. Oil
companies are routinely granted explora-
tion permits by the U.S. Geological Sur-
vey, the agency of Interior which has
charge of technical and scientific aspects
of drilling. If a company discovers oil and
wants to start production, it simply asks
Interior to place the desired land up for

lease, and the request is usually complied
with as part of department routine. Nor
does the U.S. Geological Survey investi-
gate the proposed lease area to see exactly
what it is giving away. Rather, it depends
on information submitted to it by the oil
company. Since it has not developed any
data on its own, the government does not
know how much oil or gas is likely to be
in the area, and hence it is not in any
position to know how m u c h money it
should receive. The companies pay pretty
much what they want, often without en-
gaging in competitive bids. Citizens who
wish to inquire into the possible dangers
from drilling operations by examining the
Geological Survey data are prevented from
doing so because the information that is
supplied to the government by the com-
panies is deemed "private property" and
is kept secret. (In Santa Barbara this neat
mutual protection arrangement led to the
ludicrous situation wherein citizens were
refused access to the Geological Survey's
data on the Santa Barbara Channel even
though Union Oil itself had given clear-
ance for the public release of the data.)
During Stewart Udall's tenure as Secre-
tary of Interior there was a move to begin
the Department's own drilling program in
an effort to get information. The U.S.
Geological S u r ve y fought off this idea,
however, and when Udall met a stony re-
sponse at the Budget Bureau and received
a warning from the appropriations com-
mittees, he dropped the plan. Thus, operat-
ing through their allies at the Geological
Survey, the oil men decide what parts of
the outer continental shelf they would like,
determine the price, and then take the
area. It is part of the last, continuing land

EACH YEAR THIE Secretary of Interior
rents 100 million acres of public acres of
public rangelands to ranchers for grazing
their herds of cattle. The cattlemen now
pay 44 cents per animal-unit-month (44
cents a month for each animal). The price
is very cheap. since privately owned grass
costs as much as $3.50 or $4 per animal-
unit-month. Nor can this give-away be un-
derstood as a way of subsidizing the small
rancher: it doesn't work out that way.
Much of the federal rangeland is taken
over by big cattlemen, and they lobby vig-
orously to keep the price of the range grass
low. Before he quit, Udall announced a
program for slowly increasing the rents on
the rapge. But under pressure from the
cattlemen's association, Hickel refused to
put this year's rent hike into effect, there-
by negating Udall's scheme.
The government sets aside some of its
revenues from renting rangeland for re-
seeding it. But the range has been going
downhill since World War I. According to
the Interior Department's own estimates,
some 30 per cent-or 50 million acres of
the range-is in bad shape. By refusing to
raise the range rent, Hickel may be pleas-
ing the large cattle interests, but he is also
ensuring that there will not be enough
money in the range improvement fund to
reseed the worn-down grass. According to
estimates by Montana Senator Lee Met-
calf, Hickel will be foregoing treatment on
some 150,000 acres annually, thereby set-
ting himself in league with the forces of
In this way Interior, with a little help
from its friends in the Agriculture Depart-
ment, works as broker for the mining, tim-
ber and cattle business.
Ramparts Magazine



OVER 100 SCHOOLS and colleges which
were shut down have reopened. They
went on strike to demand the following:
'-the withdrawal of American forces
from all Third World Countries, especial-
ly in Indochina;
-the release of all political prisoners,
especially Bobby Seale and the o t h e r
Black Panthers who have been vamped
on by the police and the justice depart-
-an end to the contributions of the
various University communities to t h e
war, notably war research, ROTC, and
military and corporate recruiting; and
-the opening up of the universities to
their communities, including such neces-
sities as free medical care and child care
The students were also protesting the
murders at Kent State.
These demands were drawn up in New
Haven two weeks ago at a national meet-
ing. Several schools, including Yale, were
already closed at that time. Hundreds
more answered the c a 11 and expressed
their indignation at these acts -of the
government by closing down their schools
and taking actions to the streets. And
for the first time since the civil war, the
government was forced to pay attention
to what was being said. On national tele-
vision, the students' actions were called a
"national crisis." Even Nixon was forced
to listen.
Washington in November to peaceful-
ly protest American involvement in
Southeast Asia. Nixon watched a football
game on TV. This country doesn't pay at-
tention to peaceful protests.
Then, for the first time in our genera-
tion, the youth began to get together to
bring pressure to bear on the adminis-
tration. The students began to demon-
strate their power and the entire nation,
even our leading football fan, was forced
to listen. They did not take any positive
action to implement the demands but
at least they began to talk as if they were
aware that students exist and that stu-
dents have power and are capable of ex-
ercising it.
If the pressure continues and escalates,
maybe the administration will begin to
feel threatened enough to at least ser-
iously reconsider their policies of imper-
ialism and racism.
It is really a shame that violence, phys-
ical or mental, is necessary to make the

administration take note of w h a t the
youth are saying. However, Nixon h a s
demonstrated repeatedly that he could
care' less about peaceful dissent. When
the students began to close their schools
down, Nixon was forced to care. Now, we
have to force him to do more than care;
we must force him to grant the demands.
HOWEVER, none of those demands have
yet been met. Those schools which are
closed should stay closed. Those schools
which are still open should be shut down.
Nothing has yet been achieved.
Sure, people have had a chance to vent
their frustrations. Sure, it was fun to get
out of classes. Sure, people have been ar-
But the strike was called with a very
specific goal and that goal has not yet
been attained. The fight has just begun.
It may not always be easy or practical.
But there comes a time - and that time
is now - when people must j o i n the
struggle to fight the racism and imper-
ialism of this country.
Cambodia and Kent are just symptoms
of the disease which infects this country.
It is the responsibility of the youth to
fight Nixon and all that he represents.
THAT MEANS that schools have to be
closed not for a symbolic day of
mourning or a week after street fighting
but for the entire term. And if the de-
mands are not met by that time, the high
schools and colleges must be closed an-
other term and another and another un-
til the power structure no longer has a
steady flow of officers for the military,
engineers and scientists for the factory,
war research for the efforts at imperial-
ism, junior executives for t h e defense
When the schools are no longer dis-
charging their duties as a babysitting ser-
vice and the students are free to spend
their time thinking, criticism of the es-
tablishment will increase. People will
realize that pacific protests don't work.
They will fight for these demands and
others by whatever means are necessary.
IT IS POSSIBLE for them to make their
voices heard. But, it will not be easy,
our task is not a simple one. This Uni-
versity must close; all schools must close,
and the schools that are closed must stay
closed. This is not a game.


Letters to the Editor


Willie Boy'

Take action
To the Editor:
THE INCREASING military in-
volvement of this country in
Southeast Asia and elsewhere has
prompted the establishment of an
organization whose aim it is to act
as a congressional lobby organ-,
ization against military appro-
priations. The Academic and Pro-
fessional Lobby for a Responsible

Congress is coordinating such an
effort by requesting that any uni-
versity faculty or staff member
whose business will take him or
her to Washington, or who is will-
ing to travel to Washington speci-
fically for this purpose during the
next six weeks, devote one day
during that visit to speaking with
his senators and representatives
urging them to vote against the
administrations military appropri-

n -


ation bill. The effect of a defeat
of this bill is obvious.
Any person willing to serve in
this capacity should write to Dr.
James Darnell, Department of
Biology, Columbia University, New
York, N.Y. 10027, providing his
name, address, telephone number,
and the dates when he will be in
Washington. He may also be
reached by telephone at 212-280-
4581. Dr. Darnell will set up ap-
pointments with the appropriate
congressmen and provide a sched-
ule. If enough people participate
in this venture over the next six
weeks, it is possible that such ac-
tion may have a significant effect.
-Prof. Richard A. Cellarius
zoology department
-Prof. Robert E. Beyer
botany department
May 8 f
To the Editor:
WE HAVE FORMED a group of
alumni and parents of students at
the University to urge the Univer-
sity to respond constructively to
the reasonable demands of t h e
students and to refrain from call-
ing in the police.
Our intention is to support the
idealism of our children and to
help facilitate non-violent com-
munication between them and the
University administration.
If there are students who feel
their parents would welcome hear-
ing from us and working with us.
we urge them to send us their
names and addresses.
-John Houston
Parents in Support of Students
May 8

In Tell Them Willie Boy is Here one of the characters describes
an incident to Deputy Sheriff Cooper where a half-breed Indian killed
members of his family, and he remarks, "It just doesn't make any
sense." Cooper, played by Robert Redford, replies, "Maybe that's the
sense it makes." And that's the sense "Willie Boy" makes.
' "Willie Boy" is based on a historical incident which occurred in a
California town in 1909. A young Paiute Indian kills his Morongo girl-
friend's father whohas refused to permit their marriage and then runs
off with her.
The white posse members are clumsy, prejudiced, and often inept;
in response to pressure from petty politicians and the lovely female
superintendent of the Morongo reservation who has a thing for Lola,
the runaway girl, they stumble and fumble after Willie, who is on foot
with one rifle, and finally kill him after losing many of their own
The message in "Willie Boy" is reminiscent of that in "Butch
Casidy," also a Robert Redford-Katherine Ross film. In the former
film it took dozens of intrepid Bolivian marksmen incited by the Union
Pacific Railroad to eliminate the two heroes; in "Willie Boy" Redford
has switched to the side of the law, indecisively ,leading a big posse
to wipe out a single Indian. The similarity between these ;films lies in
the way that the white power structure in both makes use of gross,
clumsy machinery to destroy uncivilized but beautiful individuals who
are in its way.
Redford's role is unattractive but he plays it well: he's not a good
lawman, has no perseverance, and is the stud for the prestige-hungry
woman doctor, Mrs. Arnold, who is also the Indian superintendent.
Robert Blake is Willie. the Paiute Indian, and is also excellent in a
role which demands much less than it could have. Belief in the story
is frequently shaken by annoying, trite statements coming from both
white man and Indian: "You'll never catch Willie, Sheriff. He's like
a cloud."; "They won't even chase me. The law doesn't give a damn
about Indians."
Tell Them Willie Boy is Here is a movie that has great potential
in terms of its artistic merit and of development of its themes. The cast
is capable but not exciting, the music is original and scintillating, and
color and desert scenery are pleasant. but director Abraham Polonsky
has not used his company as well as he might have. "Willie Boy" is en-
joyable to watch but lacks clarity, coherence, and force.



Unemployment rate increase
heightens social tensions

"There's so much crime in our street
these days . ..!

THE OUTLOOK for summer jobs is
bleak at a time when money is tight,
interest rates high, and inflationary pres-
sures strong. These trends, which always
effect racial minority groups, can,if they
continue, only aggravate current social
Labor leader George Meany of the AFL-
CIO has predicted that the nation's un-
employment rate, which has risen from
3.5 per cent in January to 4.8 per cent last
month, will soon climb at least to 6 per
cent. This rise in unemployment is com-
ing at an unexpected speed, despite the
administration's assurance that t h e r e
would be no recession.
Nixon and his advisers have forecast
that the present economic slowdown will
check inflation, and that the predicted
rise in the Gross National Product will at
the same time check increasing unem-
But, the administration's economic ad-
visers also predicted that the average rate
of unemployment would be only 4.3 for
the year as a whole.
IT IS NOT JUST an unfortunate error in
statistics; the unemployment will have
a devastating effect upon real people. An
WT7 O 1kXTT TmAn%7 o^ s~ 4A

estimated 700,000 of some 2.7 million job-
seekers-25 per cent-may face an idle
It has been noted that, until the April
figures were released, the administration
had predicted that the rate of unemploy-
ment among blacks and other non-whites
was rising less than among whites. But
the unemployment rate in A p r 1 for
blacks rose from 7.1 per cent to 8.7 per
cent, while the same rate for whites rose
from 4.1 per cent to only 4.3 per cent.
Among youths under 20, unemployment
has reached almost 16 per cent, with a
heavy concentration among blacks.
Even with these statistics, h o w e v e r,
some middle-class whites have charged
that it is the poor blacks under federal
assistance programs who are getting the
limited amount of jobs over the middle-
class student.
It is obvious, in any case, that there are
no "equal non-opportunity employers" as
economic slowdowns result in employe
cutbacks at the same time that summer
student labor is about to glut the job
From any point of view minority groups,
whether racial or student, are hurt by the
job scarcity.
T HAS BEEN suggested that the admin-
istration shift its fight against infla-
tion, and build a broader program to curb
inflation and unemployment. An income
policy to curb inflationary price and

balancing teacups
An April afternoon during May
---------- -----ine " cohNodas

I MADE A NEW friend Saturday, one who
seems happier just to be alive than any-
one I've seen recently.
Hername is April and she's three years
old, stands roughly 36 inches high and
weighs in at a firm 36 pounds, her mother
April is enthralled with her world. Ev-
erything in it is brand new- and each walk
outside seems different than the one be-
fore even though the lilacs smell the same
as they did five minutes ago, even though
the garage at her house is full of the same
garbage, bikes and boxes that were there
Saturday April's adventures included
some new toys, a baseball mitt and a dir-
ty-white softball; at least one new word,

"bicycle"; and a do-it-yourself trip, an il-
legal foray into the nearby park which ul-
timately netted punishment from Mother.
THE SOFTBALL FIRST entered April's
world at 6 p.m. Saturday as she set about
discovering what the ball was and how she
could handle it with her small hands.
She romped over to the ball, bent her 36
inches in half, set her cheeks - pudgy as
a squirrel's who had just gathered nuts for
two winters - in grim determination and
addressed the ball with her tiny right
Oh, drat. One hand wouldn't do. But
April wasn't so easily beaten - after a few
seconds of fumbling she scooped it up with
both hands and turned around to make
the first toss.
"Aw, right in my ass," Mother exclaim-
ed. "Why she hit me right -"
But April wasn't concerned. She j u s t
giggled a moment, letting her little teeth
peek briefly from inside her mouth as she
picked up the ball to pitch another strike.
A LITTLE LATER she tried the glove -
admittedly a zillion sizes too big for her.
But after jamming four of her fingers into
one of the glove's and sliding her thumb
somewhere near the thumb of the glove,

utes and pretty soon April decided to take
off for the park in violation of Mother's
recent orders to stay in the yard.
Earlier April had taken her own sight-
seeing tour to the same park "to play ten-
nis with the people" and go on the "sing."
When she was finally retrieved, Mother
told her she would be punished if she went
out of the yard again.

and Older Sister encouraged her to come
back. The kids were still frolicking on the
sidewalk, though, and April was in a state
of consternation in the yard.
Finally the solution hit her. "Come In
this yard," she hollered from her "ticycle."
"Come in this yard, come in this yard."
Her friends, however, had other plans,
and for a moment April was sad.



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