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June 16, 1971 - Image 1

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1971-06-16

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Vol. LXXXI, No. 30-S Ann Arbor, Michigan-Wednesday, June 16, 1971 Ten Cents Twelve Pages

1y Te Associated Press
President Johnson decided
on April 1, 1965 to use
American ground troops for
offensive a c t i o n in South
Vietnam because the Ad-
ministration had discovered
that its long-planned bomb-
ing-which had just begun
-was not going to win the
war, according to the Penta-
gon's study of the Vietnam
War reported in yesterday's
New York Times.
Johnson ordered that the de-
cision be kept secret, the Times
said, and be carried out rapidly
but in ways that would mini-
mize any appearance of sudden
changes in policy.
r The Times report today was
the third in a series which the
newspaper is publishing on a
7,000-page study made in 1967-
68 of how the United States
went to war in Indochina. The
study was ordered by the de-
fense secretary in the Kennedy
A and Johnson administrations,
Robert S. McNamara.
The Times was ordered to
temporarily cease publcation of
the documents yesterday by a
federal judge at the govern-
ment's request.
The Timesrreport today co-
S ered the period, beginning in
1965, of increasing U.S. involve-
ment in ground combat. It high-
lighted, "Johnson's decision that
U.S. troops would take the of-
fensive was followed by another
decision in mid-July to commit
44 more battalions. This decision
was perceived as a threshold-
entrance into an Asian land
war," the study said.
...The choice at that time
was not whetheror not to ne-
gotiate, it was not whether or
not to hold on for a while or let
go-the choice was viewed as
winning or losing South Viet-
By the end of the year Ameri-
can forces in South Vietnam,
which had numbered 27,000 on
March 8, had risen to 184,314.
Their mission was no longer de-
fense of installation but offen-
sive "search and destroy" opera-
Air attacks on North Vietnam
began on a sustained basis on
March 2, 1965, in an effort to
break the enemy's will and per-
suade Hanoi to stop the Viet
Cong insurgency in the South.
"Once set in motion, how-
ever, the bombing effort seemed
to stiffen rather than soften
Hanoi's backbone . . . After a
month of bombing with no re-
sponse from the North Vietna-
mese, optimism began to vane.
"The U.S. was presented es-
sentially with two options: (1)
to withdraw unilaterally from
Vietnam leaving the South Viet-
namese to fend for themselves,
or (2) to commit ground forces
in pursuit of its objectives. A
third option, that-of drastically
increasing the scope and scale
of the bombing, was rejected
See FAILURE, Page 7

EDITORS OF THE NEW YORK TIMES study their situation yesterday after a federal judge ordered
the paper to halt temporarily publication of a series of articles based on a highly classified Penta-
gon report on the Vietnam war. From left are Times foreign editor Jim Freenwield, chief Washington
correspondent Max Frankel, and assistant news editor Robert Crandall.
School board electi~ons
indicate shift to right
By ANITA CRONE recent years that the board has a was brought to a head when the
Daily News Analysis conservative majority, rather School Board fired 256 non-ten-
Monday's school board elec- than a moderate leadership. In ,.
tion took a definite turn to the the wake of recent attacks on the
right as three conservatives over- school board for not being re-
whelmingly defeated more mod- sponsive to the needs of black :
erate, liberal and radical candi- students, women and teachers, a
dates. conservative board may com-
In spite of the conservative pound the district's problems.
victories however, the Radical Theodore Heusel - forerunner
Independent Party (RIP) seemed in the election - did not support '
to have gained increased support the "Humaneness in Education".
report-a report that dealt spe-
cifically with racism.
Heusel rejected the report be-
cause he felt it gave preferential
treatment to blacks. Heusel be-
lieves it is important that all stu-
dents receive the same level of
education. There is no indication
that the other two members Robert Hefner
elected to the board - Duane
Renken and Ralph Bolhouse - ured teachers. The Ann Arbor
feel any differently than Heusel Education Association has an-
on that report. nounced that teachers will not
- f Further, the defeat of the mill- sign a new contract until all of
age proposal puts an already the teachers have been re-hired.
troubled city into deeper financial At the present time, only 140 of
trouble - especially in view of the teachers have been rehired.
the upcoming teacher negotia- Included in the millage pro-
Theodore Heusel tions. posal was a plan to fund an an-
Losing by about 1,000 votes, the ticipated raise in teacher's sala-
over their showing in the mayoral proposed millage would have ries. Bollrouse and Heusel have
election - capturing 11 per cent covered increased operational both stated that they believe
of the vote city-wide. expenses, as-well as salaries. there are enough funds to con-
- This will be the first time in The problem of lack of money See RIGHT, Page 10

NEW YORK (U) - At the
government's request, a fed-
eral judge ordered The New
York Times yesterday to
temporarily cease publica-
tion of a series on the ori-
gins of the Vietnam w a r
based on a Pentagon study.
District Court Judge Murray
Gurfein said the order will be
in effect until 1 p.m. Satur-
day. He scheduled a hearing
on the government's request for
a preliminary injunction f o r
Friday morning.
Gurfein rejected, however, a
government request that t h e
Times be required to surrender
the Pentagon documents.
"I do not believe that the
New York Times will wilfully
disregard the spirit of our re-
straining order," the j u d g e
In Washington, the Justice
Department said the FBI had
been asked to study possible
criminal violations as regards
the Times' publication of what
the government said are top-se-
cret defense documents.
"The FBI investigates all al-
legations of federal criminal
violations and is doing so in this
case," said John Hushen, chief
Justice Department spokesman.
In a statement, a spokesman
for the Times said, "The Times
will comply with the restrain-
ing order issued by Judge Mur-
ray Gurfein. The Times will
present its arguments against
an injunction at the hearing
scheduled for Friday."
In seeking the restraining or-
der, the Justice Department cit-
ed a law which makes it a
criminal offense for any per-
son "having unauthorized pos-
session" of classified documents
to communicate, deliver or to
transmit such documents "to
any person not entitled to re-
ceive it."
In addition, a Defense De-
partment spokesman, said on
Monday another law, making it
a crime to publish information
of a classified nature, may be
Penalty under either law is
10 years in prison or a fine of
$10.000 or both.
The Justice Department had
maintained that exposure of the
secret data on which the Times'
articles were based could "re-
sult in irreparable injury to the
national defense.
The Times series, which was
published Sunday, Monday and
yesterday, is based on a volum-
inous study of American invol-
vement in Indochina and t he
country's role in the Vietnam
war. The report was under-
taken by the Pentagon in 1967
at the direction of former De-
fense Secretary Robert S.
McNamara, the Times said.
In his restraining order, Gur-
feih - the first federal judge
to order a newspaper not to-
print something - said:
"I believe that the matter is
so important and so involved
See JUDGE, Page 7

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