(Continued from Page i benefit hikes, although it has been
Parker, acknowledging the "impor- stretched to accommodate larger set-
tanceand urgency" of the suit, promised tlements, such as the estimated 9 per
a swift ruling on what government at- cent to 10 per cent annual increases the
torneys argue is a question of whether Teamsters union claims it won last
Carter is acting unconstitutionally. month.
AFL-CIO ATTORNEY Laurence The price standard is less specific,
Gold argued that Carter's threat to but generally seeks to slow the rate of
deny contracts worth $5 million or more inflation, currently running well above
to companies that exceed his guidelines 10 per cent a year. Under the price
turns his so-called "voluntary" guidelines, companies generally are
program into mandatory controls, required to hold their price increase to
which can only be invoked by an act of 0.5 per cent below their average in-
Congress. creases during the previous two years.
But the government countered that Babcock acknowledged that Carter's ,
the program is purely voluntary despite program represents the first time the
the possibility that a company could government has used its purchasing
lose a federal contract. powers to fight inflation, but said
Assistant Attorney General Barbara Congress has given the executive bran-
Babcock said that under a mandatory ch broad authority under a century-old
program, the government tells a com- procurement act to use its purchasing
pany "I'll hit you with a stick" if it discretion on behalf of a variety of
doesn't comply, but under Carter's social and economic policies.
program, the government is saying, "I THE AFL-CIO has attacked Carter's
may not give you a carrot." 7-month-old program repeatedly as
"EVEN A RABBIT knows the dif- being unfair to workers because it holds
ference" she said. down wages while prices continue to
The judge responded by asking soar.
whether the only difference is, "I'll hit The federation wants Congress to
you with a steel rod or I'll hit you with a adopt mandatory, equitable wage-price
two-by-four." controls, last imposed during the Nixon
The government estimates between administration. Carter says he opposes
$40 billion and $56 billion a year in mandatory controls.
federal contracts are at stake under the 'Joining labor in challenging Carter's
wage-price guidelines. right to enforce his program are three
THE WAGE standard calls for a 7 per Republican senators and 21 GOP House
cent annual ceiling on wage and fringe members.
Officials cite rise in
bar exam failures
(Continued from Page i)
The Michigan Daily-Thursday, May 17, 1979-Page 5
Profs lead symposiums
Ten faculty members of the Univer- symposium on "Evaluation Paradigms
sity's Center for Research on Learning for Medical and Legal Education:
and Tesching (CRLT) participated in Alternative Methodologies Focusing on
the recent annual meeting of the Personality Dimensions." CRLT
American Educational Research research scientist William Moore and
Association in San Francisco. research assistant Tod Sloan were par-
'CRLT director Wilbert McKeachie ticipants.
chaired a symposium on "Research in During the five day meeting,
the Service of Teaching." The speakers McKeachie chaired and Kulik served as
included Profs. Donald Brown, Stan- critic on a program on "Effective
ford Ericksen, Robert Kozma, Janet Teaching in the Professions"; Lawren-
Lawrence and David, Starks, and ce spoke ina symposium on "Aging and
research scientists James Kulik and Learning," and Kozma participated in
Karl Zinn. a symposium on "The Dissemination of
Instructional Innovations in Higher
IN ADDITION .rnwn ohaireoda nin
the exam this year than last year, the
passing rate for University graduates
on February's exam still was the
highest of all law schools in the state.
SUSAN EKLAND, Assistant Dean of
the University's Law School said Law
School officials are waiting to see who
the graduates were who failed the bar
before any investigation is conducted
by the school. She said figures concer-
ning the number of students repeating
the board exam (which can significan-
tly effect the passing rate), the
minimum grade point average of those
who failed, and the number of "more
reasonable students" who took the
exam have not been received.
Of the 33 University students who
took the bar exam in February, about
one third failed, accgrding to Eklund.
Terrence Sandalow, Dean of the Law
School was unavailable for comment.
According to his secretary and
daughter he is in Washington until this
DONOHUE SAID he does not feel
failures resulted because "the exam
was significantly harder." He said the
essay questions, which are drafted
every year by out-of state law
professors, were not more difficult than
those used in previous year's exams.
He said he is "certain the board is of the
(same) opinion, that in total" the
questions were of the same difficulty.
Donohue also said there is no eviden-
ce that the board is grading more stric-
"Something has happened," said
Donohue, "but I'm not sure what. It's'
hard to believe that (law students) have
gotten less intelligent."
ONE SIGNIFICANT factor in the low'
scores is the number of reapplicants
who sat for the July board exam, said
"The track record, although this is
not always the case, is for them to
usually fail again," he said in reference
to the February results.
Donohue said other Michigan
colleges have also experienced an in-
crease of approximately ten per cent in
the number of students who failed the
Michigan bar exam. He also said the
number of students who took the exam
in July rose to about 1,000 applicants,
which increases the number of failures
in "raw figures."
According to Donohue, students re-
take the board exam in February which
in turn brings down the passing rate.
THE FOLLOWING figures illustrate
the decline in passing rates in Michigan
colleges. The figures represent passing
students before appeal:
" U-M: 1978 -88.6 per cent, 1979 - 67
* Cooley: 1978 - 72 per cent, 1979 -
53 per cent;
* Detroit College of Law: 1978 - 70
per cent, 1979-60 per cent;
University of Detroit: 1978 - 75 per
cent, 1979-58 per cent;
* Wayne State: 1978 - 83.6 per cent,
1979 - 58 per cent.
Donohue said, "without further
statistical analysis, it is premature to
come to a significant judgment" about
the significance of these'resul's