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March 27, 1976 - Image 4

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1976-03-27

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i

Thle mirtlgan Bi
Eighty-Six Fears of Editorial Freedom
420 Moynard St., Ann Arbor, MI 48104

CARBON DIOXIDE PRODUCTION:
Scientists warn of ecological disaster

Saturday, March 27, 1976
Edited and managed by students at the

News Phone: 764-0552
University of Michigan

UN. resolution Uj ustified

N THURSDAY, the U.S. vetoed a
United Nations resolution criti-
cizing Israel for its policies in Jeru-
salem and the West Bank. William
Scranton, U.S. representative to the
UN, claimed that the resolution
would hamper current peace efforts
being undertaken by the U.S. His im-
plication was that although these ef-
forts have received little publicity,
they are nonetheless substantial.
As Egyptian President Sadat has
said repeatedly, it is obvious that a
Middle East peace depends largely
on the actions taken by the U. S.
Like it or not, the U. S. is deeply
rooted in the Middle East, and ev-
ery move it makes affects the very
fragile balance of the area.
As long as we choose to remain an
nfluential power in the Mideast
(and it is highly likely we will re-
main so), we have a responsibility to
see that all peoples and all view-
points are properly represented. And
the only means for doing this is
through a diplomatic approach that
acknowledges all of these interests.
THE U. N. RESOLUTION did not
reflect such an approach. The
U. N. is a working community of all
the nations of the world. It is not a
forum for the launching of political
propaganda.
This week marked the very first
time that Israeli and PLO represen-
tatives at the U.N. sat at the same
table to discuss the Middle East. An-
gry remarks flew across the table,
but ideas were exchanged. As long
as both sides feel they have some-
thing to gain by bargaining, they
will bargain. But a bargaining at-
mosphere is hardly created when the
Security Council busies itself with
resolutions such as the one which
Scranton vetoed.
The resolution specifically dealt
with the Israeli occupation of the
West Bank and annexation of Old
Jerusalem. The U. S. deplores Israeli
settlement in the West Bank, and
Scranton said so this week. This
statement brought heavy pressure on
Israel, and chances are that this
staement is much more effective than
a Security Council resolution would
have been.
AS FOR OLD JERUSALEM, the
countries backing this resolution
seemed to think they could benefit
by turning Jews and Moslems against
each other. The city is a holy place
for both religions. Political factors
aside, Israel has done a much better
job of guaranteeing freedom of wor-
ship to Jews and Moslems than did
the Jordanian government before
1967.
As a political issue, Old Jerusa-
lem will one day be discussed at the
bargaining table. But to imply that
the Israeli government is denying
fredom of worship, despite the over-
whelming evidence htat it is not, is
a slap in the face to all people who
attempt to put feelings aside and
judge an issue on its merits.

By LINDA SISKIND
(PNS)-The year is 2076 and
the map as we know it has
disappeared.
New York, San Francisco, Rio
de Janeiro, Tokyo and most of
the world's waterfront metropoli
are 90 per cent under water.
Fertile areas like the Ameri-
can midwest, which used to feed
millions of people, lie fallow
because little rain falls over
them.
The air is some 3.6°F. warm-
er all year round, but few en-
joy it since famine is wide-
spread.
Science fiction? No-just an-
other gloomy picture of the fu-
ture scientists predict could be
ours because of the amount of
heat andcarbon dioxide we are
adding to the atmosphere by
burning oil, coal and gas for
fuel.
"I can't come out and say
it's acdisaster," says Lester
Machta-head of the National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Ad-
ministration's ((NOAA) Air Re-
sources Lab - since so far, sci-
entists have only computer pro-
Ijections to go on.
But the problem of carbon di-
oxide build-up - which Machta
and many others consider more
important than the cancer-caus-
ing depletion of the ozone layer
by aerosol propellants - now
clearly has scientists and the
nation's energy planners con-

cerned for the not-too-distant fu-
ture.
Meteorogists have concluded
on the basis of mathematical
models that even by 2000, 50 per
cent more carbon dioxide will
be in the air than before the
Industrial Revolution. Scientists
believe that in high enough con-
centrations carbon dioxide could
act like the glass in a green-
house and trap the sun's heat
near the earth - bringing about
an unnatural temperature in-
crease of .9°F. by 2000.
While this doesn't sound like
much, it could start a process
that may mean the difference
between life and death to heat-
sensitive ice caps and arctic
sea ice.
And with the end of the ice
would come increasingly high
sea levels and the obliteration
of the present coastlines of the
world.
Even before this point is
reached, though, increasing
temperatures might alter rain
patterns so that where now it
rains, in 10 or 20 years it may
not.
How soon could the ice start
melting?
"Not before the end of this
century," answers Machta. But
beyond that, he says, "It could
be in 50 years or 500 years-
I don't know."
The theory that increasing
amounts of carbon dioxide could

heat up the earth and change
the climate appeared as far
back as 1863. But it has only
been recently - after looking
at the steadily rising levels of
carbon dioxide with modern
measuring equipment installed
beginning in the late 1950's -
that scientists became aware
that what could happen in
theory might be happening in
fact.

'The theory that increasing amounts of car-
bon dioxide could heat up the earth and
change the climate appeared as far back as
1863. But it has only been recently - after
looking at the steadily rising levels of carbon
dioxide with modern measuring equipment in-
stalled beginning in the late 1950's - that sci-
entists became aware that what could happen
in theory might be happening in fact.'
... }} r":.{ i...i",...a.."..ti f ..r,} ...".... }}:{ ....... ...

as waste from burning remains
in the air - most of the rest
goes into the oceans.
With energy use climbing, the
problem grows steadily larger.
While these figures are rela-
tively undisputed, what they
mean for the future earth's cli-
mate is still open to specula-
tion. There are plenty of other
factors that affect climate which
may compensate for the gradual

Since the Industrial Revolu-
tion, they figure, the amount
of carbon dioxide in the atmo-
sphere has increased 14 per
cent, from 290 parts per mil-
lion (ppm) to 330 in 1975. About
half the carbon dioxide released

Scranton

LIVING CHEAPLY:
'Pairing o ff f or jobs

Sadat

TODAY'S STAFF:

NEWS: Mich
Garfinkel,
Meachum,
Yao.

Dunit-, Phil Foley, David
Lois Josimovich, Ro b
Bill Turque, Margaret

EDITORIAL PAGE:
Michael Beckman,
Steve Kursman, Jon

Marc Basson,
Steve Hersh,
Pansius.

ARTS PAGE: Jeff Sorensen.
PHOTO TECHNICIAN: Alan Bilinsky.

By DIANE CURTIS
NOVATO, CA. (PNS) - Sonia
Seeman-Sandra Marker are an
administrative assistant in this
suburb of San Francisco. They
say two can work as cheaply as
one - and more efficiently.
Seeman and Marker are
among a growing number of peo-
ple across the country who are
finding job sharing an alterna-
tive to the increasingly scarce
full-time job or a poorly paid,
low-prestige part-time job.
Job sharing, in which two peo-
ple divide a full-time job by
time -worked or tasks performed,
is being tried by many cities and
some private industries from
Massachusetts to California.
"Part-time work is not set up
for career types of work: job
sharing is," says Nancy Axel-
rod, who shared the position of
administrator of Woman's Way
in San Anselmo, Ca., a non-pro-
fit agency that offers education-
al, vocational and referral serv-
ices.
"THE FACT IS," she acids,
"there are more jobs announc-
ed in the form of full-time jobs.
People have a wider range of
options if they go in with another
person and apply for a full-time
job."
Seeman and Marker each
work two-and-a-half days per
week. Seeman is a technical
writer and project coordinat.r;
Marker a personnel expert. Both
snecialties are part of the same
job. Their hours overlan on
Wednesdays, so they can discuss
what they are doing.
To avoid confusion, the admin-
istrative assistants also write a
memo each week outlining wbich
projects they are working on, so
the other worker can handle
whatever problems may come
up.
"You have to do a ;ittie bit
better planning than n 7rmally,"
says Seeman, "and extend .o ne
of the work deadlines.
"BUT WITH two people work-
ing at the same job, there are
two bodies to attend separate
meetings at the same time on
1 the same project," she said.
Job sharers across the coun-
try include a husband and wfe
team of personnel development
directors at the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology in Bos-
ton, a pair of executive a r d
nrogram directors at Planned
Parenthood of Southeast Iowa

Editorial Staff

Tunney

ROB MEACHUM
Co-Editors-in-Chief

BILL TURQUI

JEFF RISTINE.............,.Managing Editor
TIM SCHICK.............. .Executive Editor
STEPHEN HERSH............Editorial Director
JEFF SORENSEN...................Arts Editor
CHERYL PILATE..............Magazine Editor
STAFF WRITERS: Susan Adies, 'Torn Allen, Glen
Allerhand, Marc Basson, Dana Bauman, David
Filomquist, James Burns, Kevin Counihan,
Jodli Dimick, Mitch Dunitz, Elaine Fletcher,
Phil Foley. Mark Friedlander, David Garfinkel,
Tomn Godeli, Kurt Harju, Charlotte Heeg;,
Richard James. Lois Josimovich, Torn Kettler,
Chris Kochnianski, Jay Levin, Andy Lilly, Ann
Marie Lipinski, George Lobsenz, Pauline Lu-
bens, Teri Maneau, Angelique Matney, Jim
Nicoll, Maureen Nolan, Mle Norton, Ken Par-
sigian, Kim Potter, Cathy Reutter, Anne
Marie Schliav, Karen Schulkins, Jeff Selbt,
Rick Sobel, Tr)M Stevens, Steve Stojic, Cathi
SuyaK, Jim Tobin, Jim valk, Margaret Yao,
Andrew Zerman, David whiting, Michael Beck-
man, Jon Pansius and Stephen Kuraman.

and two people working as as-
sistant curator at the Metropoli-
tan Museum of Art in N e w
York.
There are problems - mostly
concerning pay and benefits -
fot both worker and employer,
admits Nancy Palmer, of the
federally-sponsored Shared Jobs
Project in Palo Alto, Ca., but
almost everyone, including skep-
tical unions, is willing to try the
experiment.
Palo Alto employs fourteen
people in shared jobs as librar-
ian, clerk, naturalist, animal
controller and organizational
problem solver.
EMPLOYERS are quick to
raise the subject of fringe
benefits, according to Palmer.
She tells them two permanent,
part-time workers will cost the
same or slightly more than cne
worker in the same job. But,
she adds, the employer will get
more skills, less absenteeism
and greater flexibility in sched-
JOB SHARING bills have been
passed in Massachuseatts
and Maryland and are being
considered by the California le-
gislature and by the cities of
New York, Chicago, Cleveland
and San Francisco.
uling during peak work neriods.
The Shared Jobs Project has
found that legally required bene-
fits such as social security and
state and federal unemployment

contributions may be slightly
higher using job sharers.
But medical and other insur-
ance, retirement plans, profit
sharing, vacation and sick leave
can be prorated by earnings cr
time worked.
Both private and public unions
fear workers converting to shar-
ed-job status will become part-
time employees without full
benefits - undercutting ( u II -
time workers.
HOWEVER, A FEW public
employee unions are writing
shared job provisions into con-
tracts, Palmer said, while pri-
vate sector unions are approech-
ing the concept with a cautious
"wait and see" attitude.
The shared jobs scheme may
get a big boost if a bill, intro-
dlced by Sen. John Tunney (D,
Co.) which sets up a Part-time
Career Opportunity Act, passes
Congress.
Tunney's bill would require
federal government agencies to
fill 10 per cent of their jobs wth
part-time employees who receive
prorated federal benefits.
"Part-time workers are more
efficient and productive," Tan-
nev said in support of his bill.
"They show more enthusiasm
for jobs, are less distracted by
outside responsibilities and don't
develop the late-in-the day bore-
dom which comes with standard
hours' employment."
A STUDY by Catalyst, a New
York based non-profit foundation
which finds new types of work
for college-educated women,
showed that two part-time work-
ers in the Massachusetts Depart-
rnent of Welfare were more ef-
ficient than one worker doing
the same job.
Catalyst found that 50 part-
time case workers could do 89
per cent more work than 25 full-
time workers performing the
same duties.
The study also found that the
part-timers' turnover rate was
one-third less than that of full-
time workers.
Measures similar to Tunney's
have been introduced in t h e
House of Representatives by
Congresswoman Bella Abzug (D,
N.Y.) and Yvonne, Braithwaite
Burke (D, Ca.).
Diane Curtis is a free-lance
writer based in San Francisco.

warming.
Air pollution from particles,
for example, tends to cool the
earth by blocking the sun's heat
from us. But while these parti-
cles can be washed away by
rain, Machta notes, carbon di-
oxide build-up is permanent.
Charles Keeling of the Scripps
Institute of Oceanography at the
University .of California, San
Diego, has just advised the Na-
tional Academy of Sciences that
after reaching peak levels be-
tween 2100 and 2250 A.D., the
carbon dioxide concentration in
the air will remain "near or
higher than twice the preindus-
trial level for 1000 years."
As for a return to preindus-
trial levels - this would take
"not less than 10,000 years to
bring about."
The Energy Research and De-
velopment Administration (ER-
DA) is waiting to see the re-
port issued by the National Ac-
ademy of Sciences based on the
work of Keeling and his col-
leagues. Meanwhile, an ERDA
bio-medical researcher says
that "Essentially, we're stall
trying to wrestle with how big
the problem is and how real it
may be."
"The only real solution in,
theory," he points out, "is just

Angola rules out
S. Africa attack

By REGINALD MAJOR
HAVANA (PNS) - Despite
growing pressure by b l a c k
African states on white ruled
Rhodesia and South Africa, the
recently victorious Angolan
MPLA has opted for caution.
The MPLA will not go below
its border with Namibia (South-
west Africa) to help blask guer-
rilla forces against the South
African occupiers, a top ranking
MPLA official told a delegation
of predominantly black Amer-
icans here. "It is a principle of
struggle: you cannot export re-
volution," Commandante Dim-
bala said.
Dimbala, whose full name is
Rui Salomen Desa, was in
charge of military operations on
Angola's front with Zaire dur-
ing the Angolan civil war.
He and two other MPLA of-
ficials hosted a three-day free
wheeling question and answer
conference here for selected
American delegates, including
black journalists, a coalition of
black trade unions and the
World Council of Churches. The
o n f erenerepresents the
MPLA's first public diplomatic
initiative aimed at the U.S.
since taking power in Angola
last November.
THE MPLA has also made no
decision to eject South African
troops by force from the Cun-
ene hydro-electric dam in sou-

thern Angola, according to Dim-
bala. This despite the fact that
the MPLA considers itself "at
war with South Africa."
The dam, built by South Af-
rica and Portugal, is the prime
source of power for S o u t h
Africa's huge uranium mines in
northern Namibia. Diimbala said
the dam has not been fundtion-
ing since its technicians - most-
ly Portuguese - left the s i t e
when the Angolan civil conflict
erupted.
Should SWAPO (Southwest Af-
rica People's Organization)-led
guerrilla forces escalate their
military operations, Dimbala
predicted South Africa would be
forced to withdraw from Cunene
to keep up its defenses in Nami-
bia.
Dimbala explained that MPLA
had once been on bad terms
with SWAPO because of links
the Namibian nationalist force
had with MPLA's rival UNITA.
(The two groups operated in ad-
jacent geographical areas.) But
SWAPO delegates had met with
MPLA officials as early a; Feb.
1975 to iron out their disagree-
ments.
Reginald Major is one of
eight journalists who repre-
sented the U. S. black press at
the MPLA conference in Ha-
vana.

to eliminate some of the car-
bon dioxide that's getting into
the atmosphere."
No one is currently working
on a -way or ridding carbon di-
oxide from the waste of burn-
ing coal, oil and gas. In fact,
NOAA's Machta says, "There's
probably little hope in trying
to eliminate carbon dioxide as
an emission product."
The answer to the problem of
carbon dioxide build-up, as
Machta sees it, is conservation
and conversion to wind, tide and
solar energy.
Nuclear power adds too much
waste heat to the atmosphere,
he says, and would only rein-
force the warming tendency of
the carbon dioxide build-up.
Keeling agrees that we have
got to look beyond nuclear
power for an answer. Nuclear
fuel, which will also run out,
he says, would be a stop-gap
measure until other forms of
energy are developed which
don't depend on depletable fuels
-- and the danger persists that
we are approaching the upper
limit of the amount of heat
from energy production and use
we can safely add to the atmo-
sphere.
A 1971 study on man's impact
on the climate noted that with
the doubling of the world's popu-
lation by 2000 and an increase
in the amount of energy used
by each person, "there may
eventually be industrialized
areas ... where the (heat from)
additional input of energy by
man will be equivalent to the
net radiation (heat) from the
sun."
The scientists are quick to
realize the implications of their
warning. As Machta points out,
people are going to lose jobs
if conservation and conversion
policies are implemented, and
this presents "an economic di-
lemma as much as a technologi-
cal one."
Keeling, who also understands
changing energy consumption
means changing out "style of
life," holds out the Europeans
- who use half as much en-
ergy as we do - as a posi-
tive example for us to copy.
"As long as we're under the
impression we should expand the
economy and use more fuel,
we're headed for a serious prob-
lem."
Linda Suskind is Feature
Editor of Pacific Nevs.

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