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September 30, 1976 - Image 4

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1976-09-30

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WOMEN PHYSICISTS:

gw aMan Rai
Eighty-Seven Years of Editorial Freedom
420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Thursday, September 30, 1976

News Phone: 764-0552

Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan
Keeps handsoff PIRGIM

INTERNAL DOCUMENTS released
Tuesday by PIRGIM, detailing
efforts by Detroit Edison and other
interested parties to muffle public
opposition to nuclear power, pro-
vide us with an unsurprising but dis-
tressing glimpse into the seamy un-
derside of corporate influence.
It should come as a shock to no one
that Edison and its corporate allies
are worried about the lack of public
confidence in nuclear power plants,
whose safety, reliability, and practic-
ality are far from certified. Edison's
own poll of Detroit area residents re-
vealed that nuclear power was the
least desirable among a list of energy
alternatives.
No doubt the Bechtel Corp., which
makes parts for nuclear plants,
thought it was merely protecting its
investment by attempting to tamper
with the funding system for PIR-
GIM, which has been outspoken in
its advocacy of safer standards for
nuclear energy. PIRGIM has uncov-
ered a May 12 letter from Bechtel
to Edison listing individual Regents

who might be sympathetic to indus-
trial persuasion, information on anti-
PIRGIM activities with the Univer-
sity's College of Engineering, and
letters to University President Rob-
ben Fleming and Engineering Dean
David Ragone expressing concern
about PIRGIM funding.
In April of this year, Detroit Edi-
son plied reporters from a number of
Michigan college papers, including
the Daily, with lavish food and drink
at the University Club here. The aim
was to "educate" the college press
on the virtues of nuclear energy in
the hopes that they would be favor-
ably disposed to the issue.
It won't wash. If Edison,'Bechtel,
and the rest of the pro-nuclear es-
tablishment are interested in rally-
ing public support for nuclear power,
let them take their case directly to
the public.
Underhanded, backroom attempts
to squelch voices of opposition will
only serve to further alienate the
public from an already dubious pro-
position.

DR.
Fede
eight
"Sh
a ma
ing h
ing p
"W1
he r
more
ly tr3
"Sh
IOus 1
for th
woma
Id
to a
Toros
lems.
grant
scorn
wome
as th
to at
W
in ph
versit
male-
was
male,
exper
And
Natio
Toros
male
her s
sonal
But
makii
sively
ty" (
just
sion),
en ne
gram
"Ni
wome
"All
the a
But
fessio
jectiv
basti

Splitting at
By JACK SAUNDERS The most frequent explanation
Pacific News Service - that little girls lack the
mathematical abilities of little
ANNA TOROSIAN, a phy- boys - doesn't hold up.
sicist at Washington, D.C.'s Reliable research shows that
ral City College for the last males and females ehave no dif-
years, has problems. ference in analytical reasoning
e's just a disrupter," says ability. Girls tend to do better
le colleague who is finish- than boys at mathematics in
is first year in the teach- the early grades.
profession. When the National Academy
ell, just take it from me," of Sciences went through the
eplies when asked to be old high school records of male
specific. "She's constant- and female scientists in 1965
ying to stir things up." they found that the girls who
he's supposed to be a fabu- later earned Ph.D.s in science
teacher, I'll give her credit tested higher than their male
hat. It's just that,hwell, the classmates in all subjects. They
an's got problems." graduated higher in their class-
eed gaawoman dedicated es and their IQ scores were a
cee asawn eicAted significant five-to-eight per cent
career in science, Anna higher than their male counter-
;ian has always had prob- parts.
The product of an immi- But somewhere along the way
Armenian family that the promise of a scientific ca-
ed higher education for reer is sharply reversed for
en, Torosian married at 18 women.
e only "honorable way" Women associate professors-
thile a graduate student a mid-level rank - stand about
'hileagrdae tdet
hysics at New York Uni- one-quarter the chance of men
ty, her fellow students-all to achieve full professorship,
-warned her to quit. She according to the National Sci-
expected, as the class fe- ence Foundation.
to clean up the lab after A woman who does make full
riments. professor, another report says,
d as a researcher at the will earn one-third less than the
nal Bureau of Standards, avearge male professor. In fact,
ian clashed again with she can expect to ea n less than
scientists - a problem the average male associate pro-
uperior attributed to "per- fessor, whom she outranks.
ity problems" on her part. Eight years ago female chem-
despite the problems of ists - who accounted for 12.5
ng it in an almost exclu- per cent of their profession -
y male physics "fraterni- earned 25 per cent less than
where women account for male chemists. Since then, two
5.5 per cent of the profes- federal laws, an executive order
, Torosian denies that wom- and various affirmativeaction
eed affirmative action pro- regulations have made such dis-
s. crimination a violation of na-
obody needs to search out tional policy.
en scientists," she says. Yet today:
they need to do is judge 0 Women chemists earn 27
pipnicants obiectivelv" per cent less than men;

oms and
ter's degrees earn less than 000
male chemists with bachelor's caus
degrees; the
9 And in fact, according to lead
1973 American Chemical Socie- "t
ty data, most women Ph.D.s less
earn less than most men with sicis
bachelor's degrees. on t
Why? Male university and la- grar
boratory officials deny syste- nize
matic discrimination and blame YE
the lopsided salaries on the the
ceaseless and aggressive job- stak
hunting habits of talented males, to h
a characteristic they say most mak
women lack. tial"
While men are inclined to wills
scramble for the higher paying Ar
jobs, "women," says a senior says
male physicist at a prestigious who
government lab. "are maybe battl
more dedicated." burg
In fact, National Science Foun- disci
dation figures show that a ster- "A
eotype-smashing 90 per cent of er 1
women scientists stick to their is e:
careers throughout their work- and
ing lives and virtually none too
drop out during the childbear- brea
ing years. In some disciplines, hers
as many as half the women out
remain unmarried. ly,
But while such dedication may Dr
help turn out fine research, it brok
does little for career advance- She
ment. and
The way to the height of the loud
academic tower is through what it's
university deans and lab direc- "F
tors call "management poten- kind
tial." That means knowing how "He
to survive in a brutally com- vert
petitive environment where the
large research organizations use
slug it out in the corridors of sage
government and private funding ness
sources for the huge bundles Bu
of money that propel modern says
science. they
The successful science man- can
agers, those who know how to I'm
push and pitch, return regular- "W
lv from Washington and New can
York with fat research con- they
tracts that secure an institu- she
tion's survival for another year. beinj
And women, said one female W
physicist, rarely land those $40,- ercoi

male
to $50,000-a-year jobs be-
e they are kept away from
kind of assignments that
to management positions.
Women tend to pick up the
visible jobs," said the phy-
t. "They do small projects
he periphery of major pro-
ms," and thus aren't recog-
d as the central achievers.
et those women who survive
years of frustration and
e out a scientific career tend
ave the very qualities that
e up "management poten-
. aggressiveness, strong
sassertiveness.
nd therein lies the problem,
Dr. Sharon Johnson, 42,
is currently fighting a court
le with the Univ. of Pitts-
Medical School over sex
;rimination.
A woman scientist must nev-
be bold," she says. "She
xpected to dress femininely
neatly. She must not walk
fast in the hallways. If she
ks these rules, she'll find
elf without students, with-
collaborators, and eventual-
without an institution."
. Torosian, 40, says she's
en those rules all her life.
generally wears blue jeans
a sweat shirt: she talks
ly, directly, bluntly. And
hurt her, she says.
'hysics attracts a certain
of man," says Torosian.
tends to be bright, intro-
ed, and he frequently lacks
interests that most men
to get their male egos mas-
d: things like sports, busi-
, success, social prowess."
t they see science, she
as a "man's job. When
become physicists they
say to themselves, 'Wow,
a psysicist. I'm a man."'
Then they see a woman who
do the same job to which
stake their male egos,"
adds, "their entire well-
g isthreatened."
omen who are able to ov-
me the negative incentives

egos
in childhood, the isolation and
humiliations from college class-
mates and the frustrations and
blatant sexism in the scientific
professions are rare, says Dr.
Johnson.
"A scientist is like anyone
else," she says. "A scientist
needs recognition."
In a tiny, paper - and - book-
cluttered office at an interna-
tionally recognized research
lab, a woman biochemist known
round the world by those who
study heart disease admits her
annual salary increases are
low compared to her male col-
leagues.
But she insists she is not
driven by a desire for fame.
Her challenging work and im-
portant discoveries bring peer
recognition, she says, and that's
enough.
No, she says, women don't
necessarily get low valued as-
signments, nor are they neces-
sarily denied advancement.
Many women simply lack
'management potential," she
says.
The interview over, she pages
through a phone book to locate
others who might have some-
thing to say.
Then, interrupting a ques-
tion, she begins talking in a
tense voice.
"It's very discouraging," she
says, not looking up from her
desk. "I know I'm not going to
get any further here. I know
that."
"You could say it's admitting
defeat," says the woman who,
23 years earlier, drove herself
through a grueling Ph.D. pro-
gram at the Univ. of California-
Berkeley. "But it's so frustrat-
ing."
There is an unmistakable
crack in her voice and then
she looks up with an earnest-
ness that she tries to lighten
with a friendly half smile.
She hesitates and speaks soft-
ly: "I think it's damaging."

Nixon's self-serving book

ironically, the science pro-
)ns - the bedrock of ob-
ity - remain an enduring
on of sex discrimination.

* Women
than men
grees;
* Women

Ph.D.s
with n
chemis

s earn less
master's de-
ts with mas-

FIRING THE FIRST shots in a pub-
lic relations salvo for former
President Nixon's forthcoming mem-
oirs, publishing sources have "leak-
ed" news that Nixon will maintain
his innocence in the Watergate scan-
dal ,and place the blame on his po-
litical antagonists. While admitting
that he had erred in not keeping a
closer rein on his aides, he feels that
he has been done a great injustion
Nixon will claim that because Wat-
ergate was seriously dividing the
country, he decided to relinquish the
presidency, a deep and heartfelt per-
sonal sacrifice.
It is nothing short of incredible
that this man would have the gall to

put this drivel in manuscript form,
much less set himself up to receive
royalties that could reach $2 million.
Hasn't the man made enough of a
killing off the American people with-
out foisting this pap upon us? The
saddest thought of all is that the
book will almost undoubtedly become
a bestseller. The only problem for
bookstores will be whether to place
it in their fiction or non-fiction sec-
tions.
Anyone interested in learning the
real story of the Nixon years is advis-
ed to search elsewhere. Those seek-
ing a study in deranged, self-decep-
tive pathos, well, the book will be
out next fall.

Ralph's Universe
t OW WAT ARE YOU
WATCH C-N(TT'S Z)R

By Tom Stevens

3p MINUTES OF
VIf.M CLIPS IN COLOR
OF VARIOUS NUCLEAR
HOLOCAUSTS '
AT ,
. AWRUL!
r1~~

I49PQEN ML)iJNROOMA

Contact your reps
Sen. Phillip Hart (Dem.), 253 Russell Bldg., Capitol Hill,
Washington, D.C. 20515.
Sen. Robert Griffin (Rep.), 353 Russell Bldg., Capitol Hill,
Washington, D.C. 20515.
Rep. Marvin Esch (Rep.), 2353 Rayburn Bldg., Capitol Hill,
Washington, D.C. 20515.
Sen. Gilbert Bursley (Rep.), Senate, State Capitol Bldg.,
Lansing, MI 48933
Rep. Perry Bullard (Dem.), House of Representatives, State
Capitol Bldg., Lansing, MI 48933.
lrx 9W r ;+,. rr"{ .qe w, .n . rY":'iY ' 4 rv,. :!

_.__

.,
.,,

L

-

Letters to

HEALTH SERVICE HANDBOOK:
Bizarre dieting very bad

the

Da ly

TODAYS STAFF:

0j4r
Photography Staff
Pauline Lubens............Chief Photographer
Scott Eccker...............Staff Photographer
Alan Biinsky ,...............Staff Photographer

News: Karen Paul, Jeff Ristine, Anne-
marie Schiavi, Tim Schick, Bill
Turque, Margaret Yao
Editorial Page: Mike Beckman, Ste-
phen Kursman, Tom Stevens, Bill
Turque
Arts Page: Lois Josimovich
Photo Technician: Alan Bilinsky

77~ ~~

football buses
To The Daily:
I AM ABSOLUTELY outrag-
ed by the University of Michi-
gan's handling of the transpor-

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tation problems created by re-
cent home football games. Stu-
dents living on North Campus
are, on Saturday afternoons,
subjected to one-to-two hour
waiting lines at the Geddes bus
shelter, dangerous pushing and
shoving, and even more dan-
gerously overcrowded buses.
Students who have seen three
packed buses pull away and
determine not to miss the
fourth crowd up around the next
bus, race it, stand in front of
it, and shove to get on it. This
extremely dangerous situation,
caused by too few buses run-
ning too seldom, would never
be tolerated by a city transpor-
tation system. It should not
happen within a university
transportation system. That
this situation does occur is only
indication of the disgusting,
neglectful attitude a large, bu-
reaucratic university can hold
toward its students. When ir-
responsible and inadequate
scheduling results in such an in-
tolerable and dangerous situa-
tion, it is time to question the
competence of some University
transportation officials. What
is the matter when schedules
and budgets take priority over
safety standards that can pro-
tect lives? What is wrong with
a university that cannot see fit
to provide safe transportation
for a distant campus area to
Central Campus, in order to fa-
cilitate attendance at such a

By SYLVIA HACKER
and NANCY PALCHIK
Question: Could you do a col-
umn on vaginismus? What ex-
actly is it? What causes it? Is
there any cure?
Answer: Vaginismus is a syn-
drome that may occur in some
women involving involuntary,
spastic contraction of the mus-
cles in the outer third of the
vagina stimulated by imagined,
anticipated or real attempts at
vaginal penetration. These mus-
cular spasms (contrasted with
the ryhthmic contractions of or-
gasm) result in severe constric-
tion of the vaginal opening, oft-
en making penile penetration
impossible. Vaginismus may be
primary (having always been
present) or secondary (develop-
ing in women who have previ-
ously experienced successful va-
ginal penetration). According to
Masters and Johnson, the causi-
tive factors that may be in-
volved are multiple. Impotence
or premature ejaculation in the
male partner may lead to vagin-
ismus, emerging from the fe-
male partner's high level of
sexual frustration. However, it
is also possible that vaginismus
can lead to anxiety and result-
ing impotence in the male part-
ner. A very orthodox religious
background stressing severe
control of sexual feelings and
behavior may also be a fac-
tor. The onset of vaginismus
can also occur subsequent to
episodes of sexually traumatic
experiences (e.g. sexual assault)
and occasionally as a secondary
complication in women who ex-
Vl0'riPcP ninf,,1 intercourse.P A

Fortunately vaginismus, once
diagnosed, can be effectively
treated. The steps that Masters
and Johnson utilize in their
threatment program involve
first, the physical demonstra-
tion, to the satisfaction of both
partners, of the existence of the
involuntary constriction. This is
followed by dilatation therapy
involving the cooperation of
both partners (and conducted
as a part of their private love-
making). The actual dilatation
of the vaginal outlet, using dila-
tors in gradually increasing
sizes, is conducted by the male
partner with the woman's physi-
cal cooperation, and at first
with her manual and later ver-
bal control. After the larger-
sized dilators can be introduced
successfully, Masters 'and John-
son encourage leaving the lar-
ger dilators in the vagina for
sereral . hours each night. Us-
ing this procedure they suggest
that a major degree of the in-
voluntary spasm can be elim-
inated in a matter of 3-5 days
although renewal of the dilating
procedures may be necessary
for the first month or so.
It is important to stress here
that in addition to relieving the
physical symptoms of vaginis-
mus it is also essential to deal
with the sexual tensions, mis-
conceptions, taboos and trauma
that may have led to its onset.
Masters and Johnson, among
others, underscore here the des-
perate need for definitive infor-
mation and education directed
toward understanding the psy-
chosexual aspects of the prob-
lem, and furthermore, they

a year with no bad effects but
lately I get weak and dizzy for
about a half hour afterwards. I
don't want to stop this because
it would mean having to cut
down drastically on eating and
I'm not psychologically able to
do this. I'm afraid I'm doing
harm to my body. How can I
stop?
Answer: Dr. Arnold Werner
of Michigan State University
has, in the past, addressed him-
self to this question as follows:
Vomiting as a means of con-
trolling one's caloric intake is
quite dangerous. The gastroin-
testinal system is primarily de-
signed to move food along in
a head to tail direction. An un-
reasonable strain is put on the
stomach and its connection to
the esophagus as well as some
of the surrounding attachments
with repeated induced vomiting.
Even after an episode of spon-
taneous vomiting such as oc-
curs with an intestinal virus
infection, one can note flecks
of blood in the regurgitated
material. The violent retching
is an accurate reflection of
what is going on physiological-
ly.
If you are unable to control
both your food intake and your
vomiting, it might be advisable
to seek some professional help.
Why not contact Counseling Ser-
vices (Third floor, Union). It
has been suggested that one
means of starting to wean one-
self away from your mode of
operating is to eat in private,
chew the food and spit it out be-
fore swallowing. However, to
insure getting proper nutrition,
try to get some counseling and
come to Health Service for help

AN."*~I ~OI4 Tol
voMf , L
C wf on b bu or#

Th 1-

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