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January 11, 1977 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1977-01-11

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Eighty-Seven Years of Editorial Freedom
420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Tuesday, January i1, 1977 News Phone: 764-0552
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan
Professors have obligation
to show up for classes

Lax Liberian rules could be
cause of hig accident ra te

THERE IS MUCH to be said for uni-
queness, both good and bad. Yes-
terday, the 'U' was unique. It was the
only institution of education in the
area to remain open under the deluge
of snow that swept the state. Michi-
gan State University was closed,
Washtenaw Community College like-
wise, as were Eastern Michigan and
the Ann Arbor Public Schools. The
Ann Arbor town council even can-
celled its weekly meeting.
The roads were hazardous, almost
as much so as the Diag. But still
the cars descended upon the campus,
and the students got out their com-
passes and dogsleds, and trekked out
into the white.
The idea of holding classes un-
der these weather conditions is not
so bad. The walk to and from build-
ings took much longer than usual
and was even chillier than the nor-
mal Arctic conditions, but was not
impossible. The roads were not inac-
cessible, just a little slower and a
little crazier than the usual free-
for-all indigenous to Ann Arbor
thoroughfares. All would have been
well if classes had proceeded as
Photography Staff

But much of the effort put out by
students to reach classes turned out
to be futile. Many professors decided
that it wasn't worth their time to
show up and teach; maybe they fig-
ured the students wouldn't show up
when they looked out the window of
their homes. They saw the snow and
rolled back under the covers.
WE FEEL THAT the students who
braved the elements to get to class
were cheated by the profs who didn't
show up. It is more than just sim-
ply a matter of the willingness to
learn and to teach. For the students
who are paying through the nose to
get an education, it's their right to
expect that the professor of the class
that they signed up for, be there. For
the professors, well they're getting
paid to teach and they're expected
to show up under any conditions
short of a disaster.
The professors that taught showed
good faith to their students. Maybe
they ought to have a little chat with
less conscientious colleagues.
News: Tim Schick, Jeff Ristine, An n
marie Lipinski, Jim Tobin, Martha
Retallick, Bill Turque
Editorial Page: Rob Meachum, Mike
Beckman, Jon Pansius
Arts Page: Mike Taylor, Lois Josimo-
Photo Technician: Brad Benjamin

Pacific News Service
BEHIND THE recent rash of oil tank-
er accidents in U.S. waters lies a
system of shipping registration that has
given the tiny African nation of Liberia
the largest merchant fleet in the world
-and that may be a significant cause
of accidents at sea.
Liberia, along with Panama and a few
other small nations, flies a "flag of con-
venience". Ship owners from around the
world register fleets there to escape the
taxes, union wage scales and often strict
regulations and inspections in their home
Three-quarters of the Libertiane ships
are Greek or American-owned. Ane some
of the best ships in the world, including
those of almost every major U.S. oil
company; are among them.
BUT ACCORDING to recent statistics
from the Organization for Economic Co-
operation and Development (OCED) -
made up of Japan~ the U.S. and Western
Europe - ships flying flags of conven-.
ience were lost at nearly four times the
Carla Rapaport is a former Daily edi-
tor who is now working in Hong Kong
as a television reporter.

rate of those from OECD nations during
the ten years prior to 1973.
An investigation in Hongkong last
spring for the first time shed light on
one of the major reasons: lax standards
that have routinely allowed unqualified
seamen to become officers on Liberian
and Panamanian ships.
Investigators discovered that while
only 25 percent of the ocean-going traf-
fic in the Hongkong area in 1975 flew
flags of convenience, they accounted for
75 percent of all ships 'that sank or ser-
iously faltered.
Last February and March the Hong-
kong Marine Department uncovered 106
cases of ilegal recruitment and decided
to begin spot checks on seamen's cer-
tificates on ships berthing there.
THEY ESTIMATE that close to one-
quarter of those seeking the 25,000 sea
jobs Hongkong offers each year are in-
volved in certificate forgeries and illeg-
al recrui'ment. Prices for forgeries range
from $200 for a seaman's license to
$3000 for a captain's certificate, accord-
ing to Hongkong government sources.
But even more threatening that simple
forgery was the discovery of a scheme
whereby Panamanian licenses were al-
tered - changed, for example, from sea-

man to officer - and then exchanged for
valid Liberian certificates at the higher
According to Hongkong Marine Dept.
officials, Panama and Liberia long ago
decided to accept each other's seamen's
certificates in even exchange. They also
accept certificates from other countries,
though none of the major maritime na-
ions return the favor.
One conviced ship-broker in Hongkong
testified that he had simply written in
higher grades - elevating one sailor
from pump-man to chief engineer, for
example -- on Panamian certificates. -He
then photocopied them and sent the cop-
ies to the Liberian Maritime Administra-
tion in New York for the equivalent Lib-
erian certificates. which in turn were
used by sailors to get "genuine" Pana-
manian licenses.
THE LIBERIAN government flatly de-
nied that it accepted Panamanian
seamen's licenses as a basis for issuing
Liberian licenses. But Hongkong gov-
ernment officials say such exchanges
have been routine for years, an asses-
ment that is confirmed by international
shioping registration officials.
The Liberians also claimed that 33 li-
cense applications made by the ship-bro-
ker who testified in Hongkong had been

rejected by them between January 1975
and April 1976 because forgery was su-
spected. But Hongkonk authorities say
they were never told of the suspected
forgeries, though notification could have
helped them stop the practice.
The prosecutors in Hongkong lay part
of the blame for the widespread forger-
ies on the UN Inter-Governmental Con-
sultative Maritime Organization (IMCO).
One of their briefs charged that the
IMCO, the international body that regu-
lates shipping, had failed "to agree on
minimum international standards of
training and examination for purposes of
issuing certificates of competency."
The IMCO is not planning to formally
discuss the standardization issue until
1978. but if they do eventually decide to
move on it they will have their work cut
out. Standards for cerification of seamen
differ sharply from country to country.
W/HILE BRITAIN requires a rigorous
series of oral and written exams
taken after several years in training
school, Liberia gives a multiple choice
test. And in Taiwan, the exam is heav-
ily weighted with political questions.
Standards for promotion from rank to
rank and for officer certification likewise
vary widely.




Pauline Lubens..........
Brad Benjamin...........
Alan Bilinsky.............
Scott Eccker......... .
Andy Freeberg...........
Christina Schneider ........



nul ear waste
To The Daily:
Alpena, Michigan made it
clear that they did not want
their community to become the
dumping grounds for the
nation's high level nuclear
waste as a recent meeting on
High LevelrNuclear Waste
Management sponsored- by the
American Association for the
Advancement of Science and
the Michigan Sierra Club. Ear-
lier this year, in a referendum
on the subject, citizens of the
three effected counties voted
ten to one against accepting
the depository.
Alpena is one of thirteen po-.
tential final disposal sites for
high level wastes (those that
remain radioactive for thous-
ands of years) currently being

considered by the Energy Re-
search and Development Ad-
ministration (ERDA). ERDA
has announced its plans to se-
lect two sites by 1978 with ad-
ditional sites to be chosen ev-
ery two to four years until a
total of six sites have been
identified. The initial sites are
scheduled to start receiving
wastes by 1985.
The response of the residents
of Alpena once again questions
as to whether or not the U. S.
ought to proceed to develop nu-
clear power and, if so, at what
Final disposition of high level
wastes is one of the costs of nu-
clear power. If the people of
this country are to enjoy the
benefits of nuclear energy
they must alsoaccept the re-
sponsibility of disposing of the
wastes created in the process.
IF NO WILLING sites for

these wastes are to be found,
then perhaps the message that
should be conveyed to ERDA
and others in Washington, is
that Americans are not willing
to bear the full cost of nuclear
electricity generation, and the
pace of nuclear power plant ex-
pansion should be substantially
slowed down until disposal
technology has developed to
the point that willing sites are
On the other hand, if there is
some state that wants to have
a depository located within its
borders (as it has been rumor-
ed that New Mexico does) then

by all means, they should be
granted this honor;
Linda D. Ludwig
Dec. 10, 1976
civil liberties
To The Daily:
ON MONDAY, January 3, the
Civil Liberties Board recom-
mended to the S.A.C.U.A.
(Senate Assembly Committee
for University Affairs) the
abandonment of rules prohibit-
ing corporations which prac-
tice, discrimination from job
recruiting on the U of M cam-
pus. The infringement upon
the civil rights of those stu-

dents desiring to work for rac-
ist and sexist companies was
given as a reason.
I attended this University in
the 60's, and personally will
tolerate neither the Civil Lib-
erties Board action, nor the
failure of The Michigan Daily
to report this outrage to our
John C. Steinbach
Jan. 3
Letters should be typed
and limited to 400 words.
The Daily reserves the
right to edit letters for
length and grammar.

#1~~Y PL6~~ ICO 1bo~"J.TH

Volcanic real


New Year s
Prof. Ford
REPORTER: President Ford, have you made any reso-
lutions for the new year?
Ford: Yes, I have. As you know, the University of Mich-
igan offered me a position in the political science depart-
ment and I intend to accept it.
Reporter: What made you decide to accept this posi-
Ford: Well, I didn't exactly make the grade in the Elec-
toral College last year and I thought I'd give the professor-
ship the old college try, so to speak.
Reporter: Many people have objected to your appoint-
ment because they think you lack the necessary qualifica-
tions. How would you reply to them?
Ford: I think I qualify on the basis of practical exper-
ience. I am a specialist in Realpolitik. I regard politics as
the art of artful dodging and in this sense I feel that I am
eminently well qualified. I think my recent debate with
Jimmy Carter testifies to this fact and here I must give that
grinning devil his due. He's even a better politician than I
Reporter: Still, you don't impress me as the average
Ford: I don't know what your idea of the average pro-
fessor is. If you think of a professor as a fumbling intellec-
tual shut up an ivory tower, then I don't think that I am so
far removed from that picture. After all, I have been known
to leap tall staircases in a single bound and what is the
White House if not an ivory tower?
Reporter: I never thought about it that way.
Ford: If I'm able to make people look at things from a
different perspective, there might be hope for me yet as a
professor. There's an old saying about professors. "Those
who can't-teach." My severest critics complained that I
never got anything done while I was president and I must
admit that I almost made the Guiness book of records with
my vetoes. Therefore, I think I have found my true vocation
at last as a professor.
Reporter: Your detractors have claimed that your chief
attraction as a professor would be your fame.
Ford: You've just shattered my illusions. I have always
considered myself an attractive if not a romantic figure,
much the same as Don Quixote but if my detractors say
that I am famous rather than infamous, I won't let it bother
me too much.
Reporter: How does your wife, Betty feel about your
Ford: She said that since she has received an honorary
law degree, she will do her best to assist me in pleading my
n'nofCioUiiaeiofMn.,h ansn Res verv excited aot

Pacific News Service
'HE TIP of a volcanic cone just 10 feet below
the ocean surface has become one of the
hottest pieces of potential real estate in the wes-
tern Pacific.
It represents one more potential link in a
chain of islands that - once the U.S.'s 200-mile
offshore control policy takes effect - will give
the U.S. nearly one-and-a-half million square
miles of ocean with immense military and eco-
nomic value.
The submerged rock is regularly monitored by
ships and aircraft from Japan, the international
Maritime Safety Agency and the U.S. military.
When and if it breaks the surface, the first
nation to spot it can lay claim to it and toe sur-
rounding 200 miles of ocean.
Its importance underlines the future impact
of America's unilaterally declared 200-mile pol-
icy, to be put ilnto effect in March 1977 off the
continental shores and America's island posses-
sions like Guam. When it is extended to the 2.300
other Micronesian islands that make up the U.S.-
administered Trust Teritory, probably by 1981,
the U.S. will control an ocean surface half the
size of the continental states.
Bruce Karrolle, a geographer at the Univer-
sity of Guam, says the resources contained with-
in the zone would probably equal or surpass
those -of an equivalent size of dry-land real es-
Spread out across a 200-mile-wide swath of the
Pacific, just north of the Equator, almost all the
islands are within 400 miles of each other,
thus forming a continuous link of 200-mile circles
across the map.
Department and the Congress of Micronesia over
implementation of the zone have hit snags over
what the chairman of the Micronesian negotiat-
ing team calls "fundamental" discords. They in-
volve the sharing of profits from exploitation of
resources and control over migratory fish like
Separa'ist tendencies among the six district
governments in Micronesia have also bogged the
negotiations down the past three years.
Observers predict the new Carter Administra-
tion will lead to speedier agreements, s i n c e
Paul Warnke, a key Carter advisor, is the chief
legal advisor for the Congress of Micronesia.
KEY HURDLE in the negotiations has been
the Micronesian demand for licensing rights
to control the. Japanese. Taiwanese and South
Korean fishing boats that now pay nothing for
catches taken in the zone. The US. law estab-
lishing the zone does not cover migratory fish such

area, for which the Pentagon will be
As one Navy officer in Guam said,
tantamount to a "security shield"
western Pacific.

the !zone is
around the

OBSERVERS PREDICT a massive expansion
of the surveillance capacity of the U.S. to mon-
itor not only foreign fishing boats, but foreign
navies, particularly that of the Soviet Union.
As former Defense Secretary James Schlesing-
er told the U.S. -Congress, Micronesia is in "a
position to dominate a zone of transit encompas-
sing lines of communications vital to U.S. inter-
"The lines of communications from the Mid-
east and our Asian sources of raw materials,"
he said, "can be controlled from Micronesia.
Fuarthermore, an increasingly important north-
south route exists through the area, connecting
our allies Japan and Korea in the north with our
allies and friends o the south, Australia, New Zea-
land, the Philippines and Indonesia."
Already, the Navy command on Guam has
been qnietly transformed into the central surveil-
lance site in the Far East and officials are dis-
cussing the use of B-S2 bombers for ocean sur-
veillance missions, now performed by P3-Orions.
B-52s based on Guam would be within easy flying
distance of North Korea or the USSR's Pacific
military headquarters at Vladivostok.
Major Gen. Hilding Jacobson, commander of
the Strategic Air Command's Third Air Division,
told PNS that new "command and control" facili-
ties will probably be moved to Guam in the next
few years.
Plans for a string of new military bases on the
islands of Tinian and Palau also figure into the
Pentagon's still evolving post-Vietnam strategy
for the western Pacific.
JrESPITE SOME rumblings for secession and
_" independence in certain islands, p r e s e n t
trends indicate that all the islands in Micronesia
will be under some form of American control
throuchont this century.
Guam. the principal military base, is an unin-
cornorated territory of the U.S. with no organiz-
ed self-determination movement among its pop-
ulation of 95000.
The 14,000 peonle in the Marianas chain north
of Guam voted in, 1975 to be permanently affil-
iated with the U.S. as a commonwealth, simil-
ar to Puerto Rico.
While the U.S. is scheduled to end its trustee
shin over the rest of the Micronesian islands in
1981 actual independence would be impossible
until at leas' the year 2000 due to the Compact
of Free Association agreement initialed last June.
Ths whie there may be as many as five sep-
arate political entities in Micronesia separating


DeLA~~tIN OIL L~c0

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