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February 08, 1974 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1974-02-08

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

President and Prime Minister,
Admiral Luis Carrera Blanco, and
its implications for Spain's politi-
cal future are best understood by
a look at the events leading up to
the assassination two months ago.
At the root of Spain's present
political crisis is the organization
that carried out the assassination,
a group of 250 Basque terrorists
who call themselves the Euzkadi
Ta Askatasuna, or E.T.A., mean-
ing 'The Basque Nation, and Its
Freedom." Basque country, or
Euzkadi, is made up of four pro-
vinces in Spain and three provinces
in France. Within the 1100 square
mile French sector live about 220,-
000 people, while the 6600 square
mile Spanish territory holds about
two million inhabitants.+
For centuries and still today, the
Basques have possessed a strong-
willed desire for autonomy. In ear-
lier times they were the only peo-
ple who were able to thwart the
invasions of Celts, Romans, Goths,
and Moslems without losing their
cultural identity. Following the in-
vasions, the Basques retained their
language while the rest of Spain

activity stirs Spanish


picked up different linguistic
AS LATE as 1936, the Basques
lived in the autonomous state of
Euzkadi under the presidency of
Jose Antonio Aquirre. However, the
Civil War put an end to this auto-
nomy, politically and somewhat.
Since the Civil War, the Span-
ish regime has repressed the cul-
ture of these people. Until 1960,
Basques were arrested for writing
nationalist pamphlets or raising
Basque flags. Although Basque was
the only language understood by
many children, schools were pro-
hibited from teaching it. Also, Bas-
que folklore was limited to that
told in the private home. Thus, the
people of Euzkadi were under the
rule of a government that was in-
different and hostile to their so-
These diffrences in what t h e
Basques %,anted for themselves
and what the government wanted
for the Basques ultimately led to
the birth of the E.T.A. from t h e
Basque Nationalist Party in t h e
late 1950's.
THE YOUNG E.T.A. perfcrmed
its first successful act of terror-

ism in 1960 with the derailment of
a trainload of Civil War veter-
ans. In December, six years lat-
er, members of the organization
managed to outline their strategy.
With the single goal in mind of
freeing the Basques from Span
ish rule, they decided to use vio-
lence as their political tool. Real-
izing the disastrous results tha


Generalissimo Francisco Franco,
head of Spanish state, who must
deal with the Basque separatists
threatening to topple his regime.
would follow from milicary resist-
ance, they chose the use of selec-
tive sabotage to undermine the
economic and political foundations
of Spain.
The three-year period following
1966 was permeated by aver o n e
hundred major operations by the
E.T.A. Numerous tactics were used
in their campaign agamist the,
Franco regime. Local non-Basque
businessmen were harangued by
boycotts, threats, and even the
bombing of a cafe. The blacklist-
ing of collaborators with the gov-
ernment and the blackmailing of
wealthy citizens for money a n d
support were also among their
deeds. The E.T.A. did nor ignore
the power of printed material, for
it printed and distributeJ pamph-
lets and propaganda leaflets.
IN ADDITION to these acts were
more serious terrorist missions.
Except for attacks on police, they
were limited to nonhuman targets.
So, police vehicles were sabotag-
ed, civil guard barracks were
bombed, electric power supply was
disrupted, and trains were derail-
These and other activities creat-
ed a friction between the E.T.A.
and police and civil guard units that
led to the assassination on Augst
2, 1968 of Inspector Meliton Man-
zanas. What followed was a trial
of 16 Basques that was .>f para-
mount importance to all of Spain.
The summary trial in Drceniber
1969 of six defendants charged in
connection with the slaying and ten
others charged with pol*-ti,.al crimes
bred trouble for Franci's govern-
ment both from within Spain and

from outside Spain. Everv aspect
of the trial created controversy.
For example, the militxi: 7 was ai-
gered at conducting a trial f o r
what it considered to be civilian
matters, anddefense lawyers were
no less pleased by this situation.
THOUGH clouded by the vague
wording of the Spanish press, 1he
trial brought to light th use of
torture by the police in obtaining
confessions to crimes. Manzanas
himself was hated becauta of his
sadistic nature. Having learned tor-
ture techniques from the Gestapo,
he often used a trunche n that he
had designed and male himself.
Of the several defendants tortur-
ed for confessions, even one of the
two. priests on trial had been vic-
timized in this way.
,The use of torture to butli up
the prosecution's case, the con-
stant dismissal of what the court
called "irrelevant" questioning by
the defense, and the thin evidence
presented made the trial a sham.
The six murder defendants were
sentenced to death, and the others
were given sentences ranging from
12 to 70 years in prison. Franco
had wanted to make this trial an
-example of the fairness of thy; le-
gal system of his so-called changing
Spain, but instead it was an exam-
ple of Spain's myopic eye towards
justice and dissent from within the
NEITHER THE commuting of
the death sentences nor Franco's
Organic Law of 1967 (which would
have allowed a gradual liberahza-
tion of the government) soothed
the wrath of the E.T.A. For last
December, they let loose their fury
by assassinating Carrero Blanco.
Just what does the assassmation
mean to Spain? First of all, it has
signalled tile extension of Basque
separatist activities into non-Bas-
que territory. Before this time, all
their activities had been confined
to the Basque provinces of the
Secondly, a shuffling of the Left
and The Right has and will con-
tinue to take place. Even through
the Manzanas trial, Franca retain-
ed left-of-center people in his gov-
ernment, but the assassination has
resulted in the elimination of these
elements from the government. The
most important losses in the gov-
ernment have been all the Opus
Dei ministers, whose thinking was
working towards the integration of
Spain into a democratic Europe.
The gradual liberalization of
Spain has taken a turnabout with
the elimination of the Left and
a hardening up of the Right in the
THE HARDENING of the Right
could have serious results if car-
ried too far. With much of Spam
opposed to theterrorist tactics of
the E.T.A., they are hardly likely
to assist in an overthrow of the
government. However, if the 3as-

que separatists force the govern-
ment into taking oppressive meas-
ures against the whole populace,
citizens may grow unhappy after
having had a period of relative
liberalism. In that case, enengh
popular support might be gained
for overthrowing the regime.
The precision with which the
assassination was carried out has
hinted at the possibility of the
E.T.A. having associations w i t h
other clandestine organizations. If
such associations do indeed exist,
they will heighten the amount and
degree of future terrorist activities
in Spain.
As E.T.A. activities continue, the
question remains as to whether
or not the idea of a fully auto-
nomous Basque state is a reality.
The answer is no. Economically,
Basque country and Spain are in-
terdependent. While the Basque
provinces provide Spain with met-
als and heavy industry, they need
the demand for their natural re-
sources and products that Spain
provides. Also, too many family
and social ties exist between the

A time for vigilance

ON WEDNESDAY, February 6, the House
of Representatives voted 410 to 4 to
grant the Judiciary Committee broad
constitutional power to investigate Presi-
dent Nixon's conduct. The House thus
formally ratified the impeachment in-
quiry begun by the committee last Octo-
ber, and empowered the panel to sub-
poena anyone, including the President,
with evidence pertinent to the investiga-
The Judiciary Committee will now pro-
ceed with its inquiry with the purpose
of deciding whether or not the President
should be impeached. If the committee
should decide in favor of impeachment,
News: Bill Heenan, Mary Long, Jo Mar-
catty, Judy Ruskin, Becky Warner
Editorial Page: Clifford Brown, Paul Has-
kins, Msrnie Heyn, Alan Kettler, Eric

its reasons will be submitted to the
House, which will then initiate the next
step in the process. .
Our nation's system of searching for
justice in its piesidential office has often
been criticized as being too long and te-
dious. While the method is painstaking,
it must be remembered that it handles a
most delicate matter.
Because of the length of such legal-
political proceedings, we urge all citizens
to be continuously aware that the im-
portance of future developments cannot
be stressed too greatly. We, the people,
cannot allow time to cloud the facts.
In recent years, it has appeared that
the common voice was rarely heard in
Washington. Public apathy was a major
factor in this. Now is the time to pay
attention and take interest. If the citiz-
enry does not speak, it is not heard.
The Nixon Administration has consist-
ently proven that it needs watching. Let
us not once again sit by and observe fias-
cos where there should be. justice, but in-
sist that our government be just in the
eyes of its citizens.

The herd instinct
SCOOP PORTER SAT in the "Newsmen Only" lounge of the
Keep on Truckin' Truck Stop on I-94 yesterday and discussed
his plight.
"I'm a reporter, ya see," he told this reporter. "It's not easy
making a living." The other reporters in the lounge sipped their
Buds and agreed. "Why just this afternoon I tried to interview
a trucker and was ambushed by 14 other reporters trying to inter-
view him. There just aren't enough truckers for each of us to
interview." The other reporters sipped, nodded and agreed.
"I know how you feel," said another reporter, known as Ace.
"Why I was all set to risk death and damnation by riding shot-
gun on a cross-country rig to find out what those truckers
are all complaining about. But when I got to the yards it seemed
that all the trucks already had reporters in them."
"I have a wife and two kids in college to support," cried ano-
ther reporter. "If this trucker shortage goes on my editor isn't
going to like it one bit. He'll fire me for sure. How am I going
to feed my family then? And what with the cost of pencils and
notebooks going sky high I just can't make ends meet."
"I SAY WE shut this country down until they give us enough
truckers to interview!" shouted one angry newsman. "Let's
see how long this country can last without morning papers!" The
reporters roared their approval.
Just then a driver stopped for diesel fuel outside. In the
mad rush to interview him 23 reporters were shot, 9 were
trampled and two had their notebooks taken from them.
Snoop had remained seated. "Well, I'm not going out there.
No sir. I'll quit writing instead until this whole thing is settled.
I'm not looking to get killed just for doing my job. I'll shutdown
if I have to. Those boys are playing too rough for me. I only
hope thengovernment ends this trucker shortage before we have
the national guard in here!"
"We better start travelling and reporting together," said a
fearful and bloodied reporter. "I've got to get my story into the
office tonight! We can't let this good fresh load of news rot on onr
HE GOT UP and ran for the door with bullets whistling by
hisrhead and knocking off and ear or two, but he made it. His
courage was inspiring.
Scoop ordered another beer, put a nickel in the jukebox and
stared emptily at his notebook and pen.

Adniral Luis Carrero Blanco,
former President and Prime Minis-
ter of Spain, assassinated last De-
cenber by members of Basque Sep-
aratist movement.
two areas to make a cutoff favor-
able to the nation.
THE FUTURE of Frarnco's' re-
gime, the E.T.A., and Basque
country are all overshadowed by
doubt. But one thing is certain
about Spain's future - it will be a
stormy one.
Alan Kettler is a staff writer for
The Dail?. Information for this cr-
ticle was obtained from Professor
Paul Ilse, Department of Romance
Languages, who is a specialist in
modern Spanish intellectual his-
tory. Besides having written an un-
published analysis of the Basque
Separatist movement, he has coin-
piled the largest private collection
of news clippings and related docu-
ments on file in the U.S.

Arts Page: Ken Fink, Sara
Photo Technician: Ken Fink

Rimer, Doug

Eighty-three years of editorial freedom
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan

420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, Mi. 48104

News Phone: 764-0552

Lecture bla
MAYBE IT'S JUST more evident because of dreary
Februariness and mid-mid-term boredom, but
it seems like a long time since I've heard a stimulat-
ing or even adequate lecture. In five semesters, I
have had fewer competent professors than there are
colors on my I.D. card. Professors with the ability to
effectively "profess" are as rare these days as
30 cent gas and newsprint.
No doubt those who stand at the lecterns are indeed
learned and have passed some requirements of pro-
ficiency in a subject, at least on paper.
But know a subject bacwards doesn't necessarily
insure the teaching competence of these academic
magi. The best teachers aren't always the former
students of greatest talent, or the authors of lengthy,
profound books. The ability to teach is anunrelated
talent to he ability to learn. Mark Spitz's coach
can't swim a stroke, yet Spitz credits his coach with
teaching him everything he knows about swimming,
if not shaving.
A surprising number of the University's mental wiz-
ards have a third grader's sense of lecture organiza-
tion and the speaking effectiveness of a sleeping sock.
There is the economics professor that changes sub-
jects mid-sentence and the political science professor
that monotones with less interest than Rosemary's
18-minute hum. There's the Great Books professor that
says "and . . . uh" more often than a nervous child
making a first speech and the sociology professor that
reads his book aloud to the class.
STUDENTS DON'T stand in line at the Cashier's
window paying tuition with their summer's sweat or
their parents' second mortgage to listen to stumble-
tongued professors limp through fifty minutes.
No doubt, students trapped into such classes still
learn - they first learn the bare minimum require-
ments to get an A and they then learn to decide
daily whether to spend an hour watching the clock
or not bothering to attend at all.

Gles flourish,
Analyzing why such foggy muddleheads are allow-
ed to continue confusing students, at the rate of 200
per day isn't easy. Many of the professors probably
have tenure, making them immune to the necessity to
think 'of anything new. And many of them probably
qualified for that tenure by carefully avoiding the
rocking of the academic boat by any new idea.
And to some, it may be just a job with nothing
more at stake than a monthly paycheck. Drilling holes
into auto frames in a Ford plant and drilling moldy
"Professors have a duty to put some
recognizable meat on the bones of
their lectures, instead of feeding
students the cold academic oatmeal
of yesterday."
:. vtr- . " 0rt ;; i {;.."" ," tam::;; :" ?: . ..,..+o".v iS"y":


outdated sameness into sophomore minds in
Hall becomes pretty much the same.


Letters to The Daily should
be mailed to the Editorial Di-
rector or delivered to Mary
Rafferty in the Student Pub-
lications business office in the
Michigan Daily building. Letters
should be typed, double-spaced
and normally should not exceed
250 words. The Editorial Direc-
tors reserve the right to edit
all letters submitted.

BUT PROFESSORS deal with more than market-
able items. Students are a part of the future.
Not every professor can be Eric Sevareid or be ex-
pected to daily entertain the student troops. B u t
professors have a duty to put some recognizable meat
on the bones of their lectures, instead of feeding stu-
dents the cold academic oatmeal of yesterday.
Innovative and inspiring professors have always
been the minority. But the rest should at least be
Without higher standards imposed on the teaching
ability of professors to whom are entrusted a few
hundred minds, the University doesn't deal with edu-
cation of any significant quality. It becomes merely
a company that sells diplomas for the price of tui-
tion,; dispenses paychecks to its academic foremen
and boasts a stadium seating of 100,000.


Letters to the Daily

To The Daily:
LAST NIGHT I attended a de-
bate on Nuclear power presented
by the people at PIRGIM. They
billed their debate as presenting
both sides of the fence on Nuclear
m31P(_A4 "fmn"fmri amr

tle idea what they were talking
about. But the debaters arguing
for Nuclear power barely touched
on the outer surface of why N e-
lear power is necessary and pra-
I HAVE BEEN a sunorter of

true debate so we may be truA.v
informed on this issue.
-Fred Schneider
February 7
In the February 5 issue of The

ating of a picture and artic'e on
the Editorial Page. The story con-
cerned Housing Security, featur-
ing interviews with two Housmg
Security guards, Charles ,Justice
and Hans Cozak.
The accompanying pho.graph
antr a rlnp t- T7 P f tz n ,ri

s ;s

,:. ,;

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