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March 12, 1975 - Image 4

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Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1975-03-12

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r

Cambodia

Ele £frilign Daith
Eighty-four years of editorial freedom
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan

Wednesday, March 12, 1975

News Phone: 764-0552

1 420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, Mi. 48104
UF W boycott worthy cause

ANN ARBOR'S UNITED Farm Work-
er sympathizers are once 'again
trying to drum up local support for
the union cause.
The same folks who made table
lettuce a cause celebre a few years
back have now shifted their emphasis
to a more vintage staple-table wine,
specifically the Gallo. Brothers pro-
ducts that can be found gracing the
shelves of nearly every local party
and grocery store.
The Gallo label is in most cases
easily identified and avoided, unlike
nonunion iceberg lettuce which in
many cases, even carries a symbol
similar to the UFW's Aztec eagle. The
year-long wine boycott has met with
considerable success to date. Gallo
profits reportedly are down nearly 16
per cent from last year. At the same
time, the gigantic California-based
winery has been forced to boost its
advertising budget from six million to
thirteen million dollars.
A CCORDING TO LOCAL UFW boy-
cott organizers, Gallo sales in
Ann Arbor have dropped off fifty per
cent.
As enthusiastic as support has been
across the nation, chances are the
Gallo Brothers will prevail in their
efforts to crush the UFW's progres-
sive inroads in the grape industry
unless more consumers pick. up the
UFW banner and refuse to buy scab
products.
On this campus as elsewhere, what
once were causes are now cliche, and
it is easy for many people to dismiss
the farm workers plight as too re-
mote or even imagined by those over-
ly anxious for an activist cause to
latch onto.

US. aid
By RICHARD BOYLE
THEN REBEL artillery hit a U.S. cargo plane flying
supplies into Phnom Penh last week, the shells
were U.S. made 105 mm howitzer rounds, sold to
the rebels by Lon Nol's generals.
While examples of corruption are widely known,
senior U.S. Embassy officials will only admit to them
in "off the record" briefings. It was at such a briefing
last year that the acting ambassador, Thomas Enders,
just before his departure, told this reporter the Lon
Nol generals were more interested in "creating their
own private armies" than winning the war. He said the
generals, competing with rival officers for U.S. aid,
tattle on each other by showing "little black books"
filled with gossip.
Although it is commonly known by high ranking
embassy officials and the press that much of the
military aid, such as the howitzer shells, often helps
the rebels more than the Lon Nol government, that
information is not relayed to Congress.
The vintage 105 mm howitzers, which were captured
last year from fleeing Lon Nol troops, are the largest
and most accurate artillery pieces used by the rebels.
However, neither the Soviet Union nor China, which
uses either 100 mm or 130 mm rounds for their
medium guns, could supply the rebels with howitzer
ammunition. So the rebels were forced to buy the
shells from Lon Nol's generals who were more than

own

This is just the sort of attitude the
Gallo Brothers are counting on and
other union busters of greater or
lesser stature are counting on. The
uninformed public is all too willing
to ridicule as sensationalistic the ef-
forts of Cesar Chavez and his cohorts
to ease the plights of workers.
WHAT THEY DON'T understand is
that the Gallos, along with the
Guild and Franz California wineries
turned out the UFW last year without
the benefit of secret ballots. The
growers were aided in their power
play by the Teamsters, who somehow
emerged from a private session with a
lucrative contract that completely
eliminated all the benefits the UFW
had struggled for over the previous
years.
The teamsters interest in the agri-
culture is easy to understand if not
to condone. In California alone there
is a $7.7 billion agribusiness. The
teamsters hope to control the workers
and thus their product from farm to
market-in effect, a monopoly on
distribution. The truckers' union's
concern for the farm workers' condi-
tion obviously doesn't measure up
with its concern for spreading the
union bureaucracy throughout the
agricultural industry.
DESPITE REPEATED DENIALS from
the growers, all the workers are
really asking for is the right to an
honest, secret-ballot election. That's
not much to ask-just the same con-
sideration guaranteed every labor
group by federal law.
If you are in the market for wine,
try to remember that more than taste
and'slogans are on the line.

wor r

glad to make an extra profit by selling the shells
to their enemies.
The Lon Nol government has so far been successful
in clamping a lid on this information. For example,
when Lynn Newland of UPI began work last spring
on the story of the sale of 105 mm shells, he was
visited by two members of Lon Nol's secret police,
who expressed "great displeasure" with his investiga-
tion.
The message to Newland and other journalists was
clear - the Lon Nol government, which had expelled
several journalists and censored all news copy, would
not tolerate the filing of stories about corruption. Al-
though Lon Nol's generals continued to sell not only
105 mm artillery ammunition to the rebels, but mortar
and M-16 automatic rifle ammunition as well, further
reports were stonewalled by threats.
Senior U.S. embassy officials freely admit to the
press in "off the record" briefings that the Lon Nol
generals are corrupt, but they tell a different story
in reports to Washington or in interviews with con-
gressmen. In fact, embassy personnel have consistent-
ly lobbied for increased military aid to the Lon Nol
government, knowing that much of that aid is simply
pocketed by corrupt generals.
Thomas Enders, the lanky charge d'affairs of the
U.S. embassy in Cambodia, served as acting ambassa-
dor until he was replaced last March by John Gun-

4t ene M
ther Dean. In his last. "off the record" briefing, he
told this reporter and about a dozen others what he
really thought of the U.S. aid program - for "in-
formational purposes" and "background" only.
The reporters asked Enders about the alleged de-
fection of an entire rebel battalion to the Lon Nol
side. The Lon Nol government, which had ballyhooed
the defection as a sign of rebel demoralization, want-
ed Enders to put the 600-man unit on the U.S. payroll,
equipped with new M-16 rifles. Enders refused, know-
ing that the battalion would probably quickly "de-
fect" back to the rebels, with pockets full of money
and new rifles.
Enders said that Lon Nol generals had frequently re-
quested that defecting battalions be added to the U.S.
payroll, but he had refused. He noted that often gen-
erals would try to add more battalions in an effort to
get more money. Many of these units were padded
by non-existent soldiers, the so-called "phantom"
army.
Each general would try to get the U.S. embassy to
finance as many battalions as possible, Enders said,
so they could create their own fiefdoms. In the Byzan-
tine world of Cambodian politics, the more battalions
a warlord had, the better his chances in a coup, or
counter coup and, of course, the more money he
could make.
"All they want around here," Enders stated, "is
their own private armies." In Tam, the warlord of
Battambang, for instance, told Enders he knew of
several rebel battalions ready to defect, but only to
In Tam personally.
Enders added that in the competition for the aid -
sometimes the U.S. spends as much as one and a
half million dollars a day - the generals would come
to the embassy to tattle on other warlords. "They
carried little black books," Enders said, which con-
tained nasty information and tidbits of gossip about
rivalIs.
Other U.S. officials voiced similar complaints about
blatant misuse of American aid, but seldom for publi-
cation.
For example, Ney Si Chan, the province chief of
Kampot, a coastal town, melted down U.S. artillery
shells, sent as military aid, and soid the scrap metal
to the Thais. He was later replaced after the Lon
Nol army suffered a disastrous military defeat there,
due in part to the lack of ammunition.
U.S. officials also admit, "off the record," that the
aid has contributed to the spiraling inflation, now
over 250 per cent per year. Even the so-called human-
itarian assistance, shipments of rice and other food,
has been squandered. Much of the rice, meant for re-
f~gees, ended up in the Phnom Penh black market,
where it was sold at inflated prices.
But possibly most painful for the embassy officials
to admit, is the fact that without the U.S. military
aid, the Khmer Rouge would soon run out of ammuni-
tion for their captured 105 howitzers. In effect, it
seems, the U.S. government is supplying both sides.
Richard Boyle worked as a reporter in Indochina in
1965, 1969, and 1971, and 1974 and has been wound-
ed twice. Copyright, 1975. Pacific News Service.
pan jewelry
d will begin When you look at Indian jewelry, think
about how Native Americans are forced
renness. If to sell their culture in order to survive
ore matrix) in a capitalistic economy. Indians only
bably cheap get a small share of the profit since
the factories are owned by entrepreneu-
exture. If it ers and even the handcrafted work pass-

Scoop: Master of sidestep

QENATOR HENRY "SCOOP" Jackson
(D-Washington) is running full
speed along the 1976 Presidency track,
trying to jump the hurtles set up by
critics who label him dull and without
charisma. Scoop entered the race in
1972 when he made a pass at the
nomination, attacking McGovern, and
alienating party liberals with his
hawkish views on Vietnam.
Jackson has been chugging uphill
in his battle to gain recognition from
the press. Although he has logged
23 years in the Senate, he lacks firm
leadership qualities and incisive in-
sights into the nation's problems.
Jackson has no remedies for the na-
tion's two biggest headaches-the
economic crisis and our foreign af-
fairs policy.
TODAY'S STAFF:
News: Jay Levin, Jim NicolI, Cheryl
Pilate, Cathy Reutter, Jeff Ristine,
Stephen Selbst, Jeff Sorensen, Dav-
id Whiting
Editorial Page: Paul Haskins, Sara
Rimer, Steve Stojic
Arts Page: George Lobsenz
Photo Technicians: Stu Hollander,
Karen Kosmauski

JACKSON DID STRIKE a severe blow
at detente by co-sponsoring the
Soviet trade bill with'Senator Edward
Kennedy (D-Mass.) which called for
an easing of Soviet-Jewish emigration
laws.
Battered by the 1972 disaster the
Democratic Party badly needs fresh
ideas and talent. Although the Demo-
crats swept the November elections,
their overwhelming success repre-
sented more a voter rebellion against
Watergate, the economy and the Re-
publicans than a Democratic man-
date. If the economic crisis remains
in full gear, President Ford's chances
at reelection will be slim. The coun-
try is striving for a leader.
From a state that is economically
dependent on large defense contracts
with Boeing Aircraft Corporation,
Jackson has long been a staunch ad-
vocate of the Defense Department.
Jackson pushed our involvement in
Vietnam right up until the last U.S.
soldier was pulled out.
As Jackson works at glossing up his
image for the American public he
will continue to waver on specific
programs and guard against alienat-
ing any party members.

U.S. rice being unloaded by Lon Not government soldier. All airlifted rice is being stockpiled exclusive-
ly for military use.
R0poffs on native Amerh

By CONNIE HEALY
YOU'VE SEEN IT worn, admired it or
owned it - the so-called "authen-
tic" A m e r i c a n Indian turquoise
and silver jewelry. Unfortunately, if it
was made to be sold to you it's a rip-off
on Native American culture. Most of it is
mass-produced, and some of it is manu-
factured in sweat shops employing ex-
ploited Indian labor.
The real Indian jewelry is made, not
for sale, but for ceremonials marking
turning points in a person's life: birth,
initiation, marriage, and death. Once
worn it is sacred and treated as part
of the wearer, bearing whatever signi-
ficance occasioned its offering.
Imitations of this work are now sold
in half a dozen Ann Arbor stores. They
are often overly ornate, made of thin,
machine-stamped metal and cheap tur-
quoise dyed to look high quality.
AUTHENTIC Indian jewelry has its
origin in the craft of three tribes living
in the southwestern United States -
the Hopi, the Zuni, and the Navaho. They
learned silverworking techniques from
the Spanish in the eighteenth century,
and each uses silver and turquoise in a

traditional way.
Navaho work is set off by the bold use
of a single stone centered in silver. The
Zuni characteristically inlay coral and
turquoise into their silver, and the Hopi
overlay their silver, usually without
any stones at all.
With the sacred blue turquoise's bur-
geoning popularity among tourists, re-
putable Indian craftspeople have opened
shows in places like Santa Fe and Al-
buquerque where they sell jewelry and
teach others their craft.
Most commercial jewelry is manufac-
tured on assembly lines, in the western
United States, Czechoslavakia and Jap-
an, or assembled out of kits.
A WORKER at a local craft shop ex-
plained how commercial jewelry merits
its "Indian made' label, "The Indians
just buy the piece of jewelry and pop
the stone in or they operate the machin-
ery at marginal wages.
Ways to spot the more blatant fakery
are:
-leave the stone out in the sun for
several hours and check for grease. If
the turquoise is light-colored and cheap,
the fat in which it was boiled or the

grease in which it was soake
to come off;
-examine the color's ev
there aren't black lines (iron
running through it, it is pro
turquoise;
-check the surface for to

ms':imsmmmE S Wfl.5W4.asamN##isilaammtV...#5% S * 5.555 5
"Those people who buy the jewelry in the stores, who
of them has seen inside a medicine box? For the white
person to wear the pieces is for me to wear a plastic cross."
.;: r,{.ism aa.::;:;-{^.°" ,,.e : iA;r i , mm rit$;~ii!dYT:J$': ^v:": '":. ''t " '.iTi ,,r'Jf i1{ ' : '

is smooth and highly glossed, the piece
is probably mass-produced; and
-Jewelry made from kits can be re-
cognized by its garish, even grotesque
appearance and its many large stones.
The metal in manufactured jewelry is
usually thin and discernible through
stamped dyes.
The mass produced work's high polish
is obtained from professional lapidaries
who process the turquoise in large quan-
tities. While the mass-produced pieces
usually do not bear any identification,
smith-crafted jewelry will probably bear
a proud identifying mark, often on the
piece's inside.

es through middle hands before it reach-
es the consumer. Craftspeople must
compromise their sacred traditions in
order to make their traditions appealing
to strangers.
People with money can buy good
taste, but not good culture. "I can feel
the heaviness of a piece that has been
fasted over," says a Native American
silversmith who lives in Ann Arbor.
"Those people who buy the jewelry in
the stores, who of them has seen inside
a medicine box? For the white person

THE MILWAUKEE JOURNAL

rsew Newngaw Sysdkw e. IM

..7
,,#..

to war
plastic

the pieces is for me to wear a
cross."

l

Letters.
To The Daily:
I HAVE TODAY sent the fol-
lowing open letter to my ad-
versaries, Mr. William Bronson
and Ms. Judy Gibson, in the
Fourth Ward race for the City
Council seat:
Without question, my chief
frustration in this campaign -
and I'm sure yours - is that
when the voters finally go to
the polls April 7 most will know
virtually nothing about us -
about how, apart from party lab-
els, we really do think, believe,
feel, or act. We each seek as
much public awareness as pos-
sible for the principle reason
that we only want the public to
know who and what we really
are. I speak honestly when I
say that I know of no butter
way to reveal widely our true
positions, temperaments, pten-

Fourth

Ward debates

periods, each for a length of 45
minutes. If creating an honest
and full impression of ourselves
is what we each genuinely seek,
then we would be remiss not
to use all three debate oppor-
tunities.
PLEASE KNOW my real in-
tention: I do not challenge you
publicly to three debates, hop-
ing that you'll decline or remain
silent. Byno means do I wish
this. Rather, if you believe in
your principles - which I'm
sure you do -as much vs I
believe in mine, then surely you,
as I, will fly to the opportunity
to promote and defend those
principles. If our views are so
weak as to be untenable when
encountered, then xe ought not
to be Council members. It is
from a position of strengtn, Shen,

tives on issues as answer ques-
tions side by side.
PROMOTION OF these debat-
es, 'as our letter from the Cable
Commission reads, 'is the re-
sponsibility of the candidate."
Display ads in the Ann Arbor
News are our best outlet; and
since the debates will allow each
of us to present to a wide aud-
ience our true selves, should we
not share equally thecost of
the ads? We must also find
someone to operate the video-
tape equipment, and someone to
act as an impartial moderator,
but these are minor details we
can work out together.
Finally this: my m )to for this
campaign - a orilliant line
from John Stuart Mill's "On Lib-
erty" - is, "He who knows only
his own side of the case, knows

Palestinians
To The Daily:
THE Palestinian people were
unjustly displaced from their
lands in 1948 when Israel w a s
created by, force in Pales:ine.
The United States supported the
creation of Israel under these
circumstances, and continues to
oppose the Palestinians' rights
of equality in their land.
Israel has the audacity to call
herself the only democracy in
the Middle East; the only "fra.&'
country in the area. We submit
to you that Israel has never
been democratic and free. Israel
was created in opposition !o the
wishes of two-thirds of the popu-
lace of Palestine, Israel h a s
continued to deny not only equal
righbts to these nenle.but ceven

urged J
oppression of the Palestinian
people, the deprivation of the
Palestinian heritage, and their
human rights as stated in the
United Nations Declaration of
Human Rights.
This "honor" further alienates
the U.S. from the Third World
reality and only further under-
mines the U.S. position in the
Mid-East as a peace seeking
party. SEARCH asks you to boy-
cott this honorary convocation.
By so doing we will be showing
our disapproval of the Univer-
sity's acceptance of Israel's pol-
icy of constant and continued
oppression of the Palestinian
people, implied in its honoring
an Israeli minister of govern-
ment.

NO
*0m

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