Sunday, February 21, 1971
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Sunday, February 21, 197~ THE MICHIGAN DAILY Page .Seve&
on Hoover grows
By WILLIAM W. TURNER
EDITOR'S NOTE: The author, a
writer for Reporters News Service,
was an FBI agent for ten years.
A few weeks ago the California
Democratic State Central Com-
mittee passed a resolution calling
for the dismissal of FBI Director
J. Edgar Hoover, citing open hos-
tility toward Robert F. Kennedy,
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and
The move was unprecedented
for an official party body. One
member, Mrs. Ann Alanson of
San Francisco, ventured on tele-
vision that Hoover "might con-
ceivably" become a campaign is-
sue in 1972.
J. Edgar Hoover a campaign
Such a notion would have
sounded ludricrous only a couple
of years ago. The bulldog-visaged
man had become a living legend
as the nemesis of crime and com-
munism-and a political untouch-
able. Proof was his 46-year ten-
ure under eight presidents.
But time and his own temi ,er-
ment may be. catching up with
Hoover. Many Americans now
feel he has been too soft on or-
ganized crime and too obsessed
with domestic Communism. His
t sharp assaults on persons and
institutions themselves respect-
ed by large segments of the pop-
ulation have made him an in-
creasingly contentious figure.
'In a memorable 1964 outburst
he called Supreme Court justic,^s
"bleeding hearts" for insisting
on prompt arraignment of priso-
ners, scolded the Warren ^om-
,j. Edgar Hoover
mission for its wrist-slap of the
FBI in the Lee Harvey Oswald
affair, and branded Dr. King
"the most notorious liar in tite
The FBI chief has been enve-
loped in controversy ever since,
much of it focusing on wiretap-
ping and bugging. In 1966 some
22 electronic bugs were discover-
ed in Las Vegas casinos, touch-
ing off a furor and unseemly flap
with Robert Kennedy over who
had authorizedi them in the first
In 1968 it came to light that
the Bureau had maintined
electronic surveillance on King
to the moment of his assassina-
tion, bringing renewed demands
from moderate and militant civil
rights groups for Hoover's ouster.
All of this began to raise doubts
that FBI popularity was unshake-
able. A Gallup Poll last August
revealed that although the Bu-
reau still commanded a "highly
favorable rating" of 71 per cent
nationally, it had slipped 13 per-
cent from 1965. Only results from
the South and Midwest, generally
strongholds of the anti-Commu-
nism Hoover symbolized, kept
the drop from being precipi-
Now, Hoover remains in the
eye of the storm. He indulged in
an abrasive exchange recently
with Ramsey Clark, calling the
former attorney general a "jelly-
fish." He remarked to Time
magazine that Mexicans and
Puerto Ricans "didn't shoot very
straight" but beware "if they
come at you with a knife," rais-
ing cries of ethnic slur.
Then, in seeking more agents
and money, he told a Senate sub-
committee that an "anarchist
group" which included imprison-
ed Roman Catholic priests Dan-
iel and Philip Berrigan was
hatching a bizarre kidnap and
bombing plot, stirring charges
of a grandstand play.
Although the Justice Dept. sub-
sequently obtained indictments.
and the trial is going on at the
present time, some critics saw it
as a move to redeem Hoover's
prestige. Rep. William Anderson
(D-Tenn.), charged the director
with "pre-condemning" the Ber-
rigans and called for a "national
The attack from Democratic
quarters began in 1968, however,
when Eugene McCarthy promis-
ed that if elected he would ap-
point a new director. Clark, a
possible Democratic d a r k horse
for 1972, has urged replacement.
Sen. Birch Bayh (D-Ind.) an-
other possible contender, has de-
clared that Hoover damaged the
FBI by his political controversy
with Clark and "perhaps we
ought to find someone who is not
so easily tempted." And Sen.
George McGovern (D-S.DJ, who
has already announced his candi-
dacy, has called for a Senate
investigation of Hoover's law en-
forcement blackballing of a fIr-
mer agent critical of some FBI
If Democrats carry this attack
into the campaign, Nixon's reten-
tion of Hoover could cost him
votes, especially in certainsec-
tors. For instance, the Gallup
Poll showed that in the five-year
period esteem for the FBI
plunged 25, 23, and 21hpercent
among Easterners, young adults
and persons with a college back-
Should President Nixon deem
it expedient to east Hoover out,
his task will be ticklish. The di-
rector reportedly has picked out
every stick of furniture for his
office in the new FBI building,
not due for occupancy until 1975.
While many believe Hoover's
durability attributable to the mas-
sive dossier system-indeed, he
didn't scruple to regale Congres-
sional reactionaries with glimp-
ses of FBI material on Dr. King
--his real power derives from the
public image he so singlemind-
Yet it is now clear that had
John Kennedy lived he wvould
have defied the image by dump-
ing Hoover after the 1964 elec-
tion. Hoover in effect conceded
this recently in saying he "didn't
speak to Kennedy the last six
months he was in office."
With Lyndon Johnson it was
different; there was a deeper
3affinity. Johnson had become one
of the FBI "family" lay ge
through Clint Murchison, the
late Dallas oil tycoon. An arny
Epolitical godfather of Johnson,
Murchison was perhaps Hoover's
closest friend. Each year the e'i-
rector vacationed at the Murcni-
son-owned Del Charro Motel in
SouthernCalifornia,the bill be-
ing paid by a Murchison com-
pany such as Delhi-Taylor 0.1.
With Nixon, it is also a warm
relationship dating from Nixon's
days on the Communist-hunting
House Committee on Un-Ameri-
can Activities. During the 1968
campaign, N i x o n frequently
quoted Hoover as a law-and-or-
der status symbol, and since has
showcased him at a number of
White House ceremonial occa-
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Critics, supporters differ on
standards forT 1-group leaders
(Continued from Page 1)
closeness, according to Maliver.
Nevertheless, psychology Prof.
Gary Bron, expresses the ambiv-
4 alence of many group leades
concerning leadership standards.
On. the one hand he explains,
"We are all human beings and
we have the inherent capacity to
understand that experience. Pro-
fessionalizing helping people can
be incredibly destructive. We say
0 only those with experience arid
training can help others, while in
fact we can often help each other
with a little caring, kindness and.
On the other hand, Bron feels
that specialized training in the
field of helping others can often
4 give legitimacy to the leader.
Certification of leaders could
begin to remove the dangerous
and destructive groups which
damage the movement, he be-
"Unfortunately", Bron says, "a
system in which control. doesn't
exist gives birth to a lot of bad
The competent leader,texplains
Bart, Grossman," one of the cooe-
dinators of Outreach T-groups, is
the one who will not attempt to
force change in individuals, but
rather will invite them to look at
themselves honestly in an atmos-
phere of trust.
Daily Official Bulletin
SUNDAY, FEBRUARY 21
Family Recreation Program: for fa-j
culty, staff and married students, In-r
tramural Sports Bldg., 1:30 p.m.
Choral Union Series: Isaac Stern, Hill
Avid.. 2:30 p.m.
School of Music: M. Sigmon, saxo-1
phone, School of Music Recital Hall,
MONDAY, FEBRUARY 22 1
Program in American Culture: Anne
Scott, Duke Univ.. "Prospects for Wo-
men," Aud. A, Angell Hall, 4 p.m.
School of Music:. Univ. Chamber
Choir, Thomas Hilbish, conductor, Hill
Aud., 8 p.m.1
School of Music: Composers forum,
School of Music Recital Hall, 8 p.m. r
Philosophy Lecture: Prof. R. Brandt.,
"Interpersonal Comparison of Utility,"
Feb. 23, E. Conf. Rm. Rackham, 8 p.m.
Appointments for following inter-.
views may be made begining Mon.. Feb.?
22, two weeks in advance because of
Spring Break; call 764-7460 to make'
"I have a lot of respect for
people's defenses," he says, "and
I believe pushing people is
Grossman believes that some
displays of emotion, like hugging,
can be artificial performan~ces
rather than real experiences.
"I'm more into providing op-
portunities than forcing s,)lu-
tions", he says, "but I also be-
lieve in protecting people from
the group's need to solve a per-
son's problem so the group can
Grossman decries the institu-
tionalizing of emotions and be-
lieves the outcome of relation-
ships should be left open.
One student explainrs how he
avoided being forced into some-
thing he didn't want. "At the end '
of a session one night, I felt
bored," he says. "The leader
called for a group hug and I just
wasn't up for it. I told the group,'
in essence, to go to hell."
"That really shocked them but
they realized that I had that
right," he explains.
Although leaders of the move-
menthbelieve the ideal T-grouper
is a well adjusted person who de-
sires constructive feedback, that
ideal is not always attained.
Both as a function of some-
times careless selection proce-
dures and as a result of persons
appt. or stop in the office; make appts.
early so you won't be disappointed.
U.S. Marine Corps
Inst. for Paralegal Training
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State of Illinois, Bureau.of the
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* * * *
Several schools have cancelled visits
because of financial problems or re-
ductions in staff. Appts. can still be
made with following schools which do
not have full schedules at this time:
Traverse City. MNi.
Honolulu, Hawaii (Iolana Sel.)
Ft. Lauderdale, Fla.
Las Vegas, Nev.
Denver, Col.: call 764-7459 for addi-
tional info. and appts.
with unrealistic goals, leaders
are aware the movement can
attract potentially destructive
One freshman in an Outreach
T-group found herself dismayed
at the attitude of group mem-
bers. "To much time is spent
dwelling on negative emotions
and comments without regard for
the hurt they might cause."
"People think that they are
being constructive in their con-
stant criticism, but I think may-
be positive comments could be
much more constructive."
Psychology Prof. David Guit-
man believes some groups deude
themselves and the result is
harsh cruelty. "Groups often
grant themselves a self-holiness
and in the name of love and non-
agression, anything goes."
The third area of ambivalence
and controversy in T-groups is
the question of transition from
the enclosed world of the group
to the day-to-day life which con-
Grossman believes that the
process which people go through
to get to a warm feeling in a
T-group is the same in any group
and in that sense, the T-group is
very much part of reality.
Wolowitz, on the other hand, is
skeptical. He believes that the
achievement of a feeling in one
moment of time, in very artific-
ial group conditions, by no means
proves that it has been achieved
for all time.
Leaders of the movement see
various uses for T-groups, but
concur in cautioning against
Few psychologists appear to be
opposed to groups with well-
defined goals and trained lead-
ers. Nevertheless, the degree to
which even these groups will be
successful in attaining import-
ant goals remains a source of
Despite the fact that much re-
search has been amassed, no
evidence appears to be conclu-
sive. The problem will inevitably
continue to plague researchers,
for it is difficult to measure
changes in the level of aware-
ness or the degree of fulfillment
One thing appears to be cer-
tain, however-people will con-
tinue, as they have in the "hu-
man potential" movement, to
search for ways to attain the
happiness and closeness with
others they often find lacking.
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