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December 02, 1971 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1971-12-02

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fi frligan ait
Eighty-one years of editorial freedom
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan

videre est credere
Investigating the intelligence community

P

by pat mahoney -

420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, Mich.

News Phone: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

TTI=4URSDAY, DECEMBER 2, 1971

NIGHT EDITOR: LINDSAY CHANEY

Strengthening union power

WITH ECONOMIC hardship engulfing
all segments of society, facts recent-
ly brought to light indicate that campus
unionized and student workers have been
bearing the brunt of this burden.
In the University, workers have been
working harder, while earning equal or
reduced real wages than they did a year
ago. Student workers are in an even wors6
situation making even lower wages than
these poorly-paid workers are earning.
While the University attributes many
of these problems to 'their dismal level of
state appropriations - and this indeed
may be tr.ue - the situation is com-
pounded by the University's opposition
to unionization in general.
In the past, the University had con-
sistently opposed the unionizing efforts
of campus employes, beginning with a
challenge in the late 60's of the consti-
tutionality of the state law which re-
quires the University to bargain collec-
tively.
Having lost that, the University pro-
ceeded to challenge the formation of
unions by two employe groups - t h e
teaching fellows and the interns and
residents, charging that they were stu-
dents and therefore not employes. When
the Michigan Employe Relations Commis-
sion (MERC) ruled that the interns and
residents were also employes under state
law, the University appealed the case.
CURRENTLY, SINCE the University finds
Itself compelled by the law to bar-
gain 'collectively, it has been forced to
deal with- several unions representing
workers on campus. Most publicized have
been the. relations between the Univer-
sity and the American Federation of
State, County and Municipal Employes
(AFSCME) -- which represents service
and maintenance employes at the Uni-
versity.
AFSCME has recently asked the Uni-
versity for some statistics which will
document the existence and extent of the
burden union workers are now carrying.
The University has claimed that these
statistics are "unavailable."
Without them, however, many ques-
tions remain unanswered. These include
whether in statistical fact individual
workers are doing more than a year or
two ago, whether students are taking over
formerly union part-time jobs, how many

students are actually working for t h e
University, and many others.
It seems that the University, with all
its statistical services, computerized serv-
ices and massive staffing would be able
to obtain the figures on whatever they
wanted - provided they were willing to
get someone to compile them. In fact, for
effective management, it would seem ne-
cessary that the University have at its
disposal these kinds of figures to ade-
quately and fairly decide where to make
budgetary and service cuts or increases
if necessary.
It is only through use of such statistics
as these that any unit which works for
the University can adequately assess its
position. Therefore, since the University
has proved reluctant to compile these
figures, it is up to AFSCME to pressure
the University to insure their own inter-
ests by accurately being able to assess
what is actually happening to jobs, work-
ers, and the union.
WHERE AFSCME WORKERS at least
have the benefit of their recognition
by the University as a collective bargain-
ing unit, the large group of part-time
student help has had no agent represent-
ing their interests and have suffered for
it.
The recently-established Temporary
Employes Association (TEA) is a begin-
ning toward eventual unionization of
part-time student workers. Because it is
likely this unionization will be difficult
to accomplish, the present effort assumes
an even greater importance as it will lay
the groundwork for changing attitudes
that permif students to receive less pay
and benefits as non-students doing the
same work.
While an association like TEA can have
an effective clout by mobilizing a mass
of people towards a common goal, a re-
cognized union would be even more ef-
fective. A union would provide legitimate.
status as a bargaining agent and provide
a contract for employment.
AND MOST important, any union, once
established, must be sure to work to-
gether towards their common goals, con-
scious of the needs of both part-time and
full-time employes, not allowing them-
.selves to be used against each other.
-GERI SPRUNG

LATE ONE EVENING last month, Sen.
Stuart Symington (D-Missouri), a 15-
year-veteran of the Central Intelligence
Agency (CIA) subcommittee, was called at
home by reporters who wanted his reac-
tion to a reorganization of the U.S. intelli-
gence community President Nixon had
just announced. "I told them the truth-
that I knew nothing about it." Symington
recently explained to the Senate. On the
next day, Symington called the CIA for
more information. Late that afternoon the
press release President Nixon had issued
the preceding day was delivered to Sym-
ington's home by a man who said the re-
lease "was all the Agency knew about 'it
(the reorganization) at' the time."
This incident shows how successful the
intelligence community in the federal
government has been in keeping Congress
unaware of its activities. In the reorganiz-
ation Symington was unaware of, CIA Di-
rector Richard Helms was given authority
to oversee all intelligence activities and
eliminate excesses and duplication in their
budgets. Day to day operation of the CIA
was transferred to Helms' deputy, Lt. Gen.
Robert E. Cushman of the Marine Corps.
THE CIA ITSELF is only the most no-
torious agency in the intelligence establish-
ment. Altogether, according to Sen. Sym-
ington, there are "15 intelligence operating
and/or advisory groups in the executive
branch."
Several are located in the Defense De-
partment. In 1961, Secretary of Defense

the National Security Agency, which makes
and breaks codes and has 20.000 staffers,
THE STATE DEPARTMENT operates
the Intelligence and Research Bureau, a
tiny agency headed by a former CIA
employe. Counterspying against foreign
agents in the United States is covered
by the FBI. The Treasury Department
focuses on drugs and economic intelligence
while the Atomic Energy Commission han-'
dles global nuclear developments. All these
agencies have a seat on the U.S. Intelli-
gence Board, the Board of Directors of the
intelligence community. Helms is the
chairman.
Despite the Senate's failure to investi-
gate the intelligence establishment, both
the House Appropriations Committee and
President Nixon have detected weaknesses
in it. "Redundancy is the watchword in
many intelligence operations," the House
committee reported last month after ex-
tensive investigations,_ . . . Far more in-
formation is collected than is essential.
Material is collected which cannot be
evaluated in a reasonable length of time
and is therefore wasted."
President Nixon said a reorganization of
the intelligence community was needed to
provide "strengthened leadership . . . more
efficient use of resources" and "elimina-
tion of lession efficient or outmoded ac-
tivities."
The Senate, however, was completely
unaware of these problems, partly because
of the negligence of its committees. The

CIA Subcommittee of the Armed Services
Committee has not met once this year and
it has no plans to meet before Decenber
31. Sen. John Stennis (D-Mississippi), who
is chairman of both groups, has ignored a
request from Symington to call a meeting
of the subcommittee.
ONLY FIVE SENATORS even know how
much money they are appropriating an-
nually for the intelligence community. The
total amount has been estimated at be-
tweep $5 and $6 billion. When Symington,
as an ex-officio member of the Senate Ap-
propriations Committee, asked for inform-
ation about intelligence appropriations, he
was told that "except for the five senior
members of the Senate Appropriations
Committee, they (the committee's staff
members) had been instructed not to talk
about these multi-billion appropriations
even to other members of the Appropria-
tions Committee."
Finally, in desperation, last week, Sy-
mington proposed an amendment to the
department of defense appropriations bill
limiting the total appropriation for the
intelligence community to $4 billion. The
Senate, however, defeated the amendment
56-31. Instead of trying to set a ceiling on
the intelligence community, the Senate
chose to follow Stennis' argument that
because there was not enough time to dis-
cuss all therissues "the only thing to do is
to vote this amendment down, and ten
take up the cudgels and the problem
again and work it out some other way."
1bor town

Sen. Symington
Robert McNamara tried to consolidate his
department's intelligence activities in the
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). To-
day the agency has a direct budget of
$100 million and spends $700 million
through the armed forces. Its staff num-
bers 5,500. Separate intelligence opera-
tions, however, still exist. Both the Army
and Navy have separate intelligence bud-,
gets of $775 million apiece with 38,000 and
10,000 staffers respectively. The Air Force
has 60,000 staffers and a $2.8 billion bud-
get devoted mainly to a spy-satellite pro-
gram. Also in the defense department is

1

A

road

0
is

ai

road

in

Ann

Ar

By DANIEL J. FELD
THE RIVALRY between Ann Ar-
bor and, Berkeley, for which
school is more hip in the state
university scene, has been going
on for several years. We may have
been known traditionally as the
Harvard of the Hinterlands, but
for the past few years, at any
rate, those in the know have
looked West to the tomorrow land
of California to see what's rele-
vant, -or what's right.
Berkeley has a beautiful cam-
pus. Filled with all varieties of
lush California greenery, it's an

oasis in a pretty dingy section of
a typical spread-out hillside Cal-
ifornia town. Its campus is big.
roughly the area of Division to
Observatory, and Huron to South
University. And it's more hip than
we are because in that area there's
not one road - while here in old
Ann Arbor town they're just fin-
ishing a small 'freeway that runs
through the middle of campus.
Because I liver in the middle of
this project, I suppose it's natural
for me to object more vigorously
than others to the further en-
croachment of the road onto what
is now my front lawn. Let me state

-_J

-'I
a

E "
ARC
34 {
W-l 0 ,F
urn V..N _ tv e fk 3 IT

the entire situation. The city is
'widening Washtenaw and extend-
ing Observatory down through the
southeast side of the campus area.
My initial objection was that there
wasn't enough sidewalk room for
pedestrians on Washtenaw. I
wondered why the city would
widen a street such as Washtenaw
(which has heavy pedestrian traf-
fic) and provide less room for
pedestrians than before the wid-
ening - even if that meant buy-
ing a few more feet of right-of-
way.
BUT IT'S NOT just the noise.
A car that's 20 feet away from
my window makes roughly the
same amount of noise as one 16
feet away. No, there's more to it
than that. One is faced with two
problems. There is no effective
means for expressingone's disgust
with such planned "improve-
ments." Beyond,, that is the con-
ception of the public interest built
into the current administrative
framework for making decisions,
This structure forces the city's
administrators, especially depart-
ment heads, to ignore all those
objections which are not made by
another member of that essen-
tially closed system. More simply.
it's easier for two computers to
talk to one another than for a
person to get a sensible response
from a computer.
This brings me to Fred Mammel,
the supervisor of public works in
Ann Arbor. Mr. Mammel is only
the most visible supporting cog in
a rather villainous machine.When
I spoke to him, I expressed con-
cern about the small size of the
pedestrian access on the campus
side of Washtenaw. He replied that

--Daily-Rolfe Tessem
The completed extension

Choosing a new 055 VP

PRESIDENT Robben Fleming last week
named a 10-member search commit-
tee to nominate candidates to succeed
Vice President for Student Services Rob,
ert Knauss, who is scheduled to become
dean of Vanderbilt University Law School
next February.
Knauss has been the first Vice Presi-
dent for Student Services, and just as
his appointment in Aug., 1970 was a con-
troversial one, so the appointment of his
successor promises . to be fraught with
sensitive problems.
The two most crucial issues at hand
are the powers and functioning of the
search committee and assuring that the
new vice president will maintain the
office as it is now.
'HE SEARCH committee must align it-
self and work towards finding can-
didates who can satisfactorily meet the
needs of students, who can work with
the present structures of the Office for
Student Services (OSS), and who will be
acceptable for regental approval. The
committee was charged in a letter from
Fleming with naming several candidates
from whom Fleming could recommend a
suitable choice to the Regents.
Outgoing Vice-President Knauss calls
the search committee process an effort
towards "normalizing" the search for his
successor. Indeed, the committee is un-
usual in its makeup, comprising five stu-
dents, two OSS staff members and two
faculty members rather than the usual
predominance of faculty members and
administrators. Perhaps because this
search committee is unusually consti-
tuted it bears an especial obligation to
execute its duties speedily and efficient-
ly, thus paving the way for more deci-
sions to be made by groups having at
leaestudent narity

vice presidency. As happened prior to
Knauss's appointment, all of the candi-
dates chosen might withdraw from con-
sideration. Or, a candidate regarded high-
ly by some constituencies on the com-
mittee might be unacceptable to the
others. In addition, the method of recom-
mending a group of possible nominees is
distasteful to those who would have the
committee directly, responsible for mak-
ing the new appointment.
What qualities are to be sought in the
new vice president? Fleming's letter
urges the committee to consider candi-
dates without regard to race or sex. This
vice presidency would be an excellent one
to be filled by a woman or a minority
group member-someone who could un-
derstand the needs of student groups
with problems and interests related to
his or her own condition.
,,!ORE IMPORTANT, however is the re-
lationship the new Vice President will
establish with the OSS policy board, In
autumn, 1970, SGC and the Regents, hav-
ing left the policy board authority ques-
tion to the discretion of the new vice
president, Knauss agreed to consider
policy board devisions binding and to
resign if a seemingly irreconciliable con-
flict arose. The policy board, with a vot-
ing majority of students, thus establishes
practices and in effect governs the OSS
complete system of OSS operations.
It is imperative that the OSSPB con-
tinue to makes its own decisions without
interference through use of the struc-
turally permissable veto power of the
vice president. The OSSPB is a model
for the University-that a policy board
with a voting majority of students can
make effective and sound decisions.
The Office of the OSS vice nrpeidrenre

Letters to The Daily

Examinations
To The Daily:
DAVID CHUDWIN'S excellent
and thoughtful article on the pros
and cons of examinations h a s
prompted me to present the view
from the other side of the desk.
An emeritus now, I have taught
about fifty years and in fourteen
different institutions, and I have
never met any teacher who real-
ly enjoyed proctoring and reading
and giving grades to examinations.
If the custom still lingers it must
be from the difficulty of finding
an adequate substitute.
In seminars and other very small
classes the profesor can judge a
student's progress from d ai1y
knowlelge, But how, within t h e
limits of state finance, can we find
a Mark Hopkins for each log? A
written essay is a good equivalent
to an examination, but (as your
editorial on "Write-On" pointed
out) this involves delicate ques-
tions of plagiarism. Ghost writing
is not confined to politics!
But the real case for the exam-
ination is pedagogical. Even if
there were no grading at all, I
would still favor examinations, be-
cause it is well that a student
should assemble his knowledge to
meet a challenge. Of course, the
examination should be balanced

should also, in my opinion, be
mainly of the essay type, so as to
test reflection and comparison as
well as mere memory. Finally,
there should be a class meeting
after the papers have been read
and graded, so that the professor
can go over the questions in de-
tail, point out the most common
errors and give'some idea of what
would be adequate answers, thus
getting the greatest value out of
the test.
-Preston SIosson.
Nov. 23

Gargoyle
To The Daily:
LYNN WEINER is right (Daily,
Nov. 13). The latest issue of the
Gargoyle is humorless and
thoroughly offensive. Although the
charge of racism regarding t h e
cartoon from the Yahoo may not
be justified, such articles as "The
Game of Horn" and "Kinner's
Easy Care Abortion Kit" could
hardly be anything but annoying
to women readers. It is sad to see
this in a magazine that was once
both witty, and sensitive to all
minorities.
-Diane Brandt

my complaint wasn't merited, that
a five-foot sidewalk and a two-
foot grass buffer were sufficient
for pedesrians in this crowded
campus area.
It is characteristic of adminis-
trative irrationality that this an-
swer contradicted Mr..-Mammel's
responses to another person about
the same objection. A feW days
earlier, when an elected official
forwarded my complaint, Mr
Mammel said that, regardless of
its merit, the delay required in
getting an approval from the
State Highway Commission made
any change prohibitive.
WHEN MY objection was ig-
nored, I considered filing suit, and
saw an engineer-city planner for
technical advice. While talkingrto
this man, who told me my pro-
posed small changes weren't worth
the trouble they would cause, I
learned something more - that
the real problem with widening
Washtenaw was at the beginning
of the curve, by Geddes. By ac-
quiring more right-of-way the city
could have solved the problem by
changing the arc of the curve.
thereby distributing the right-of-
way already acquired for sidewalk
space more sensibly.
But beyond that, it occurred to
both of us that the whole road
project was a mistake - made
because the Departments of Pub-
lic Works and Traffic Control
naturally assumed that the public
interest meant building a bigger
road. The city built the Forest
pedestrian bridge and assumed
that students would use it, then
decided to route the little free-
way through campus.
Pedestrians, however, don't act
like cars. They don't always follow
the road planned for them. If the
administrators had recognized
this, the city could have built a
road connecting with U.S. 23 from
behind the hospital, and made the
more warranted assumption that
motorists will use a road no mat-
ter where it's routed.
The point is that it seems more
likely that motorists will use any
available road, regardless of its
specific routing. iftit gets them
where they want to go. Pedes-
trians don't always cross streets at
a hridas'c'nr t maffie ligh+. T ftI hi

THESE DECISIONS aren't po-
litical in the usual sense of the
word. Rather, they are questions
of how to best serve the interest
of the whole community, and
whe her or not administrators are
willing to take the trouble and
tolerate the additional expense
necessary to make Ann Arbor a
safer place to live. Why have cas
been given priority over people?
Why is the assumption made that
automobiles drive in a certain
area, so a road should be built,
even if that road destroys an en-
tire section of the campus area?
Why does no one assume that it's
better to have smaller, safer
streets, rerouting the cars around
the congested pedestrian area?
But the trouble with any ob-
jection to the road, as the engi-
neer pointed out, is that it's a good_
road design. Well, in terms of en-
gineering, it is a good road design,
and no one's disputing that - but
it's a bad community plan. Be-
hind this obvious problem of at-
tacking a "good road design" lies
the more fundamental one of
what's wrong with the perspective
of the men who made the deci-
sions about these designs.
The basic problem is that these
men identify their work with the
public interest, when in fact they
have no right to do so. The ad-
ministrators, who make decisions
for us about roads and pedes-
trians, operate in a closed concep-
tual system. They identify their
interest (which is their work) with
the public interest because they
work for the city; but they get
feedback only from men whose
point of view is essentially the
same as their own.
THESE ADMINISTRATORS re-
peatedly said to me that this road
design is the best plan for traf-
fic control - and, to them, traf-
fic. control has become the public
interest. But when it comes to
road planning these men do not
identify with pedestrians. They
design and engineer .for cars in
isolation. Because of 'this they,
don't understandsthat by making
a decision about traffic control.
they make another, and unrecog-
nized, decision. In this case, it's
about pedestrians and their right
to walk around safely.

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