Viet drive w
BANGKOK, Thailand (AP)-The
Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia that
routed the Cambodian regime of
Premier Pol Pot in a lightning two-
week campaign appears to have been a
massive and masterful piece of
military work, involving up to 14 Viet-
namese army divisions, large numbers
of tanks and widespread air strikes.
The weakness of the Cambodian for-
ces-thinned out after three years of
border fighting with Vietnam-and the
possible birth of a guerrilla struggle by
the toppled regime may turn out to be
the only flaws on the military record of
the Vietname communists, who have
now won three wars in the past 25
FLAUNTING CHINA, their giant
neighbor to the north, Vietnamese
troops swept westward into Cambodia
from several border staging areas,
swiftly knocked out key defense and
supply points and captured the capital
of Phnom Penh on Sundy. Vietnam of-
ficially credited Cambodian rebels for
the victory, but analysts believe Viet-
names soldiers did most, if not all, of
Cambodia's isolation from China, its
only ally, probably will mean the early
death of any guerrilla movement
organized by the toppled Cambodian
leaders. But one diplomat, referring to
American optimism during the Viet-
nam War, quipped: "It's not incon-
ceivable that one day we'll have Viet-
namese Premier Pham Van Dong
claiming to see the light at the end of
the tunnel in Cambodia."
The offensive was rife with parallels
to the 1970-75 Cambodian war, except
that some of the participants had swit-
ched roles and sides.
IN 1970, THE North Vietnamese and
their Khmer Rouge allies-the same
people the Vietnamese are now
fighting-quickly lopped off nor-
theastern Cambodia from the hands of
the U.S.-backed Phnom Penh gover-
nment. They drove to the Mekong River
and tried to finish the capital by cutting
off its river and overland supply routes.
It took five years of vicious, see-saw
fighting to get the job done. The gover-
nment had some tough troops, as well
as initial American and South Viet-
names support, and the Khmer Rouge,
who in later stages did most of the
fighting, had limited manpower and
Kratie, Stung Treng, Highway One,
Highway 19: The names of the opening
battlefields of the last war were heard
again at the start of the Vietnamese
campaign, except this time the arrows
on the military maps shot out from
these border areas toward the hear-
THE VIETNAMESE and Cambodian
rebels cut the Mekong River as well as
most of Phnom Penh's highways in
short order-probably leaving only a
northwestern route of escape, which the
central government's leaders may
Vietnam has denied staging the in-
vasion, but in the Indochina war in
which the United States was involved,
Hanoi denied until after its victory that
its troops had been in South Vietnam,
Laso and Cambodia for 10 years.
The invasion, according to Indochina
experts here, bore the personal stamp
of Gen. Van Tien Dung, Hanoi's armed
forces chief of staff and architect of the
final victorious offensive against South
Vietnam in 1975. The experts say aging
Defense Minister Gen. Vo Nguyen
Giap, hero of the war against the Fren-
ch colonialists in the 1950s, may have
acted in more of a consultative role.
ANALYSTS WHO followed the cam-
paign, which Cambodia said began
Dec. 25, noted the Vietnames had
displayed their ability to learn from
past mistakes. Vietnam, with the
world's sixth largest military force,
launched a major but abortive invasion
of Cambodia a year ago. Apparently
overconfident, the Vietnamese overex-
tended their supply lines and suffered
The Michigan Daily-Tuesday, January 9, 1979-Page 9
costly attacks to e been drawing as many Cambodian
But a year of large-scale recruiting, units as possible into the fighting. Th
intensive training and the injection of logistics of moving and resupplying
northerners into the shakier southern 100,000 troops branched out along a
Vietnamese units revealed again the 1,900-mile front appear to have beer
kind of military muscle that non- solved.
communist Southeast Asians openly
fear. While the Cambodian rebels took a
From availble intelligence and juding back seat to regular Vietnamese units,
from the actual battle reports of both the insurgent claims that their victory
sides, coordination between the in- was helped along by popular uprisings
vading ground troops and their air and and defections from government ranks
artillery support was smooth and tank cannot be dismissed. Claims of "spon-
columns made good use of the major taneous uprisings" in revolutionary
highways. warfare often equate to well-planned
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(Continued from Page 1)
Yesterday was the second straight
"national day of mourning" called by
religious leader Ayatullah Khomaini
from his Paris exile to commemorate
the deaths of more than 1,500 persons in
the anti-shah protests this year.
THE GOVERNMENT belatedly en-
dorsed the call. Most commerce was at
a standstill and oil production lagged
behind domestic needs.
The newspaper death reports, which
were not confirmed, quoted hospital
and local officials and witnesses in
Tehran, Yazd, Tabriz, Shiraz, Shah
Rey, Sari, Khorramabad, Babon,
Shahsavar and Kangavar.
Small groups of protestors roamed
through downtown Tehran setting fires,
and officials said three people were
killed when troops fired on a mob set-
ting fire to a government-owned depar-
AN ESTIMATED 15,000-20,000 people
demonstrated at Tehran's main
cemetery while troops were posted a
mile away. Protestors shook their fists
at a military helicopter and chanted
"down with the Shah."'
ed by riots
The demonstrators added
"Bakhtiar strike" and other slogans
against the 62-year-old lawyer to their
collection of chants.
More than 100,000 people - about a
third of them women marched
peacefully through the streets of the
northeastern city of Mashhad, scene of
some of the bloodiest clashes in recent
weeks, a witness said.
Jn Tabriz, northwest of Tehran, mobs
set more than 100 fires, burning most of
the city's cinemas, as well as banks and
Ayatullah Shariatmadari, the senior
Shiite Moslem leader residing in Iran,
led a mass march through the streets of
Qom, about 100 miles south of Tehran,
but there were no reports of trouble.
Sources have said the shah will ap-
point a regency council to exercise
power in his absence. Bakhtiar, an ex-
pected member of the council, was the
No. 2 man in the opposition National
Front until he was repudiated for ac-
cepting the prime minister's post.
A spokesman for National Front
leader Karim Sanjaby said he had tur-
ned down an offer to chair the council.
The Office of Financial Aid
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( Continued from Pa a 1)
member "People's evolutionary
Council" had been set up and front
leader Heng Samrin, a defector from
the Pol Pot government, was named
chairman. It listed the names of seven
other members each charged with
Cabinet-type duties. Analysts said they
viewer the council as the forerunner of
a full-scale rebel government.
The rebels promised to restore
democratic rights and reinstate
traditional practices, including the
Buddhist religion, and to move
Cambodia foward "peace, freedom,
non-alignmht and socialism."
China, a foe of Russia as well as
Vietnam and the Cambodian
government's only ally, acknowledged
Phnom Penh had fallen, but claimed
"Cambodia is fighting on."
eaders' reactions mixed
SEVERAL WESTERN experts as
well as Thai intelligence sources said
fighting in some areas of Cambodia was
continuing and that the Vietnamese
were launching air strikes, mopping up
pockets of resistance and moving
westward from Phnom Penh. The main
area of resistance appeared to be in the
northwest around Cambodia's great
lake, the Tonle Sap.
Prince Norodom Sihanouk, former
head of state in Cambodia, told a news
conference in Peking on Monday that
Pol Potand others in the ousted Phnom
Penh regime were alive and prepared
to fight a protracted "people's war."
He said China was in radio contact
with the group and would provide
weapons and financial aid to the
deposed Cambodian leaders but that no
Chinese troops would be used to fight
the Vietnamese or their rebel proteges.
Sihanouk said the struggle against
Vietnam would be facilitated if
Thailand allowed use of its territory for
such an effort. But Thai Prime Minister
Kriangsak Chomanan told reporters his
country will not be used for such
The 56-year-old Sihanouk said he had
accepted Pol Pot's request to plead
Cambodia's case before the U.N.
Security Council in New York because
he approved of the premier's anti-
U.N. spokesman Francois Giuliani
said the United Nations had been
informed by the Cambodian
ambassador in Peking that Sihanouk
would arrive in New York Tuesday
The Vietnamese-backed insurgents
claiming total control of Cambodia
today asked the Security Council to call
off its projected debate on the previous
government's charge of aggression by
Vietnam. A telegram received here
from Heng Samrin, described as
President of the Popular Council of the
Revolution of Kampuchea (Cambodia),
said the government of Premier Pot Pol
ceased to exist shortly after noon local
Referring to Vice-Premier leng
Sary's request last week for an urgent
meeting of the council, Mr. Samrin said
council compliance would be
interference in Cambodian internal
mend a quarrel. seek out a
forgotten friend, dismiss suspi-
cion, and replace it with trust.
write a love letter. share some
treasure. give a soft answer.
encourage youth. manifest.your
loyalty in word and deed. keep
a promise. find the time. forego
a grudge. forgive an enemy.
listen. apologize if you are wrong.
try to understand. flout envy.
examine your demands on others.
think of your neighbor first. be
appreciative. be kind and gentle.
laugh a little. laugh a little more
be deserving of the confidence
of others. extend your hand to a
stranger and the warmth of
your heart to a child. find
beauty in all that surrounds
you. speak your love. speak it
again, speak it still once again.
Canterbury loft, 332 s. state, second floor
plays, music, dance, art
Cambodia routed by rebels
(Continued from Page1)1
The capture of Phnom Penh by Viet-
namese-backed Cambodian rebels
drew a mixed reaction in many parts of
the world yesterday.
Most non-Communist nations in Asia
appeared apprehensive over the
deepening crisis in Cambodia and ex-
pressed concern over the threat to
hopes of peace and stability in the
France expressed regret over the
fact that the dispute between Vietnam
and Cambodia could not be settled
peacefully and said it would support a
United Nations move to restore Cam-
bodian sovereignty in the former Fren-
ch Indochinese colony.
In Tokyo, the Japanese government
indicated it might reconsider its
economic aid program for Vietnam in
the light of reports that Phnom Penh
had fallen to Cambodian rebels.
Senior officials of the Association of
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN),
which includes Indonesia, Malaysia,
Thailand, Singapore and the Philip-
pines, began a meeting yesterday in
Jakarta to consider a proposal to hold
n ASEAN summit which would focus
on the Indochina war and its effect on
the region. ASEAN has been careful not
to alienate either the Soviet Union,
which supports Vietnam, or China,
which backs Cambodia.
Thai Prime Minister Kriangsak
Chamanand said ASEAN leaders would
try to find a peaceful way of ending the
crisis. But he ruled out the possibility of
ASEAN taking any form of military ac-
tion, pointing out that the group is
primarily an economic bloc.
Philippines officials said they were
watching Cambodian developments
with concern. Earlier, President Fer-
dinand Marcos had expressed fears
that the Vietnam-Cambodian conflict
could spill over into the rest of
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