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February 13, 1979 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1979-02-13

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

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Page 4-Tuesday, February 13, 1979-The Michigan Daily

Minorities win demands

The following article is the first in
a series of six articles based on a
research project titled, "Conflict
and Power On The Campus: Studies
In The Political Economy of the
University of Michigan, " written by
students Andy Brown, Harley
Frazis, Jim Robb, Mike Taylor, and
Eitan. Yanich, and Associate
Professor of Economics Tom
During Winter Term 1978, the
group studied decision-making at
the University by investigating
specific examples of major conflict,
by analyzing the University budget,
and by looking at the official and
unofficial roles of students, faculty,
adminstrators and Regents in day-
to-day decision-making. Copies of
the full report can be found in the
stacks and in the reserve reading
room in the Graduate Library and
at the Guild House library.
The research was conducted as
part of the Student/Faculty Resear-
ch Community (SFRC) of the
Residential College Social Science
Program. Funded in part by the
Fund for the Improvement of Post-
Secondary Education, the SFRC has
for three years provided students
and faculty with the opportunity to
learn and teach outside of a
classroom setting. Faculty members
and students share resources and
work together on research projects
of mutual interest. The SFRC office
is at 107 Tyler, East Quad.
The Black Action Movement
Strike of 1970
The Black Action Movement (BAM)
strike of 1970 was one of the most
critical events in the history of the
University of Michigan: it virtually

closed down much of the University for
two weeks. Unlike other major student
protests in Ann Arbor, the BAM strike
was the only instance in which the
students of the University won their
demands through a successful class
In 1969 the University's black
enrollment was only 3 per cent. Late
that year, some black students decided
that it was time to change this situation.
In January 1970, the Student Gover-
nment Council, the Graduate Assem-
bly, the Black Student Union, and the
Social Work Student Union issued a
joint statement, asking that the Univer-
sity actively recruit minority students
and provide them with financial aid. Af-
ter several discussions between the
administration and blacks, a group of
black students were invited to
President Robben Fleming's house for
a dinner and discussion in nearly
THE DAY BEFORE the dinner,
black student leaders prepared a new
list of demands. It was then that BAM,
a coalition of several black student
organizations, was formed. The, next
night, instead of attending the dinner,
BAM held a demonstration in front.of
Fleming's house and gave him their
BAM demanded the hiring of several
graduate and nine undergraduate full-
time minority recruiters, a minimal
black enrollment of 10 per cent by 1973-"
74 and 900 new black students for 1971-
72, black faculty recruiting, supporting
services, increased financial aid, an
~improved black studies program, a
black student center, Chicano student
recruiting, and to be called black, not
Negro, in all University publications
and classrooms.
On February 12th, Fleming stated
that he was in agreement with "the
merits" of the BAM demands, but war-
ned that funding for the demands would

be "very difficult." At the Februry
19th Regents meeting, BAM supported
tuition waivers for minority students
but Fleming and the Regents failed to
take any action on their demands. That
evening, about 25 blacks took hundreds
of books off the shelves in the UGLI to
protest the University's opposition to
their demands.
This action spurred Fleming to
request that police be stationed on the
major libraries on campus.
DURING THE NEXT few weeks,
support for the BAM demands became
more widespread. Black students in-
terrupted classes to read and discuss
the BAM demands. BAM held a forum
on black issues in Rackham
Auditorium, and various faculty and

student groups e
On March 18th, a
attended by 500
ministration presen
crease black enroll
cent. They also a
were setting a blac
10 per cent by 1973
the difference bet
crease to support 2
ts (1800 blacks)
enrolling 3300 blac
that the "Universi
above 2100 'studen
2100 won't get Un
Darryl Gorman o
administration pro
weasel-worded pro

through clas
ndorsed the BAM called for a "moratorium" on Univer-
sity activities.
t a Regents meeting On Thursday, March 19th, the strike
people, the ad- began. The Regents approved the ad-
nted a proposal to in- ministration's proposal, while also set-
ment to about 55 per ting "an admissions goal which is
nnounced that they designed to produce by 1973-74 ad-
k enrollment goal of missions aimed at 10 per cent
. When asked about enrollment of black students." But
ween a funding in- BAM was still far from satisfied.
100 minority studen- ON MARCH 20TH, the Honors Con-
and the goal of vocation was interrupted by a band of
ks, Fleming replied black students who marched up and
ty should try to go down the aisles in Hill Auditorium
ts, but those above shouting: "Open it up or shut it down!"
niversity funding." The following week white student
f BAM termed the organizations rallied in support of the
)posal a "nebulous, strike, and 175 professors and teaching
position," and BAM assistants- joined the strike. Dean
William Hays of LSA said that the stike
"doesn't seem very successful," but
many LSA faculty saw attendance
declines of 30-50 per cent.
On Tuesday, the Residential College
faculty and students voted to close
down for the duration of the strike. The
Institute for Social Research and the
School of Social Work also shut down.
100 professors and 200 teaching
assistants went op strike. LSA atten-
dance was down 40-50 per cent. But the
administration refused to change its
position. In the words' of then-Regent
a- = Lawrence Lindemer, the students could
"strike until hell freezes over, as far-as
I'm concerned."
ON WEDNESDAY, LSA attendance
\Was down 60 per cent. The University
Faculty Senate passed a unanimous
resolution calling on schools and
colleges to make the necessary ad-
missions and budgetary decisions to
achieve the 1973 goal.
On Thursday, LSA attendance was
. down 75 per cent. That day, the College
eands called for aof Engineering agreed to fund 10per
giefancaled fo cent black new admissions for the 1971-
give financial aid to 72 academic year, so BAM agreed not
to disrupt any more engineering

s strike
classes. This was an important ste
because it demonstrated that a colle
was willing to commit itself to fundi
additional minority enrollment from i
academic budget.' BAM had got
beyond dealing just with Universit
administrators, and was working wit
the academic departments and schoo
as well.
On Friday, March!27th, the LS/
Chemistry, and Economics Building
were all closed. Also, AFSCME cam
out in support of the strike, and th
University Food Service was virtual]
shut down, with one or two dorms se:
ving breakfast but no 'dorms servin
lunch or dinner. That day, the entir
LSA faculty voted to commit itself i
funding 10 per cent black enrollment b
1973 with money fron departmer
budgets. In light of this vote, Presidei
Fleming announced that "funding for
10 per cent enrollment of blacks by 19',
is virtually assured."
THOUGH THE 10 per cent fundin
assurance satisfied the mrain BA]
demand, the strike was not yet ove:
BAM held negotiations with the ai
ministration, and on April 1st, 'with tf
Regents agreeing to all of'their kE
demands, BAM called off the strik,
The Regents issued a statement "rea
firming" their support of BAM
demands and tactics, and stating th,
"the public schould take note that tf
black students have, unlike many of ti
white radicals who seem bent c
destruction for its own sake, been pu
suing the legitimate objectives of tryir
to make more educational oppo:
tunities available for their people."
Darryl Gorman of BAM wasn't t<
surprised that the University consent(
to their demands. He declared, "TI
University will do anything to surviv4
it will even do right."
Tomorrow: Was the BAM strike

Students march to support the BAM strike in 1970. Their d
University commitment to increase black enrollment and
several minorities.

420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Eighty-Nine Years of Editorial Freedom
Vol. LXXXIX, No. 112 News Phone: 764-0552
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan


Gov't studei
proposed his 1980 budget last
month, he asked Congress to eliminate
Social Security benefits for full-time
unmarried 18- to 22-year-old college
students with disabled, retired, or
deceased parents. This cutback would
serious threaten the future college
education of many of the nation's youth
by removing an essential part of their
The General Accounting Office
asserted last week that Social Security
student benefits are "duplicated" by
other forms of student assistance, such
as the basic educational opportunity
grant from the Department of Health,
Education and Welfare.
But actually, it is questionable
whether the present funds are even
adequate enough to pay for a college
education. College costs throughout
the country are rising at a rapid rate.
It is expected that next year's tuition
rate at the University may increase by
as much as 9.5 per cent.
As Charles Saunders, vice-president
of the American Council on Education
points out, the students receiving the

.t funds vital
benefits deserve the funds because
their parents had supported the
program by paying taxes.
Fortunately, it is now very unlikely
that the Congress will pass the ad-
ministration's proposal. The powerful
Social Security Subcommittee of' the
House Ways and Means Committee
opposes the cutback which almost
automatically kills the proposal when
it goes before the full House.
This cutback in crucial aid to college
students symbolizes the warped sense
of priorities the Carter Administration
has undertaken in its budget outline. At
the same time it called for slashes in
Social Security benefits, the ad-
ministration proposed strong -in-
creases in the defense budget.
Government benefits due U.S.
citizens for educational purposes
should not be sacrificed for un-
necessary increases in the defense
budget. We urge President Carter to
quickly review his administration's
budget priorities to provide for the
country's more basic needs.

There are probably Joel
Samoffs all over the country.
Samoff is the out-spoken
assistant professor of political
science on campus who hasn't
been able to find enough suppor-
tive colleagues or sympathetic
administrators to grant his
request for tenure. He's not likely
to receive the lifetime contract:
either because, as his supporters
claim, he is a Marxist political
economist among Capitalist
peers, or because, as the
professors who have opposed
his request have said, his resear-
ch is not of the quality or quantity
befitting a potential associate
A similar case has reached
about the same stage at the
University of Texas in the
School's Government Depar-
tment. Like Samoff, Armando
Gutierrez is reputed to be a
superlative teacher. Like Samoff,
he's supported by a dogged group
of students and professors who've
staged rallies and gathered
signatures in his behalf. Like
Samoff, the Texan has a political
affiliation that his supporters
claim is keeping him out of the
tenure club - he's active in the
Chicano movement. And like
Samoff, Gutierrez man soon be
forced to end his association with
his department.
BUT THERE'S a move in
Texas to change the tenure
According to a column by A.
Scott Sudduth which recently ap-
peared in the student newspaper,
The Daily Texan, Texas House
Bill 145 could solve many
problems to the present struggle,
essentially by eliminating tenure.
The bill, proposed by a
Republican representative and
still in committee, would replace
the present do-or-die tenure
decisions with periodic contract
Every five, six, or seven years

Granting tenure in
six year stints

the university would draw up a
contract with the faculty member
agreeing to a written statement
of goals that he or she expects to
meet during the term of the con-
tract. On the basis of annual
reviews by the department to
determine whether the objectives
in ;research, teaching, and ser-
vice have been met, professors
would be asked to work out ' new
contract or look for a new iob.

The most convincing argument
for the bill, according to Sudduth,
is that the intangibles of the
tenure selection process would be
cut down. Vague references to
quality publishing and national
visibility would vanish when put
to the crucial test: Can it be put in
the terms required for a binding
HE ALSO POINTS out that the

b rian
Blanchard "

a team of lawyer 'to draft mod
contracts demonstrating th
proper use of "herebys" an
"pursuent tos" for use in Ca
bridge and Berkeley, Austin an
ambitious plan, professors don
work that way, and neither do
academic freedom.,
But short-term contracts won
do that. 'The professor ir
vestigating electron spin m
devote a lifetime on a theory th:
just doesn't work, or he m
enlighten thousands of student
none4of whom leave more th
notes of appreciation for his i
That's not -to say profess
can't be evaluated, but not in t
legal terminology mentioned i
We might end up with mo
carefully assembled book lis
but it would certainly
a dangerously self-conscio
group of professors.
And, finally, of course, there
the question Rep. Gaston put
well. This profession, of
professions, is one that must
safe from the hazards of faddi
decision-making and politics.
If Joel Samoff and Armna
Gutierrez are granted tenure,
would not want either to have
mount the same struggles ev
six years for the rest of th

Should the department head
recommend that the contract be
ended, the professor could appeal
his case to a committee con-
sisting of the department chair-
person and professors from
various departments, appointed
by the university's president.
THE MEASURE includes a
"grandfather clause" which
would force current faculty
members to come up with a con-
tract by 1990.
Sudduth quotes the author of
the bill, Rep. Frank Gaston (R-
Dallas): "Why should this
profession of all professions be
guaranteed for life?"

new system would improve the
professorial stock by making
each professor more accoun-
table. "In essence, the bill would
insure a high level of excellence
among teachers and promote'
competition on a professional
Like primary and secondary
schoolteachers, then, professors
would teach under contracts. The
bill calls for individualized con-
tracts instead of those reached by
collective bargaining, the almost
year-round haggling between
powerful teachers' unions and
rich school boards. Presumably,
the American Association of
University Professors would hire

Brian Blanchard is Unive
sity Editor of the Daily. B
ginning today, this coln
will appear every other Tue

u o
LoSIN& tvJINo I'wn
TNM 1 1SF iR
- -.i RAN? ~I



To the Daily:

I am a co-ordinator of Wildflour
Community Bakery writing in
response to your article on the
Co-op Bakery (from the 1/31/79
paper) 'First, we appreciate your
attendance, interest, and input at
the Community Involvement
Meeting. Too often in the past few
people besides co-ordinators
have come to these meetings so it
was really wonderful to not only
have your presence but also to
have an article about what went
However, we would like to
correct a few statements which
we feel aren't accurate, or may
be misleading. Let me stress, we
are a financially sound business.
nD---- _- n- n n- nrn --e. .

we are doing. These problems do
not feel as major to us, as the ar-
ticle portrays them.
Also, the people who are in the
Deferred Sentencing program
mean a lot to us. They are among
our most consistent volunteers
and are hard workers and lovely
people. They are a tre'mendous
asset to the bakery's atmosphere
and energy level.
A few things not mentioned
are: You can buy wildflourbread
at People's Food Co-op located on
Packard, near Arch Street, which
is very close to campus. Also we
have two prices for bread:
discount, if you work for an hour,
and retail if you don't. The whole
wheat is $1.02 at retail price and.
84ยข at discount price for a 112 lb.
loaf. And last, if you volunteer at
the bakery for 1%/z hours, you get
a free loaf of bread!
Thanks again to the Daily for

Just two years ago, the Energy
Research and Development Ad-
ministration, now the Depar-
tment of Energy, was actively
investigating the salt beds of nor-
thern lower Michigan for a
nuclear waste dump. A con-
sultant for the nuclear industry
was brought to the area to assure
the residents that there were no
waste disposal problems without
The plan was to glassify the
waste in large, stainless steel
canisters and lower it ap-
proximately 1,000 feet into the
salt beds. Recent studies have
cast serious doubt on the ad-
visability of such a procedure.
In the August 5, 1977 issue of
Science Magazine, a French
research team advised that these
wastes be disposed of in dry
nmaing freo nf a mainr ornnd

leachable and to store nuclea
waste in glass is "what you woul
do. . . to maximize activity in th
geologic environment."
2) Dr. David Stewart, of t
U.S. Geologic Survey, says th
"salt is not dry and it's not O.K.
Recent studies show that sa
contains traces of water an
chemical impurities resulting i
a corrosive liquid which whe'
combined with heat and pressur
can eat through stainless steel i
a matter of days.
3) Dr. Ferruccia Gera, of tl
Oak Ridge National Laborators
says that "it is virtually in
possible to make a rational cas
for any specific . . . length c
required containment. . . 100,00
years or . . exceeding fiv
million years.
4) At a Materials Researc
Society meeting in Boston i
early December, 1978 a doze

'~i ~L~' ~ ~' b~~J~U1%~' NIIFa .~ ~ K 1W MA ~ 4

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