Page 4-Sunday, January 7, 1979-The Michigan Daily
01 b Mt"6'cbtgan tlU
420 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109
Eigh ty-Nine Years of Editorial Freedom
No walls against junk
U I * - ~ -
Vol. LXXXIX, No. 81
News Phone: 764-0552
Edited and managed by students at the University of Michigan
An irresponsible faculty
When the faculty Senate Assembly
voted last month to reject proposed
guidelines which would restrict
relations between U.S. intelligence
agencies and members of the
University community, it proved one
thing - the faculty cannot responsibly
govern their own actions.
A little history is needed to
t nderstand the situation. The need for
auidelines on this and other American
dollege campuses arose in 1976 when
the Senate Select Committee on
1>telligence Activities revealed that
t'he CIA was using academics
(professors, administrators, and
graduate students involved in
teaching) for various activities.
' The Select Committee report,
.eavily censored by the CIA, stated the
Agency used academics at more than
100 American colleges to make
"introductions for intelligence
:purposes," write propaganda, and
other "minor activities."
; The Select Committee, in its final
recommendations, expressed concern,
"that American academics involved in
such activities may undermine public
confidence that those who train our
youth are upholding the ideals,
independence, and integrity of
In response to the select
Committee's report, Harvard
;University President Derek Bok
appointed a prestigious group of
individuals to explore the issues raised
,vith respect to CIA activities on
:campuses and to consider whether
"new rules of conduct for members of
the Harvard community might be
needed." The group, led by Archibald
:Cox of Watergate fame, concluded that
guidelines were needed despite the fact
ithat these restrictions "may make it
difficult for the CIA to perform certain
The conclusion continues: "This loss
,s one that a free society should be
willing to suffer. We do not believe that
present relationships between the CIA
,and the academic community, as
,:outlined by the Select Committee, can
,continue without posing a serious
threat to the independence and
integrity of the academic
The guidelines recommended by the
Harvard group, which are similar to
those vetoed by the University Senate
Assembly, prohibited professors from
giving the CIA the name of a student
without the student's express prior
consent. The Harvard guidelines also
prohibit members of the community
from performing intelligence
operations for the CIA and writing
.propaganda if it involves lending their
;names or position to gain public
acceptance for something which they
know to be untrue. The guidelines do
not prohibit relationships with the CIA.
w Members of the Harvard community
,were asked in May 1977 by President
lok to follow this guidelines. One year
.ater, the Director of Central
.ntelligence Stansfield Turner wrote in
f letter to President Bok that the CIA
Aould not abide by the Harvard
guidelines. Director Turner stated that
$ re CIA treats academics as "sources
f intelligence" important to the
:ecurity of the nation and therefore
Yiust be protected from .unauthorized
Although President Bok saw the
:heed for guidelines, then President
Ilobben Fleming did not. Rather than
pppointing a committee here to study
the, problem and develop guidelines,
President Fleming said it was a
faculty concern and they should deal
with it. So they did. The Civil Liberties
oard developed guidelines with
espect to all intelligence agencies.
the draft was discussed and modified
by the faculty Senate Assembly
Committee on University Affairs in
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Most professors, it seems, felt that
the guidelines inpinged their civil
liberties, their freedom to speak to
whomever they may wish. Certainly
everyone should be concerned about
freedom and be ever vigilant to
maintain our priceless rights. But the
faculty seems to be only concerned
about its rights. What about the rights
of students? Are those rights any less
valuable? After all, students,
especially those from other countries,
are the targets of most CIA activities
on campus. Students suffer the
infringement of personal freedom
when, after a professor has given
names to the CIA, they are secretly
investigated by the Agency to see if
they might qualify -as spies. Don't
students deserve the right to know they
are being investigated by a
government intelligence agency and
that, whatever the result of the
investigation, there will always be an
intelligence file with their name on it.
The faculty cries about its precious
academic freedom. No one denies the
value of academic freedom, but what
price must we pay? What civil liberties
should any member of the University
community forsake to preserve some
ill-defined notion of academic
freedom? Yes, faculty members do
have the freedom of speech. The
guidelines do not prohibit a faculty
member, or any member of the
University community, from having a
relationship with an intelligence
agency. Faculty members have the
freedom to speak to whomever they
wis. They'have freedom - not license.
Obviously the faculty does not
understand that the "freedom" to give
names of students to an intelligence
agency without prior consent results in
an infringement of that individual's
right to privacy. It seems as though the
faculty members think they are doing
a student a favor.
Some faculty members argue the
effectiveness of guidelines. They say
that if these relationships are secret
there is no reason to believe that
anyone would come forward and admit
a tie to an intelligence agency. What
these individuals fail to see is that the
guidelines, like laws, set a standard for
society. Guidelines would say to the
University community: this is what we
believe to be acceptable behavior;
anything contrary is wrong and cannot
be tolerated. Guidelines could also
raise the consciousness of the
community. They make persons aware
that relationships with intelligence
agencies could be dangerous and
should be considered carefully.
The CIA is the root of this evil. But
faculty members who cooperate with
an intelligence agency to infringe on
the rights of others, for whatever
reason, and now by their refusal to do
what is right, the Senate Assembly, are
guilty by complicity. The Senate
Assembly has shown it cannot be
responsible for its actions in this area
- unfortunate, but true.
We urge acting President Allen
Smith to adopt the guidelines proposed
by the Civil Liberties Board as
University policy. The Regents,
however, should not sit idle on such an
important issue, which directly effects
the entire University community. The
Regents should collect all available
information on this subject, confer
with the Civil Liberties Board as well
as any interested community
members, and pass a Regental bylaw
which would govern relationships
between members of the University
community and intelligence agencies.
Congressman Carl Pursell (R-Ann
Arbor), Senator-elect Carl Levin, and
Berlin, Hei Ccrmum
This divided city has become a
major heroin center, feeding a
huge and growing number of
German addicts and American
So says the top U.S. drug agent
here, Thomas Cash, narcotics at-,
tache from the Drug Enfor-
cement Administration (DEA) to
Last in a series
West Germany. Cash also says
there is little the U.S. can do
about it, because of our foreign
policy and touchy diplomatic
agreements that date back to
World War II.
"Dealers here aren't messing
with quarter-pounds or hits,"
Cash says. "They're dealing in
kilos-left and right-just like
they were dime bags."
Conditions are right for a
Berlin Connection to replace the
old French Connection for drug
traffickers looking for new ways
to smuggle heroin into the United
States, Cash has found.
"There is so much heroin here
and it is so cheap it is just a mat-
ter of time before soldiers or dope
dealers who want to make a quick
buck begin taking it into the
States," he told a House sub-
committee investigating drug
abuse in the military recently.
"Just last week, we got two
women heading for the States.
They had a couple of kilos when
they were arrested in London."
However, most of the heroin
traffic right now seems to be
within Germany, with West
Germans and American GIs.
"It's amazing," Cash says.
"Germany is where the States
were 20 years ago. It's happening
all over again, right beforemy
eyes. Germany has a huge drug
problem and it doesn't know what
to do about it."
The Golden Shot
Officials here realized they had
a major problem with drugs,
mostly heroin, when the "Golden
Shot" began appearing.
"The Germans are a very, very
proud people," says Cash. "Even
a German junkie has pride. When
he realizes he is about finished,
he makes one final score. Then
he'll write a suicide note, perhaps
talk about his life, and then take
the final Golden Shot.
Not all German junkies do
away with themselves so
dramatically, Cash admits, but
enough junkies were either
taking the Golden Shot or simply
overdosing by accident to con-
vince German officials a problem
In 1975, Germany recorded 194
overdoses-31 in Berlin. One year
later there were 337 overdoses
with 87 in Berlin.
In 1974, German officials con-
fiscated 31 kilos of heroin. An
estimated 73 per cent of the junk
was headed out of the country.
By late 1978, German officials
had confiscated172 kilos of
heroin and they now believe 73
per cent stays in the country.
"Heroin creates its own new
markets," Cash says. "One
junkie helps turn on five more.
Trying to stop drugs is just like
stepping on a balloon. A lot of the
time the stuff just
It constantly shifts. Most
heroin in the States originally
came from the Golden
Triangle-Thailand, Burma and
Laos, Cash says. Rebels in the
Shan Hills area used the opium
poppy, which is used to make
heroin, As a cash crop to support
When pressure was applied to
those markets, new heroin sup-
pliers emerged, Cash says.
Opium started coming from the
Silver Triangle-the Mideast.
The U. S. again applied
pressure-especially against the
Then the heroin started coming
from Mexico-brown heroin.
The active spraying program
in Mexico killed many of the
opium poppies, Cash says, so on-
ce again a new supplier was
This time, it came from an old
source, the Mideast.
The Turkish government had
banned poppy farming, but it now
claims it needs the plants to
make morphine. Cash and the
DEA claim the heroin being ship-
ped to Berlin is coming from
Pakistan and Afghanistan into
heroin labs in Turkey.
"It's very easy for opium to
move from rural Afghanistan and
Pakistan into Turkey," he says.
"From there it is made into
heroin and sent out to dealers."
It could go to Italy or Austria
over land' routes, but that is
risky-Berlin is not.
When Berlin was divided into
four sectors after World War II,
the countries involved pledged
that the city would always
Great Britain, France and the
United States kept that promise,
but the Soviet Union built the
Berlin Wall. The U.S. refuses to
recognize East Berlin as a
separate city. If it did recognize
it, U.S. troops would lose the right
to move in and out of the East
Berlin section at will, as they do
now, and the original agreement
would be void.
Therefore there are no U.S.
customs searches when travelers
cross from East Berlin into West
Berlin, Peter Smeler; deputy
political adviser to Germany, ex-
Cars bearing West German
license tags are not searched
when they enter the city and
workers from East Berlin are
Berlin has 85,000 Turkish
workers, police say. There are an
estimated 20,000 Turks here
"The Turks can fly cheaper on
Soviet Union airlines from East
Berlin to Turkey, so they use
Schoenfeld Airport in East
Berlin," Smeler explains. If there
are any custom checks there,
Cash says, he has never heard of
"The East Berlin officials
worry about what and who leaves
Berlin, not what they bring in,"
Oklahoma Rep. Glenn English,
who lead an11-day House sub-
committee tour of U.S. Army
bases in Germany studying drug
abuse, claims huge amounts of
heroin are brought into Germany
by Turkish workers via East
Germany and East Berlin.
He says the East Germans do
nothing about it because they
know the drugs are destined in
part for U.S. troops. He claims
1,100 pounds of heroin moved
through East Germany into West
Berlin last year. Another 6,000
pounds was smuggled into West
Germany from East Germany,
In late November, English
became the first U.S. Represen-
tative to meet with East Berlin
officials. They denied there was
any conspiracy aimed at sup-
plying GIs with heroin and
claimed they were doing their
best to stop illegal drug traf-
English demanded proof. He
gave the East Germans the
names of 50 known drug traf-
fickers-selected by the
DEA-who use the Schoenfeld
Airport-West Berlin route.
The officials said they would
examine the situation.
Ironically, the East Germans
were more cooperative than the
West Germans, English says.
"They (West German officials)
said it was an American
problem," he says. "It wasn't un-
til we threatened them by saying
we might have to close dow U.S.
bases here that they got in-
Cash says the West Germans
are still struggling to realize the
"scope of the problem."
Yet, he says, "all they have to,
do is go into a Berlin subway to
see how bad it is here."
The subways are filled with
junkies. They gather together in
small groups to talk nervously,
darting their bloodshot eyes back
and forth, looking for police.
Most are young. Their clothes
are unkempt. And their faces
There are two easy ways to
pick them out if you can't tell by
their looks, Cash explained
during a quick subway tour.
"Watch who doesn't get on the
subway or watch who is
A chilly breeze swept through
the subway everytime a train
whistled through, but the junkies
were sweating huge drops.
"They gotta score," Cash said.
"They gotta be -fed or the shakes
will start coming."
Cash questioned one woman
who apparently was high.
Her eyes-puffy and red-were
halflclosed. Her speech was
slurred, her hands were swollen
and covered with sores.
She could barely stand.
She said she had shot up two
hours ago. She was at the peak of
"How much was she
One and a half grams.
"That's the worst I've ever
heard," Cash said. "Purity here
is 40 to 60 per cent. She's using
enough to send 20 or 30 American
junkies sky high."
Her habit cost about $48,000 per
year.'She made the money as a
hooker, she said. She used to
charge $30 per trick, now she only
charges $10. Prositituion is legal
in Germany and competition
keeps prices down. Her condition
forced her to lower the price even
She said she had been using
heroin eight years.
"She won't be using it much
longer," Cash said, as the woman
smiled dreamily, weaving back
and forth. "She's nearly dead
"I'll give her a few weeks, then
I think she'll be ready for the
"Maybe someday," Cash says.
"We'll pop that damn
E.N. Earlev, correspondent
for the Tulsa Tribune,
accompanied Rep. Glenn
English (D-Okla.) on a House
tour of U.S. bases in
GermanV, investigating drug
abuse. The subcominmit tee's
report, no w complete, is
expected to plav an important
role in the growing debate over
reinstating the draft. This
article was written for Pacific
WASHINGTON (UPI)-The CIA once
considering capturing an African crocodile
and, with the help of a witch doctor's secret
recipe, cooking the animal's gall bladder up
into a special poison, newly released
documents revealed Friday.
Hitherto secret documents did not indicate
whether the unusual project actually came
"Crocodile Gall Bladder" was part of a
massive, 23-year-long CIA project terminated
in 1973 that included mind, behavior control
and brainwashing experiments and a search
for exotic poisons and incapacitating agents
that could be used in assassinations and clan-
Many details of the project have come out
during Senate and House hearing during the
past few years.
The latest 363 pages to be released-some
heavily censored and names
A Feb. 7, 1962, memo from an unidentified
CIA officer to the "chief" of an unidentified
"We have approached the problem of
picking up a Tanganyika (now Tanzania)
crocodile's gall bladder from two points of
view. The first is to have one of our (blank)
buddies in Tanganyika find, capture and
eviscerate a native crocodile on the spot and
then tryp to-ship its gall bladder and/or other
poisonous viscera to the United States... The
second alternative would be to acquire a
crocodile ... through a licensed collector and
ship the live animal to the United States."
The memo writer expressed confidence
that two contacts then in Tanzania "can
provide us with the details concerning
methods and techniques employed by the wit-
ch doctor in preparing the poison."
The contacts, he said, also might collect
"more data concerning other natural poisons
derived from other reptiles and/or vital