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Vol. LXXXX, No. 9
Ann Arbor; Michigan-Saturday, September 15, 1979
Business prof.predicted demise ofAnthony dollar
By STEVE HOOK
He hates to say he told them so, but
University business Prof. Claude Mar-
tin warned the Treasury Department
more than a year ago that the Susan B.
Anthony coin would probably not be
generally accepted by the public if
dollar bills remained in circulation.
In June 1978, a full year before the
coin was put into production, Martin
was commissioned by the federal
government to conduct a $20,000 study
to predict the public's reaction to the
coin. In his report to the Detroit branch
of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicgo,
Martin said, in essence, that the
nation's pocketbooks were not big
enoughfor both the coin and the bill.
BUT, CITING an estimated $50
million annual savings by using the new
coin, the government issued it "this
"It came out very clearly that this
coin was not going to succeed," Martin'
Martin conducted an extensive sur-
vey during his year-long study, inter-
viewing retailers, bankers, and con-
sumers. In his 37-page report to the
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago,
Martin noted that "their immediate
forecast and perception is that the one
dollar coin will be another two dollar
bill, that is, a failure."
THE REPORT said the dollar bill
must be withdrawn from circulation.
"At no time did we find a participant in
the currency system that felt the $1 coin
and the $1 bill could successfully co-
exist," the report said..
When asked by the New York Times
why Martin's study was apparently
ignored, U.S. Mint Director Stella
Hackel replied, "That's his research
project, period. It may or may not be
According to figures released by the
Treasury Department, Martin's
forecast of the coin's non-acceptance
seems to be accurate. Between July 2
and July 20, the coin was distributed at
a rate of 40 million per week. Since July
20, demand has plummeted, and ap-
proximately five million coins are
currently being produced per week,
with most of those are mired in banks.
MARTIN'S REPORT lists several
possible reasons for the poor showing of
the Anthony dollar. Among them, he
listed consumer unwillingness for a
change in currency, retailer un-
willingness to adapt cash drawers, and
general confusion in distinguishing the
dollar coin from a quarter. This last
point particularly irks Hackel.
"It's 43 per cent heavier," she told
the Times. "It has a raised inner bor-
der. There's a woman on the face in-
stead of a man. They're just not alike."
Relaxing at his desk before his first
morning lecture, Martin noted a sense
of futility in his efforts. "The decision
had already been made," he said with a
sigh, referring to the government's
decision to issue the coin.
"IT'S NICE to be proven right," he
said, "but the sad part is, the coin
represented some good cost saving for
the government-if it can be fully cir-
, culated. But the government can't ram
things down people's throats."
Martin explained the difficulty in
enacting legislation to wipe out an
American staple such as the dollar bill.
"Nobody wanted to bite the bullet and
See DOLLAR, Page 2
Daiy rPhoto Dy JOJ StI
COMPARED TO the quarter, the new Susan B. Anthony dollar coin is
smaller but heavier. A University professor predicted the current un-
popularity of the metal tender more than a year before it was introduced.
From AP and UPI
DETROIT - The United Auto
Workers and General Motors Corp.
reached tentative agreement on a new
contract Friday night, both sides an-
nounced, paving the way for a set-
tlement- without a strike for the first
time in 15 years.
The agreement came about two-and-
a-half hours beforeua strike deadline
that would have idled about 95,350 GM
workers, and followed a round-the-
clock bargaining session that began
about 27 hours earlier.
The new contract covers 780,000 Big
Three autoworkers, 460,000 of them at
FM. The union had threatened to strike
46 of GM's 130 installations, including
plants making the No. 1 automaker's
most popular cars.
GM SAID the new three-year
agreement provided "substantial in-
creases" in wages, improved pensions,
and more time off.
"The union's GM national negotiating
committees has voted unanimously to
recommend the agreement for
ratification," said UAW President
The UAW said the union's General
Motors Council - officers of the 151 GM
locals - would review the-tentative
agreement Tuesday and local unions
would schedule ratification votes after
THE UNION statement said: "It is
an excellent settlement," adding that
the agreement will provide protection
of pensions against inflation, the key
issue in the talks since bargaining
began July 16.
It was the first time since 1964 the;
UAW has agreed to a labor pact without
a national walkout against its target
Both the union and GM said they
would withhold details of the wage and
time off provisions until Tuesday.
The tentative agreement im
mediately effects all GM workers, but
also will be used as a model in later
talks with Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler
From AP and UPI
MOBILE, Ala. - The stunned com-
munities of the gulf Coast got a little
encouragement 'rom the White House
yesterday, but i will be a long time
before life returns to normal in the 100-
mile wide swath of wreckage left by
President Carter helicoptered over
the coastal regions of Mississippi,
Alabama, and Florida and promised
government help "with the taxpayers',
See CARTER, Page8
Thousands of students at Michigan Tech, near Hloughton, joined together Thurs-
day for a world record in lap sitting. The Guiness Book of World Records lists
3,397 as the lap sitting record. But these enterprising students claim to have
'PROGRESSIVE' CHIEF ON CAMPUS:
lined up 3,590 laps for a new record. The gathering took place at a nearby
State Park during an afternoon off from classes.
By MICHAEL ARKUSH the hee
The editor of a nationwide magazine magazin
barred from publishing an article about governr
the hydrogen bomb accused the gover- After
nment \yesterday of invoking prior resumed
restraint in order to "close off the U.S. C
nuclear arms debate from the Chicaog
democratic process." The r
Erwin Knoll, editor of the Wisconsin- article,
based "Progressive" magazine, said publica
during a visit to campus that he threaten
believes the government has kept the info
documents about nuclear weapons Bomb S
secret since the beginning of the Atomic We're
Age in the early 1950'sto prevent a full- availab
scale discussion among the American the auth
populace. of his re
Such a debate, Knoll told Communi-
cations 201 students, might make "PRO
citizens recognize the "lunacy" behind also arg
nuclear arms build-ups and force the give thi
Pentagon to limit the development of to const
sophisticated weaponry. Pentag
"THEY WANT to keep the facts nuclear
secret, not because they may entail begin thi
jeopardy to national security, but Knoll
because they may entail jeopardy to yesterd
those- policies behind building up our already
nuclear weapons," said Knoll. build a
The "Progressive" editor's ap- necessa
pearance yesterday at the class and a "Ever
subsequent news conference came on they don
restraints on H-bon
As of new developments in his
ne's case against the federal
a four-month delay, the case
d Thursday before the Seventh
ircuit Court of Appeals in
magazine's editors contend the
which was scheduled for
tion last March, would not
,n national security. They said
rmation in the article - "The H-
Secret - How We Got It. Why
Telling It" - was already
)le on library shelves - where
ior, Howard Morland, did most
OGRESSIVE'S lawyers have
gued that the article would not
rd world nations the capabilities
ruct an atomic bomb, as many
on officials contend, since
would need an assortment of.
materials before they could
, reiterating that argument
ay, said that most countries
y have the "secrets" of how to
hydrogen bomb, but lack the
rybody has the secrets, and if
't, it's so very easy to get them.
So far, only five irresponsible nations
have the materials and the others must
get them before they can make the
bomb. Third World leaders are not
going to be rushing to read this article,"
Knoll speculated during the news
conference that it would only be a
"matter of days" before a decision con-
cerning the case is made in the Court of
Appeals. While expressing confidence
that the magazine would emerge vic-
torious, Knoll pledged to bring the case
"all the way to the Supreme Court" if
the court keeps intact the earlier
decision by the U.S. District Court in
Milwaukee to permit prior restraint.
More on Editorial Page
But Knoll defended his magazine's
legal fight, arguing that any in-
fringement on individual liberties must
Genius' disappearance -still foggy
DESOTO, Texas (UPI) - The return
of a 16-year-old computer genius,
missing from the Michigan State
University campus almost a month and
once presumed dead, apparently will
remain as mysterious as his disap-
Private detective William Dear
said he reunited James Dallas Egbert
III with his family at about 3 a.m.
yesterday but gave only cursory insight
into the baffling disappearance that in-
volved tales of an arcane fantasy game,
the Lansing homosexual community
and possible kidnapping.
DEAR SAID he spoke with Egbert
Thursday and flew him to Dallas from
an undisclosed location where he had
been kept in a "dirty old room." Dear
would not say where the boy was - only
that it was not in Texas.
In East Lansing, Capt. Ferman
Badgley of the MSU campus police
department said at a news conference
Egbert was not found anywhere in
Michigan either, but said he would not
disclose the location at the family's
Badgley said Egbert was in hiding
and had not been taken against his will.
He said the boy's disappearance may
have been related to family problems,
but would not elaborate.
"HE WAS NOT in as bad a shape as I
had anticipated," Dear said. "They just
had him in a dirty old room. He didn't
talk too much on the flight to Dallas and
Student Assembly may control own budget
Ie was not i as had a
shape as I had an ticipated.
Thev just had him in a
dirty o1 room.'
I didn't talk to him that much. I told
him that unless he wanted to discuss it,
he didn't have to. He chose not to."
During his weeks on the case in
Michigan, Dear questioned members of
Lansing's gay community in addition to
players of "Dungeons and Dragons," a
complicated game based on the
writings of J.R.R. Tolkien.
Dear returned to Texas and thought
Egbert was dead until he was contacted
by people claiming to know of the boy's
"IN THIS particular case, we had a
lot of strange people contact us,' he
said. "We didn't know for sure if these
people were for real. They seemed to
act like they knew what they were
Dear said Egbert phoned him three
times within a 30-minute period earlier
this week and that the student was
He said that during the calls he heard
a man?s voice with a "yankee accent"
saying "cool it, boy, don't lose your
cool," but said a $5,000 reward he of-
fered for information about Egbert was
never claimed and no ransom was in.
volved in his return.
"The family will not be talking about
it," Dear said from his office in DeSoto,
a suburb of Dallas. "And as far as I'm
concerned, the case is over."
By TOM MIRGA
The Michigan Student Assembly
(MSA) could regain immediate ad-
ministrative control of its finances if
proposed revisions to its allocation
procedures are adopted at Tuesday's
meeting, according to University Vice
President for Student Services Henry
"I have no reason not to make the ac-
+n ijmwpdint '' Thnsnn said.
control of its finances, funded by a $2.92
mandatory student assessment, in a
controversy over alleged irregularities
that occurred during student gover-
At that time, the Regents, acting
upon a request by Interim University
President Allan Smith, directed John-
son to review MSA election results and
determine whether or not the results
should be certified.
CNNr ai.Cn..a-alctpd that Johnsen
Originally, Johnson planned to hold
the funds for six months until he issued
a full report to the Regents at their
DURING THE summer, MSA's
Steering Committee, consulting with
SDO, developed a revised edition of the
Assembly's guidelines for allocation of
funds that Johnson approved.
The major modifications in the
proposed edition include changes in the
membership of the body's Budget
procedures, both internal and external.
"However," Alland said, "I made a
commitment to him to present the
issues to the Assembly."
"AS A MATTER of fact," he con-
tinued, "we have been operating this
summer under the restriction that we
could not allocate more than $50 to any
group. Technically, Johnson still has
control over our funds."
Tnncn if arl wit;h Aland'cvr.
o "ARreL1akin 1Awav," *.n I n