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January 14, 1960 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-01-14

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"Never Mimi the Fine Print. Now, over Here-"

Seventieth Year

"When Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



College Boards at Michigan:
lu estionable Prosnect

THE SHADOW of the omnipotent College En-
trance Examination Boards is moving west.
The University is the most recent major edu-
cational institution to add its vote to the IBM-
score oriented student selection process. For
the literary college has just taken the first
steps towards a major change in admissions
policy, a change 'eventually requiring CEEB
aptitude tests and three achievement tests of
every Lit School applicant for admission.
This program, which will begin on a trial
basis in 1961, is an attempt to solve some of
the College's selection problems. Whether it
does or does not, it will inevitably raise several
TH E ADVANTAGES of the step are fairly
obvious. By requiring the aptitude tests and
the achievement tests in English Composition
and one other subject, the college sets up for
the local and national high schools an objective
criteria by which they can set their standards.
Long disturbed by the absymal state of second-
ary education in Michigan, the admissions
people find the idea of an outside standard a
very appealing one.
The new requirements supposedly, will com-
bat the system which creates "over-achievers,"
students who are not really capable of doing
college work, but who when pushed to full
capacity in high school by an interested family
and school faculty, appear on their records to
be better than they really are.
HE PROGRAM will also give the college its
first opportunity to judge its in-state stu-
d~nts by national standards. While this may
prove somewhat of a shock to them, it may
also help to tighten up the admissions require-
ments before the onslaught of war babies
Another of the objectives stated in the mem-
orandum sent to Vice-President Niehuss by the
Admissions Committee, is the improvement of
the Freshman introductory courses, which pres-
ently tend to duplicate much high school ma-
terial. If the College can require a certain
minimum proficiency in English and mathe-
matics, the level of several freshman courses
could be raised considerably, by eliminating the
nonsensical preliminaries which bore the in-
telligent student- and can hold back an entire
class due to a lack of basic information.
These advantages are distinct, and appar-
ently irresistable. Empirically, this plan may
prove a partial solution to all of these prob-
lems. Philosophically, its basis is questionable.
THE CEEB has, especially in recent years,
gained overwhelming importance. In some
U nicamneral Ho
ONE OF TH E BASES of any democratic gov-
ernment is a compromise on the question of
majority rule and minority rights. There is
,now a compromise written in the state Consti-
tution; if the Democratic-backed unicameral
legislation plan were approved, there would
cease to be the necessary compromise. Since
tie compromise is necessary, the Democratic
plan must be attacked for it seeks to subvert
the democratic process while masquerading
under the banner of "increased democracy."
The plan is unworkable in Michigan mostly
because of the well-known quirk that puts
close to half the population of the state in
three southeastern counties. This bloc of course
would have a dominant position in any new
unicameral body elected on a Mtate-wide basis.
THE UPSHOT would be that the outstate
areas would lose their present dominance in
the Senate, and probably most of their lever-
age in the state government. The accusation
runs that the Lansing government would be of,
for and by Detroit. And this seems all too true,
for majorities have a habit of forgetting they
are not complete. The problems of the farm
areas are not those of the assembly line, and
neither are the desires. Both areas must be
served, however, since a government is of all
the people. The land apportionment of the

Senate provides the protection the outstate
areas need.
THE DETROIT majority has shown little evi-
dence it will worry at' all about the outstate

private colleges, it is often the main basis for
enrollment selection, or at least more important
than any other single element.
Because of this, the Eastern high schools
and especially the private preparatory schools
undergo a mounting tension at college board
time, a tension almost intolerable to students
and faculty. The voice of Princeton (CEEB
headquarters) becomes the voice of God.
The high school seniors look upon College
Board weekend as a kind of intellectual judge-
ment day, during which all their information,
skill and knowledge is put to the final test;
where they either survive or fall.
This kind of testing can fundamentally
change the whole attitude of teachers and stu-
dents toward the meaning and method of edu-
cation. Creative, subjective study becomes less
and less important in a scholastic world domi-
nated by the shadow of the massive objective
type, or semi-essay exam where the main
judgement criteria is the number of specific
facts that one can spew forth.
In this atmosphere, the student with a good
memory and an ability to guess effectively rates
higher than the student who is vague on facts
but who has amazing, or even simply worth-
while creative ability.
ANOTHER SERIOUS deficiency of the college
Board exams is their inability to distinguish
the incapable student from the'student of ex-
traordinary intelligence whose mind does rot
happen to be oriented to objective testing.
This sort of student is the one who sees too
many possibilities in a multiple choice selection
and can't manage to figure out exactly what
simple choice. the examiner wants him to
make. This student presents at least as much
of a problem as the over-achiever, and may
possibly be more important in the end.
The ultimate outcome of admissions choices
by college board exams appears to be a uniform
sort of school, populated by vast numbers of
verbally facile, factually-oriented young men
and wome nof a second rate intelligence. And a
dull sort of static place it would be.
It must be noted that the Lit School is not
attempting to make the college boards the
main, or even the most important admissions
criterion. But these aims may not be followed
through completely. The college boards present
a simple means of measurement, and as the
pressure of college applicants becomes greater,
the admissions people may place more and
more weight on the CEEB results. And this
could be most unfortunate.
use Unworkable
areas, and this seems to be what makes the
new idea invalid as an answer to the repre-
sentation problem. The new legislature would
be no doubt rather liberal with a distinct ten-
dency to over-legislate. Such policies might
serve the Detroit electorate in the short run,
but certainly would not cope with outstate
needs and desires.
B UT IF THE LARGE city Democratic party
can be accused of attempting to railroad an
undemocraitc proposal through the next elec-
tion, the Republicans can be accused of setting
the stage for such a proposal to even be made.
Because they have shown, in their turn, little
regard for the needs of the large urban popu-
lation of the southeast, the Democrats are
ready to resort to such a plan as a unicameral
legislature to break out of the somewhat reac-
tionary dominance of the rural areas . . . in
the Senate at least.
The present plan is not working as well as
it should, while the proposed unicameral legis-.
lature is somewhat unthinkable. The latter is
undemocratic and the former has bogged down
because of unrealistic attitudes of the legisla-
tors and their constituents. A moderate com-
promise is needed to restore the briginal intent
of the bicameral system.
The Republicans must realize the nineteenth
century is long-over, and the Democrats that
it is not yet 1984.

ACCORDING to figures given out recently by
a member of the Joint Judiciary Council,
about 95, per cent of the cases brought before
the Council result in a decision that the
accused is actually guilty.
Of course, as this member pointed out, Joint
Judie does its best not to consider such facts
as previous convictions in city or state courts
for the same offense, or the fact that the
Dean's office has screened the cases and only
sends those they think probably involving of-
fenses to Joint Judic.

z ::

wIAtE o RO q
011QT tAA


To The Editor
(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following letter was received by a professor at
the University from a student in one of his courses. Having obtained per-
mission from both the professor and the student writer, The Daily presents
the following discussion of exam ethics.)
Exam Files ...
Dear Professor:
THIS LETTER is being written as a result of something that has
been painfully brought to my attention. It concerns the method of
examination which exists in your class.
Through questioning and just plain boasting by various students
it seems that some of the students in the class have the answers before
the exam is given. Their answers have been garnered from previously


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given exams taken by their fel-
low fraternity and sorority mem-
The exam file, is a time-honored
method of study and preparation
at this University. All fraterni-
ties and sororities maintain ex-
tensive files. Even the library in
cooperation with SGC has an
exam file. These exam files can
and do serve their purpose as an
aid of study, but their use can be
put to another end. This end re-
quires the unknowing cooperation
of the professor in the course. If
the professor gives the same exam
or approximately the same exam,
the student who has carefully cov-
ered the previously given exams.
in the course is at a distinct ad-
IF, AS YOU have indicated, a
grading standard is set for each
question on the basis of the con-
tent of the best answers and all
others are then graded according
to the best and most complete an-
swers, the student who has pre-
vious knowledge has a advan-
tage. He can, by knowing the
question in advance, arrange his
facts so that they may even go
beyond the scope of the question
thereby raising the standard for
that question. His study can be
concentrated on only those areas
that he knows the questions will
cover while ignoring the rest of
the material.
On the first exam given in your
course, I believe that you stated
that there were nine A's. Of these
nine students, four boasted, and
seriously, that they studied one
hour and forty minutes. They
stated further that they had not.
read the text or the outside read-
ings except to add or gain addi-
tional facts to complete a question
found on a previously given exam.
They also mentioned that seven
or eight of the questions were car-
bon copies of previously given
questions or at least were altered
so slightly in wording that it made
no difference in the answer.
On the second exam, three of
the four, that I know of, again
got A's using the same method.
Another student upon receipt of
his returned bluebook answered
his neighbor's cry of, "You got
an A," by glibly saying, "What
the hell did you expect? I had
practically the whole test from
the files."
* * *
FOR THESE reasons I am sub-
mitting a request. Simply stated:
will you please change or radical-


Jazz from the Outside

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
fifth in a series of ,articles dealing
with theasoco-psychological aspects
of jazz by Mr. Young.).
DR. MARSHALL Stearns in his
fine book "The Story of Jazz"
(Oxford University Press, 1958),
suggests that jazz is much more
than a "protest" music. Why else
would it appeal to groups outside
of Negroes, intellectuals and ado-
"Of these three groups," writes
Stearns, "the adolescents are the
most significant because 'the psy-
chological fountainhead of jazz is
the psychology of the adolescent.'
For jazz, like no other art in our
culture, involves conflicting atti-
tudes that seem to be made-to-
order for the adolescent . . . Be-
coming a fanatical jazz 'aficiona-
ado' is a ... way to protest against
his parents and society (he knows
they hate the stuff)}. On the other
hand, he .now belongs to a tight
little group of fellow sympathiz-
ers; he is one of a cult with
ready-made opinions upon which,
he can depend .. . and he feels
independent, too, because he (and
the rest of the gang) have become
intolerant partisans of a music
nobody else seems to like or en-
joy. (This can lead to a dog-in-
the-manger attitude which auto-
matically casts doubt upon any-
one else's interest in jazz . .)"
What about the person who
takes to jazz during adolescence,
matures, gets married, has chil-
dren and still goes on liking jazz?
Is there something psychological-
ly unsound about this kind of in-
dividual? Is he still a "rebel" even
with his mature interest in the
* * *
YOU SEE, the theory of jazz as
a music of protest can only be
carried so far. It is true that jazz-
men, in producing their music,
often cross racial and religious
lines, but making no big scene out
of it. It is true that many jazz-
men have found in the music an
expression of individuality that
wouldn't be found in the eight-
to-five world of a regimented so-
ciety. Jazz is marvelous in this
respect since it offers a way for
both the individual artist and the
group to participate jointly in the
creative act.
But it must be remembered
that when Art Blakey takes a
drum solo during the performance
of a number, he isn't necessarily
saying, "White man, loosen my
shackles!" He may just as well be
saying, "This is for that cute
chick sitting in the front row out
there," or "Wish this gig was over
so I could go home to see my kid."
More often than not, the musician.
is merely enjoying himself-much
as a dancer or listener would --
"knocking himself out," as it were.
* * *
shaw (remember the minister who
won all that money on TV's "$64,-
000 Question"?) has expressed his
views about jazz quite eloquently.
He writes, "True jazz . . . is for
me far more an act of worship

poem-making, is a "p r o t e s t"
against the exigencies of life and
the weaknesses in men and their
ways of living that make these
exigencies. Listen to jazz closely
enough and you'll find out quite
a little about joy and sadness and
how the two can't be separated.
It is interesting that of all the
ethnic and social groups to which
jazz has appealed most, it is the
staid, American middle class that
has kept its ears closed longest.
Does this mean that jazz is a mu-
sic for the lower-income groups
and "intellectuals?" Or does it
mean that the middle class is be-
ing slow, as usual, in accepting
any manner of social change and
the change in mores which may
result. Contemporary jazz certain-
ly reflects changes in human re-
lations that have taken place in
the past quarter century =-the

crossing of cultures, the exchange
of cultural elements.
, * *
IT HAS BEEN suggested by the
psychologists that many Ameri-
cans still associate jazz with the
old speakeasy days, and immoral
living. The modern jazzman bias
done a fine job of smashing the
myth that he is, innately, an il-
literate, undisciplined alcoholic or
narcotics addict.
In fact, he has gone out of his
way to prove to the public that he
is as good as anyone else. Today's
professional jazz musician is usu-
ally equipped with a technical
musical background that is as
good as the "serious" musician's.
Personally, I think that he is
more fertile intellectually than
the classical musician who is too
often bone-dry in personality and
interests other than performing.
(FRIDAY: "Judgment Day")

ly alter the questions on the third
test and the final exam so that
they do not resemble previously
given '.questions. In this way, all
students in the class will have the
same chance.
Name Withheld by Request
Law Enforcement? ...
To the Editor:
PERFORMING with his usual
amount of skillful detective
work, the University detective
stalked a number of vicious law-
breakers and captured them in the
act of committing their henious '
crimes over the past weekend.
The criminals? A number of
fraternities. The crime? Holdin,
unregistered parties in their
houses, at which (horror of hor- °
rors) alcoholic beverages were con-
sumed. Now, the awesome power
of the University will be demon-
strated and respect for the law
of the land will reign.
S* *
NO MORE will these fraternities
have drinking in their houses -
they will drink in apartments. And
our school law enforcement will
have proven itself effective???
But if this is the sort of thing
to which the University wants to
assign its detectives, then it ob-
viously must be right. Such a.
minor thing as the cleaning up
of sex deviants in the buildings
of the school itself (left to the
Ann Arbor police) can be left
alone, so that time can be devoted
to things of 'major' importance.
-Name Withheld by Request
HoI use
Daily Staff writer
LASTWEEK'S' radical Demo-
erotic proposal for a unicam-
eral legislature raised the hackles
of state politicians of both par-
ties. Although the idea was the
result of a detailed study by a
special subcommittee of the Dem-
ocratic State Central Committee
which considered a number of re-
apportionment plans, it emerged
as a shock to everyone.
Theoretically, such a legislature
should prove .the most efficient
Since both parties would be rep-
rseented in the proposed house,
political differences would be
thoroughly hashed out. Legisla-
tion would undoubtedly move
much faster since these wrangles
would take place only in one house
without the necessity of approval
by two separate bodies.
* * *
COMMUNICATION difficulties
would also be eliminated with
such a unicameral system, since
debate would be limited to only
one group. Administrative and
secretarial costs would also be cut
down, reducing the drain on the
state's notoriously slim budget.
If representation were based on
populatidn, as the new plan calls
for, it would unquestionably be
fair, since each citizen's vote
would have equal value.
* * *
and practical politics are against
such a change.
The bicameral system is firmly
entrenched in American thinking,
From the days of the first federal
Constitutional Convention, bicam-
eralims has been associated with
the tradition of freedom and de-
mocracy. It is based on a reliance
on slow and careful deliberation
and is a foundation of the "checks
and balances system."
It is an example of the "great

American compromise" between
urban and rural groups.
But practical, Machiavellian
politics, not tradition, is the mo-
tivation of stateRepresentatives
and Senators -who have loudly
protested the new measure. Both
Republicans and Democrats real-
ize that a one-house system would
be slanted in favor of the popu-
lous Detroit area at the expense
of the more sparsely populated
areas, especially the Upper Penin-
While Detroit is heavily~ Demo-
cratic, out-state party-members
oppose the measure for their own
self-preservation. They see their
House and Senate seats slipping
away with the cut-down resulting
from a one-house system.
* * *


Old Problem Confronts
A Revitalized Germany

Daily Staff Writer
FEW WEEKS ago, several
youths sought an answer in
Nazism to the Communist threat
and smeared a swastika on a syn-
agogue Christmas Eve. If they had
in mind a call to Nazi colors, they
should have waited till Easter be-
cause they were crucifying their
own cause.
If spite of the handicap of hav-
ing to gather al their information
on the Nazi era. by osmosis, be-
cause of the reluctance of their
elders to teach them their mis-
leadings, the youth of Germany
do recognize anti-Semitism as a
crime against humanity that will
not bear repeating. If anything,
they are carrying a guilt com-
plex for their parents' deeds and
will swing violently in the other
direction at the faintest whiff of
active anti-Semitism. The furor
over the first swastika smearing
incident aroused others but there
is no reason to think that this in-
dicates a planned anti-Semitic
campaign. These were probably
individual expressions of preju-
dices unresolved from the Nazi
era. The real problem lies not in
the anti-Semitic outbreak but in
Germany's reaction as well as the
rest of the world.
THERE IS bound to be linger-
ing anti-Semitism in Germany.
An attitude of generations cannot
be wiped out by one defeat in war.
However, there is an understand-
ing that anti-anything will not
help their position. That they
realize their mistake is exempli-
fied in Germany's willing restitu-
tiops to Israel and even more in
the tremendous popular reception

to create a troubled atmosphere.. A
Communist agent could easily
paint a few swastikas in a town
and then, in the hysteria, get a
local "McCarthy" to malign a
former Nazi who was opposing his
actions. Reacting to a latent Nazi
Rightist danger, a community or
country could easily swing to the
left, directly into the Soviet line.
The recently-proposed purge of
former Nazis in the German gov-
ernment could easily take on the
appearance of a vendetta. Almost
all Germany was Nazi once and
capable men rise tohthe top under.
any regime. The fact that a man
was a Nazi does not necessarily
mean that he still believes in Nazi
ideology. To just sweep out all
former Nazis indiscriminately
would seriously weaken the Ger-
man government at a time when

it most needs tall the leadership
it can muster. An investigation of
unreformed Nazis would not be
out of place since Germany is
most anxious to prove that she is
cured of Nazism and all its im-
plications. And it would be good
to clear out all the actually dan-
gerous elements in Germany.
* * *
BUT THIS would have to be
handled ultra-carefully to avoid
making the Nazi hunt a re-enact-,
ment of the witch hunts of Salem
or the more recent McCarthy in-
Prejudice is a problem, yes, but
Germany has learned her lesson
with anti-Semitism. We should be
on the watch for rising mob hys-
teria, yes, but this time it is anti-
Nazi hysteria and the innocent
Germans who must be protected.

g $ g t t
Editorial Staff
Editorial Director City Editor
CHARLES KOZOLL ............ Personnel Director
JOAN KAATZ.. <...... ,....,........ Magazine Editor
BARTON HUT IWAITE .,.,,...... Features Editor
JIM BENAGH .......................... Sports Editor
JAMES BOW.. ........,.Associate City Editor
PETER DAWSON.............. Contributing Editor
FRED KATZ .....,,. Associate Sports Editor
DAVE LYON ................. Associate Sports Editor

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