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October 11, 1959 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1959-10-11

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Seventieth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241

Education

and

the

Space Age

hen Opinions Are Free
Truth Will Prevail"

We'll have to move, Mother. This neighborhood
isn't what it used to be.

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

LIBERAL EDUCATION:
Distribution Courses
Serve Good Purpose

I

.Y, OCTOBER 11, 1959

NIGHT EDITOR: THOMAS KABAKER

Reasoned Anti-Communism
Ma Ma Utimte S r vvalR a

)EACE, COEXISTENCE, total disarmament,
United Nations police and inspection teams,
ultural exchange-these are terms which have
aken on the unfortunate ring of a policy of
owardly appeasement. Many Americans shy
way from such talk, which to them smacks
f selling one's soul to the devil. For those who
el guilty about such survival-oriented poli-
.es, it becomes necessary to picture the alter-
atives.
It is possible for the United States to insult
[r. Khrushchev and company at every oppor-
unity. Americans may accuse him of lying
hen he speaks of coexistence, and they may
efuse to meet with him at the summit, arming
iemselves to the hilt to fortress our defiance.
et, now, having renounced this agent of hu-
Ian suffering, may we feel less guilty? What
ould follow?
First, the Russians and the United States,
ould continue the race for arms supremacy,
id eventually, a most cherished fiction-that
ie threat of retaliation is an effective deter-
nt to aggression-would be exploded..
'HE HISTORY of technology promises us
that the present. guided missiles and nuclear
ombs are not the last word in military might.,
or are present radar screens and anti-missile
ckets the last word in defensive procedures.
ne new, major breakthrough might put either
ie Russians or the United States far ahead
i destructive capacity with a speed and com-
leteness which would make retaliation only an
npty threat.
Meanwhile, the economic debilitation and
1e austerity imposed upon the civilian popu-
,tion, which would accompany an all-out arms
ice must also be kept in mind.
More important, a totalitarian state is able
3 mobilize its population and scientists to a
uch greater degree than would be possible
i a democratic society. The odds that Russia
uld break through first are awfully high to
sk betting against.
HE SUCCESS of the tracking and guiding.
systems used in the Soviet moon shot leave
doubt that even at present; Soviet missiles
in deliver nuclear warheads within five miles
. the center of any American city. And al-
lough the United States set up a. fairly elabor-
to system of bomb shelters, they cannot count

on more than seventeen minutes of warning,
hardly enough time to round up the population.
If some did make it, they would eventually
need supplies, but the fallout would mean death
within a wide range of the actual strike. Never
again in their lifetime would they be able to
drink water or milk uncontaminated by radio-
active fallout, which means leukemia, genetic
damage, and (as our Japanese allies still re-
port 15 years after Hiroshima) death from the'
effects of fallout.
And what of the unfortunate people of Hun-
gary, Poldnd, the U.S.S.R.? What of our allies
in Western Europe? Total warfare will destroy
most of them. The couuntry which has for 50
long defended constitutional democracy, fought
for the one system which makes every effort to
protect the innocent, will destroy a much great-
er number of innocent persons than guilty ones.
Our hasty retaliation will certainly be less well
aimed than the coldly planned Soviet attack.
It may or may not get Mr. K. and party-and if
it does, so what? It will almost undoubtedly be
too late.
FACED WITH such alternatives as exist,
many of the most brilliant and idealistic
thinkers of- our time, including Norman Cou-
sins, C. Wright Mills, Linus Pauling, and Ber-.
trand Russell, all firm lovers of democracy and
opponents of totalitarianism, have devoted
themselves to the ideas of peace, co-existence,
total disarmament, United Nations police and
inspection teams, and world government.
Their argument is that destroying human ci-
vilization is, to say the least, an immoral and
senseless way of opposing Communism. Yet,
we are very liable to do this, merely by letting
events proceed on their present course.
There are times for true believers in free-
dom to fight and die for their beliefs. There is
also a time for such people to stay alive in ord-
er to preserve hope of a continued struggle
for their ideals.
The longer road to slight relaxation of the
mutual concessions, and extended cultural
Soviet grasp upon the people of Hungary, the
road that goes through diplomatic friendships,
exchanges in a completely demilitarized atmos-
phere, is a slow and tiring one. Yet, truly cour-
ageous persons are fighting with all their re-
sources for this alternative. And for people
who value the worth of human life there is no
other way.
-MARK PILISUK

By KATHLEEN MOORE
Daily Staff Writer
A BASIC UNREST, tabbed the
"school dilemma" by the Sat-
urday Review, has been growing
in educational circles ever since
Sputnik catapulted into space and
jarred American complacency. The
dilemma lies in how the educa-
tional system can be improved and
modernized without sacrificing ei-
ther the broad basis in liberal arts
or the specialization so often need-
ed to earn a living today.
Although the most burning dis-
cussions center on the high
schools, .the nation's colleges and
universities are not neglected. Lit-
erary college distribution require-
ments at the University, for ex-
emple, undergo constant reevalua-
tion and, revision, as many stu-
dents found to their chagrin this
fall when they elected suddenly
nonexistent courses.
,Specialization is necessary, even
In, the liberal arts and within di-
visions of it-one can concentrate
on international relations or par-
tisan politics in political science,
study literature or composition in
the English department, and the
areas from which the history ma-
jor may choose to focus are many.
* * *
BECAUSE OF THE panoramic
offerings open to him in his owns

-Dailv~--res Richman

SHOULD BE REALISTIC:
Technical Education Justified for Full Li fe.

By NAN MARKEL
Daily Staff Writer
WHY NOT go to engine school?
Technical education can de-
velop individual creativity as well
as liberal education. A bubble)
chamber is as much a creation as
a painting.
Technical and vocational edu-
cation enable men to live well-
rounded lives. For work itself is,
a primary part of existence. A
man spends at least a fourth of
his working life at his job. Work-
ing forty hours a week, this
leaves only 128 hours for leisure
and sleep.
'USUALLY creativity takes place
in the vocational framework. Even
if a man creates nothing, he can
make himself satisfied by doing a
job well.
A man may spend all his life

putting parts together in an as-
sembly line. Walk past his line
some day, he will fit them togeth-
er with amazing speed, showing
off for visitors. He doesn't do
much, but what he does he does
well - and he is proud of it.
A more challenging job done
well brings even greater satisfac-
tion. In engineering, in physics,
in writing a novel, a job is best
done when done creatively. Many
fields, such as advertising, de-
mand creativeenergy; without it
you're fired.
** *
VOCATIONAL training means
a man has a better chance of do-
ing his job well.. Sure, you can't
tell someone how to create. But he
must know the fundamentals be-
fore he goes on to more advanced
work. Einstein knew elementary
algebra before he knew relativity.

There is a place for liberal
training. A humanistic orientation
pts life and work in perspective.
A little, or a lot, of culture goes a
long way to answer 'What am I
doing? Where am I going?'
At its most superficial, "culture"
can definitely enrich leisure time.
And a little humanistic knowledge
can direct a man's creative ac-
complishments, influence a scien-
tist to break down atoms for peace'
rather than bombs, influence a
novelist to write "War and Peace"
rather than sex novels. (Unfor-
tunately the human perspective
which can come from a liberal
training can also be overcome by
offers of money for bu il d in g
bombs and writing sex novels.)
* * *
MANY EDUCATORS overrate
the importance of liberal educa-
tion, because they assume that

vocational knowledge will come
one way or another and they don't
have to worry about it. Liberal
arts are stressed just to assure lib-
eral arts of a place in the educa-
tional picture.
But can it be assumed that vo-
cational. knowledge will come,
somehow?
For assembly line work, yes. But
for building a bridge or turning
out a newspaper or sitting on Wall
Street, no. The English lit. special-
ist is best fitted for teaching Eng-
lish literature, and not very well
fitted to do anything┬░ else.
Witness the numbers of college
students who at graduation can
think of nothing to do but return
to the academic life. Their train-
ing solely in the liberal arts means
that they are ready only to find
work in the realmof liberal arts.
* * *
THEY STRUGGLE to find jobs
in the "world" and usually do. But
why struggle?
For women, especially, a voca-
tion is a good thing. Creativity
aside, it has less idealistic im-
portance. Often young married
women must work to pay their
husbands' way through college. If
they're trained in the liberal arts,
"they can always teach," but not
all women are, suited for teaching.
Many women today are left
with empty lives when their chil-
dren mature and disappear. '
The worthwhile life, the "heroic'
life which humanists deify, finds
final expression in life work. And
most people do not work in liberal'
arts.

field of interest, the student often
finds it hard to understand why
he is required to "waste his time"
on three semesters of a natural
science or even two of English
composition. Yet the University in-
sists, and insists that students in
other, more specialized under-
graduate colleges, take at least a
handful of electives from literary
college offerings.
One reason for the policy may
stem from the idea that life be-
yond the college campus prob-
ably won't be so neatly compart-
mentalized - the engineer, nurse
and advertising executive will be
rubbing elbows, at least socially,
with people from other fields with
other interests. To form any kind
of satisfying social relationship,
the people involved must have
something in commin, perhaps an
acquaintance with the works of
the same poet, or varying degrees
of knowledge on the red shift
theory in astronomy.
Another concideration might
concern growing internatioial as-
pects" of modern life. High power
communication and travel media
constantly bring the contrasting
cultures of the world into closer
and closer contact. The chemical
engineer assigned to the Near East
some of its customs and tradi-
may find it convenient to know
tions'- perhaps the major beliefs
of Islam or attitudes toward mer-
chants would come in handy when
dealing and working with the peo-
ple there.
And the history or English ma-
jor certainly can't be harmed by
an introduction.to the methodolo-
gy employed by scientists, even
though he will never apply their
techniques himself.
DISTRIBUTION requirements,
-in other words, force the student
to sample a variety of academic
disciplines besides his own so that
he may discover for himself the
diversity of knowledge and ways
used in seeking that knowledge.
He is exposed to contrasting cul-
tures, attitudes toward modern
civilization and methods of work
with the hope that he will profit
from the experience by learning'
to appreciate the way of life of his
neighbor, both here and abroad.
Students, after they have com-
pleted that third semester of na-
tural science, often begin to voice
the idea that the time may not
have been wasted after all, even if
they have no desire to take any
more such courses-they seem to
feel that learning how the geolo-
gist goes about his study of the
earthy is, perhaps, more interest-
ing than they had anticipated.
Bringing the contrasts between
the diverse fields of study more
sharply into focus is the concern
of the literary college committee
working to improve distribution
courses. It might well be the con-
cern of the educators now tangl-
ing with the dilemma of what
they feel is either too little or too
much specialization-keep special-
ization, but add a bit of the cos-
mopolitan too.

;

AX LERNER:
The End of the Pro-Consuls

ON HER 75TH BIRTHDAY:
Mrs. Roosevelt a 'world Symbol'

NEW DELHI-The big fact in the British
elections has been the role Britain will
play of peacemaker. Thrusting minor issues
aside, the major one has been fought out in the
shadow of the coming summit conference: who
could best talk with Khrushchev-Macmillan
or Gaitskill? "
I suspect that the American elections will
turn on the same hinge: who can best talk with
Khrushchev-Nixon or Kennedy, Rockefeller
or Stevenson? The difference between the two
:ountries is that while the American President
for some years to come will be'meetiing in sum-
mit talks with the Russian Chairman ("two or
three a year" is Khrushchev's estimate) and
will be tussling directly with him because these
are the two Great Powers, the role of the Brit-
sh Prime Minister will be to mediate between
the two and ke p the talks from breaking
down.
The real issue between Labor and the Qon-
servatives in the election has been whether this
could best be done by a Party whose leader
explored the road to Moscow but is trusted in
Washington, or by a Party whose semi-Marxist
radition (now drastically diluted, to be sure)
nakes its leaders understand the thinking of
he Russian leaders better, and therefore able
o interpret Moscow and Washington to each
other. -
Put thus the difference gets pretty thin. Yet
his (along with intangibles like the feel of
prosperity, the Jasper affair, the look of Mac-
nillan and Gaitskill on TV, the debate over the
Gallup Polls) is what elections get decided on.
WHEN I WAS in London during the Eisen-
hower visit my mind went back to my pre-
rious trips to England. I first saw London in
December, 1944, when I came there as a cor-
espondent, just off a troopship, in a blackout.
'or the past decade I have kept coming back,
>f ten timing myself to the Labor Party annual
:onference.
I have been reviewing in my memory the or-'
leals I have suffered for the sake of attending
hese conferences. I think of the dreary water-
ng places I have had to stay in (for some rea-
on the British always do their Party planning
n some version of Atlantic City), the leathery
neals I have had to eat, the Victorian (or Ed-
vardian if I was lucky) rooms I have tried to
leep in, the initerminable debates I have trieC
o follow in vast draughty halls, the intricacies

and intrigues of British Party politics I have
sought to decipher. I remember the awkward
dances that always ended the conference, with
Herbert Morrison and Clement Attlee( now
both become Lords) pushing their partners
around the floor in a graceless effort to show
that after burying their knives in each other
all Laborites are -jolly lads and lasses together.
If you ask why I didn't also attend the Con-
servative conferences, the answer is that I live
under an American Constitution, and that
would have come under the head of cruel and
unusual punishment. But another answer is
that the Labor Party had the more interest-
ing men, and I felt closer to them-men like
Harold Laski; Nye Bevan, Sam Watson, Rich-
ard Crossman, Stafford Cripps, Jim Griffiths,
and Hugh Gaitskill. I found in the Labor lead-
ers both the discipline of ideas and the.,passion
for politics and debate which has always drawn
me and will always draw me, no matter in what
part of the world.
THE NEW EMPIRES of our time-the Ameri-
1 can, the Russian, the Chinese-are vast
power-structures built on a massive base of ter-
ritory and resources. The British Empire was
one of the few in history which was built on
a slim base, so that a handful of people from
a 'few rocky islands had somehow, found the
magic to conquer and rule half the world. When
Disraeli presented Victoria with the title, Em-
press of India, making a dowdy English ma-
tron the ruler of a sub-Continent thousands of
miles away, with hundreds of millions of dark-
skinned subjects, the British were in the noon-
day of their power.
Twilight came swiftly. Today the time of the
pro-consuls is over. The British diplomats with
whom I have talked as I travel about are usu-
ally cultivated and able men, but-like the
French-they present that thin edge of ironic
futility that men have who feel they are on the
rim of power, not at the center. The attitude
of the British leaders of both parties toward
America is still the "Athens complex", much
like that of, the Greeks at the time of the Ro-
man empire, who saw their mission as one of
guiding the power of Rome by the values and
wisdom of Athens.
THEY HAVE LEFT an impressive residue on
the world. Here in Indiathe whole massive
experiment in democracy would be impossible

By JUDITH DONER
Daily Staff Writer
"SHE WASN'T the President's
wife-she was Eleanor Roose-
velt."
So spoke Prof. William Haber of
the economics department, of the
evolution in the personality of the
woman who had once been too un-
sure of herself to give a dinner
party and too meek to fire an inept
maid for her children.
Prof. Haber's is a knowledgeable
opinion, for he has had personal
contact with the woman who cele-
brates her 75th birthday today.
"She was the real spark plug be-
hind the creation of the National
Youth Administration (NYA) born
in the depths of the depression,"
Prof. Haber related. It was while
working with the NYA that he and
Mrs. Roosevelt became acquainted.
Prof. Haber later served as state
director of the organization.
Mrs. Roosevelt was deeply dis-
turbed about what was happening
to youth during the depression of
the thirties, he reported. As she
traveled all over the country, she
invariably got into conversations
about young people.
She feared that their idleness
and the economic problems of their
families would plant seeds for a
difficult future in the minds of
the 'nation's youth.
FOR THESE REASONS, the NYA
born: It was, in fact, a Works Pro-
gress Administration (WPA) for
youth, Pof. Haber explained. "Hun-
dreds of thousands of students con-
tiinued in high schools and col-
leges on NYA stipends, in return
for certain kinds of work."
Prof. Haber remarked that the
NYA creation was just an example
of the universalism of Mrs. Roose-
velt's interests and her mind. "She
gives me the impression of pos-
sessing tremendous intuitive pow-
ers--sensing and feeling what oth-
er people learn by research and
reason," he explained.
Genuinely and deeply disturbed
and involved in the fate of refu-
gees and hurt people everywhere,
Mrs. Roosevelt has become an in-
ternational symbol of the kind of
goodness and humanitarianism
which has so long been associated

versal recognition of her humanity
--made it possible for her to have
an influence beyond her mere
membership."
This influence had a lot to do
with the kinds of resolutions on
health, on the conditions of wo-
men workers, education, and child
labor introduced, discussed and
passed by the United Nations, Prof.
Haber said.
* * *
CHARACTERIZING HER as a
woman of infinite patience when it
comes to answering questions of
young people, Prof. Haber recalled
that she spoke for over an hour
and answered questions for anoth-
er 30 minutes in her most recent
Hill Auditorium appearance.
"Considering her age and her
trayels, I sought to protect her
against further questions from stu-
dents who wished to enter the
louunge where she was resting," he
explained. "But she heard the com-
motion outside the door and in-
sisted that the students be allowed
to enter."
"One student with a chip on his
shoulder and antagonism in his
voice wished to know what she

told the Soviet people about Little
Rock on her Moscow trip," Prof.
Haber said.
"It was interesting to watch the
tension in his face-and the seren-
ity in hers." he observed.
"Why I told them the truth, of
course," Mrs. Roosevelt answered.,
"I told him that we are all dis-
turbed about what's happening in
Little Rock-that the matter is
being discussed by the press, radio
and television.
"I TOLD THEM that the integra-
tion decision clashed with -a long
tradition in the South so that it
was inevitable that it would take
some time before everyone accept-
ed the Supreme Court's view-as
most already did.
"I told them that in time Little
Rock will be like a bad dream, and
that the whole country will support
the views of the court on integra-
tion.
"The Russians understood," she
added.
And so did the student question-
er," Prof. Haber declared. "It was a
delight to see the tension on his
face relax.
"I wish I could teach that way."

V'

' -

To The,

Independence*
To The Editor:
THE TEACHING practices of our
University call for a serious
and unbiased appraisal.
In general (every general state-
ment will have exceptions) the
practice adopted not only in the
undergraduate but also in the
graduate school is as follows.
1) The professor teaches and.dis-
cusses in the class material per-
tinent to the course.
2) He assigns home-work to be
handed in.
3) The home-work is graded and
affects the final course grade to a
larger or less degree depending on
the individual professor's discre-
tion.
4) The 'blue books' and final ex-
amination are set by the same pro-
fessor teaching the course, and as
such, they are apt to (and mostly
do) contain similar, if not identi-
cal, problems and topics discussed
by him in the class or given for
honie-work.
The following consequences im-
mediately result from the above
background:,
1) A student is forced to at-
tend the class for the home as-
signments which affect his course
grade. This it is claimed, perhaps
rightly, makes the student study
regularly. Yet it suffers from the
far greater disadvantage of bind-
in +he studenttoina sudnvina

knowledge of the particular prob-
lems and topics discussed in class
is at a great disadvantage in blue
books and examiriations to the
student who may not have such a
masterly command ovor the. course
content but possesses a forehand
knowledge of the particular prob-
lems or topics discussed in class.
THE FOLLOWING extremely
practical plans can remedy the
above academic ills: -
1) The blue books and examina-
tions should be set by a professor
in the department different from
the one teaching the course. The
p a p e r - s e tjt e r shotild have no
knowledge whatsoever of what
particular problems and topics
were discussed, in the class except
the broad limits of the course cov-
erage. This will give the same aca-
demic fairness to all students
whether they attend the class or
not.
2) Home assignments should be
given and corrected (not graded),
but they should not be counted for
the course grade. Such a practice,
denying no benefit to such stu-
dents who may need the necessary
practice through home-work and-
its correction, will force no stu-
dent to a school-boy type of stu-
dying schedule. The risk of stu-
dents getting through the course
wth superficial knowledge got by
last minute cramming can be
eliminated by so setting the exam-
Ination papers that only students

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