"What? Add A $10 Gadget Like That?"
C, 4rfalrigan Bal
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Mlen Opinions Are Fres
Truth WM Preval"
At Greer Recital
FRANCES GREER once again brought a receptive audience under
the spell of her wonderful vocal artistry in a recital in Rackham
Lecture Hall last night.
Miss Greer was assisted by Eugene Bossart at the piano and the
Stanley Quartet in a program of music dating mostly from the las,
The ability to evoke just the right mood from songs of widely
varying moods is rare among singers. It is an ability which Miss Greer
possesses in abundance.
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
DAY, MARCH 10, 1960
NIGHT EDITOR: KATHLEEN MOORE
Two Views of Gus Scholle,
Michigan Labor Leader:
boring Democrat.. .
GUS SCHOLLE, the state AFL-CIO leader, is
a frightening man. He gives the impression
of an immense power, and a will to use it if
necessary. As a speaker, he alternately rumbles
and reasons; He had the disappointing small
audience of young Democrats eating out of his
hand when he spoke Monday night. And he
patently made no claim to great professorial
sophistication. He spoke as what he is; the
leader of laboring men.
His message was simple: that there is a mess
in state politics, and that this mess is largely
the responsibility of business. He cited strong
evidence, and even if some of it was question-
able, it is a serious and weighty indictment.
ON THE OTHER SIDE of the coin, Scholle
himself has often intervened in politics,
and business must have a great deal of telling
evidence against his activities.
But at least, he represents people and not
The use of union power in politics can be
overdone, certainly. But, if equitably used, per-
haps it is not as much a perversion of the
political process as many claim.
Gus Scholle Is a democrat; he believes his-
tory, and interprets it as a vindication of his
advocacy of equality and opportunity. The
Founding Fathers did include more checks
than Scholle seems inclined to favor, but this
is an issue for negotiation.
It does not auger well that all politicians
and citizens apparently do not listen to Gus
Scholl when he speaks as a Democrat.
Big Labor Captain .. .
STATE API-CIO political leader (Gus) Scholle
condemns inroads into Michigan politics
made by big business, but apparently approves
of any such inroads as long as they are made
by big labor.,
In a recent speech here in which he was
quoted as blasting industry's desire "to control
state government," he spokeof the acceptibility
of candidates for endorsement by the state
AFL-CIO Executive Council.
His battle cry was "Government of and for
the people must be also by the people," and
few would dispute it. But let's let the people
do their own endorsing, without the AFL-CIO
Executive Council telling them how to vote.
rI1HE RESULT of business interests' influence
in Lansing has been, according to the report
of Scholle's talk, "an alliance of big business
in the state which guns for control to gain
various economic advantages."
Scholle certainly would have been hard put
to specify just what "various economic ad-
vantages" such an "alliance" has secured for
Michigan business. Or maybe he hasn't noticed
the recently publicized migration of industries
from the state, its shrinking industrial growth
as compared with other states.
Perhaps he feels big labor could clean up
the "morass of filth" he sees in today's politics.
It's questionable, to say the least. On the basis
of recent Congressional subcommittee evidence,
big labor cannot even rid its own operations of
a "morass of filth."
No, Mr. Scholle, your cryptic comments on
business and government do not present a con-
vincing case for hailing big labor as the saving
grace of politics.
THE PROGRAM opened with;
performance of Le Nozze di Figaro
intended to replace Susanna's
aria "Deh Zini non tardar. " Bril-
liant and free singing made this
number a strong opener.
As a presumably unintentional
tribute to Samuel Barber's fiftieth
birthday, ' Miss Greer next per-
formed that composer's song cy-
cle, "Hermit Songs." This is a
group of ten songs, the texts of
which are translations of Irish
writings from the 8th to the 13th
centuries. Some of the texts were
re-written by W. H. Auden and
The songs are short and evoca-
tive of the words. Since the text
seems to be the result of doodling
by various monks, they are not all
suitable for ideal musical setting.
* * *
THROUGHOUT the work, Miss
Greer and her magnificent ac-
companist, Mr. Bossart, worked
with splendid unity of spirit. Mr.
Barber would have been proud of
this tribute, I am sure.
The first half of the program
ended with Ginastera's "Cinco
canciones populares argentinas."
These five songs have been fea-
tured on previous recitals by Miss
Greer. It was a distinct pleasure
to have this opportunity to hear
them 'again. They are marvelous
The Stanley Quartet joined
Miss Greer and Mr. Bossart for a
performance of Chausson's
"Chanson p e r p e tu e 11e." This
work, composed just a year before
the early death of the composer,
is one of his most appealing cre-
ations. The performance was
* s *
RAVEL'S three songs from
"Scherezade" closed the pro-
gram. Originally intended for
voice and orchestra it is inevit-,
able that Ravel's multi-colored
instrumentation would be missed
in a performance with piano ,ac-
companiment. However, in this
performance I missed nothing.
These two artists, Frances
Greer and Eugene Bossart, have
been working together for a num-
ber of years. Their association
has consistently produced some
of the most satisfying perform-
ances of my experience.
This was certainly one of them.
MeiselDi~scusses Elite Theory
TODAY AND TOMORROW
The Size of the Problem
HERE AT HOME the overriding question is
how to pay for the public needs of our
growing population in an era when our social
order is relentlessly challenged. These public
needs include not only the rising costs of the
race of armaments and the competition among
the underdeveloped nation. They include also
the rising costs of scientific research, of better
public schools, of more adequate hospitals and
public health services, public works, roads,
water supply and sewage disposal, slum clear-
ance and urban renewal.
There are some who will say that we cannot
meet all our public needs without abandoning
the freedom of our society. There are others of
us who say that we must meet these needs, that
we can meet them without sacrificing our lib-
erty, and indeed that by meeting them we shall
strengthen our liberty. This is the central issue
of our time, and no one who is interested in
public life can ignore it.
AN EXCELLENT newspaper, which I read
regularly and greatly respect, "The Wall
Street Journal," said recently in an editorial
that to argue, as I have done, that our public
needs have to be met is "to invite us to start
surrendering our liberties in panic." For to
meet the needs will cost a lot of money, and
this will put us on the "dreary road of statism"
and "when the individual must face the face-
less state, he has only as much free choice a
the state chooses to grant."
This would indeed be monstrous if it were
allowed to happen. How are we to make up our
minds whether it will happen if we decide to
devote to defense and to other public needs
enough of our wealth to pay for them? One way
to go about deciding it is to look at the problem
quantitatively and concretely, and not ab-
stractly and in generalities. Let us then look
at some figures.
I am taking my figures from the Fourth Re-
port of The Rockefeller Brothers Fund which
was issued in 1958. It covers all government
expenditures, Federal, state, and local, which
are for the purchase of goods and services. It
omits transfer payments which, like the in-
terest on public debts, "do not make a direct
THOMAS TURNER, Editor
PHILIP POWER ROBERT JUNKER
Editorial Director City Editor
CHARLES KOZOLL .............. Personnel Director
JOAN KAATZ,......................Magazine Editor
JIM BENAGH ..............................Sports Editor
PETER DAWSON ............ Associate City Editor
BARTON HUTHWAITE .. Associate Editorial Director
JO HARDEE .......................Contributing Editor
FRED KATZ ................ Associate Sports Editor
<ER LIPPMANN 1
claim on our production of goods and services."
The report contains figures for the year 1957
and estimates for the year 1967. The Report is,
by common consent I believe, expert, disin-
terested, and obviously it is not partisan.
IN 1957 ALL government purchases of goods
and services came to 86.4 billions. In 1967.
if we meet the public needs for defense and
other things which the authors of the Report
are agreed upon, the cost will be 153 billions
(in 1957 dollars). This gives us an idea of the
dimensions of the problem. The question then
is whether the expenditure for public purposes
of 153 billions in 1967 would revolutionize our
In 1957, when we spent 86.4 publicly, we were
taking 20 per cent of our national production,
leaving 80 per cent in private hands. What
would be the situation in 1967 if we carry out
the programs to meet public needs which are
recommended in the Rockefeller Report? The
answer to that question will depend on our
rate of growth in the next ten years.
The Rockefeller estimates show that on the
feasible assumption that our gross national
product can grow at a rate of 4 per cent per
year, the share taken for public purposes in
1967, if their recommendations as to what is
desirable are followed, would be only 24 per
cent and the share left in private hands would
be 76 per cent. This would mean that the rise
in private consumption, which on the average
has been 2 per cent per year, would drop to 1.4
per cent. We would not be raising our private
standard of life quite so fast as we are now.
But we would be raising our public standard
and we would be doing it with three-quarters of
our product still in private hands. No one can
say that on these fairly conservative assump-
tions we would not still be a free society.
TESE FIGURES make the assumption that
we can grow only at the rate of 4 per cent.
If, however, we could raise the rate of growth
to 5 per cent, the position would be changed
substantially. We would then be spending for
public purposes 22 per cent, which is not much
more than the present share of our spending,
and there would still be left in private hands 78
per cent. At the same time consumption would
be rising at 2.8 per cent, which is above the
It is evident then, that the argument of "The
Wall Street Journal" is based on an assumption
which is not stated. The assumption is that the
United States economy, in this age of automa-
tion, cannot increase its productivity fast
enough to support our growing public needs.
The figures I have cited indicate that if we
can now achieve a growth rate equal to that
of the years 1947 to 1953, that is to say an an-
nual rate of growth of 4.7 per cent, instead of
the 2.3 per cent rate of the years since then, we
shal1 h eable tn nrvide the needed puble serv-.
By NAN MARKEL
Daily Stafn Writer
PROF. James H. Meisel of the
political science department
yesterday surveyed the history and
usefulness of "the lamented but
not yet late" theory of elites.
He pointed out that "the com-
mon people had intuitively always
known the fact of domination, and
had referred to the masters as
them"'"- these masters were
"more rumored than identified,"
but were experienced as a true
fact of life just as any myth is
felt to be a true expression.
Theories of the elite, as such,
have come in times of social crisis
when we no longer see leaders'
functions and responsibilities
clearly, Prof. Meisel told attend-
ants at yesterday's sociology col-
TRACING THE theories' growth,
he noted Henri St. Simon pro-
claimed a law of two elites-one
in charge of values, the other con-
trolling the material assets of so-
ciety. Both elites functioned as a
dominant minority over and
against the ruled majority.
Then Gaetano Mosca took up
elite theory as a "new, scientific
tool to smash the Marxism class
concept . . . a godsend to all old-
style liberals who wanted to give
battle to that twin utopia of
democracy and socialism."
Mosca showed the Marxian pro-
letariat would give rise to a new
class of managers. Robert Michels,
his disciple, "sadly penned his
Iron Law of Oligarchy" under
which circulation of elites was to
go on forever.
Prof. Meisel indicated Mosca's
model was derived from a tradi-
tionalist society in which elites
were small and relatively stable.
With "our kind of post-capitalist
mass society," the model seems to
have little relevance, he said.
* * *
BUT NEW ELITE THEORY has
sprung up-ironically, "the man
who more than anybody else was
to rejuvenate the theory of the
elite, conceived of himself as its
gravedigger par excellence."
This man is C. Wright Mills. His
elite is "The Power Elite" in which
power has become so concentrated
that, for the first time in modern
history, men could make their
own history free from the limita-
tions of Marxian determinacy.
Mills has painted his elite "as a
new triad of corporation direc-
tors, government bureaucrats, and
generals." The new masters do not
create their own institutions:
rather, they are created by them.
WHAT ARE the criteria for an
elite? Prof. Meisle named three:
A group 1) conscious of its iden-
tity as a group 2) which is co-
hesive, working together as a
group 3) which works to some
Elite theorists have not proved
that a cohesive ruling class exists.
But this "is not the same as hav-
ing shown that such a ruling class
does not exist," Prof. Meisel
Much current criticism of elitist
theory has denied its usefulness
for modern scientific inquiry.
These critics have called it "im-
pressionistic, somewhat metaphy-
sical assertions about the nature
of political decision-making."
One critic notes, "What we seem
to have most in pluralistic politi-
cal systems is rather a fluid elite
whose membership varies over
time, and at any given point is
depending on the issues at stake,
the scope of the group's interest,
and so forth."
* * ',
PROF. MEISEL puts some stock
in these criticisms, but he pointed
out that an elite may be viewed
as more than a group of decision
makers. Decision-making is only
one elite function, and "not all
members of the dominant minority
are necessarily decision-makers."
Also, supposition of a "fluid
elite" presupposes; if not equality
among the various social groups,
then at least their ability to main-
tain between them a perfectly
fluid equilibrium. Could this be
Prof. Meisel offers two ways
elisist theory could retain "some
modicum of usefulness."
* * *
IF THE CONCEPT "has only a
very limited usefulness for the
social analysis of Western society
at the present time of relative
social peace," it is still applicable
to the kind of societies for which
it was originally developed-"un-
derdeveloped" countries of Asia
and Africa "where decolonization
proceeds at such a fast pace that
the necessary social forces have to
be virtually created by energetic
These native groups, which in
many instances are military as the.
Young Colonels of Egypt or Iraq,
can be identified and properly
And "there remains a last possi-
bility to interpret the traditional
Western and the New Eastern
elites with the tools of the Soci-
ology of Knowledge," Prof. Meisel
Elite theories could be under-
stood as myths, "as the pseudo-
scientific camouflage of claims to
power . . . . as the authority de-
mands of the men of achieve-
an aria which Mozart wrote for a
in 1789. This rondo, "Al desio," was
(Continued from Page 2)
For foreign nationals only: A) Adver-
tising. As an advertising brand man
you would have over-al responsibility
for one or more individual brands de-
veloping consumer acceptance for
products, financial planning, as well as
advertising and promotion. Con-
tries - Belgium, Canada, France, Italy
Mexico,'Philippines, Puerto Rico, Swit-
zerland, Venezuela. B) Purchasing.
After a period of training you will be
working closely with suppliers and
with many parts of the P & G organ-
ization to purchase the equipment and
raw materials necessary for proper op-
eration of the business. Countries --
Belgium, Mexico, Venezuela, Philip-
pines. C) Sales. After successfully dem-
onstrating your ability to handle the
sale of the company's products in a
territory of your own, you would pro-
gress into the area of sales manage-
ment. Countries - Belgium, Italy,
Mexico, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Vene-
zuela. +D) Finance. Careers in finance
could include -providing fnancal in-
formation and forecasts which would
directly affect the subsidiary's prog-
ress. Training in accounting is nees-
sary. Countries - Italy, Mexico, Phil-
ippines, Switzerland and venezuela.
E Factory Management. Engineering
and Chemistry majors. After your ini--
tialetraining period you would be
placed in charge of an operating or
staff department and be completely re-
sponsible for itsnoperation. Countries
-Belgium, France, Mexico, Philip-
pines, Venezuela. F) Technical Chem-
istry and Engineering Majors. Men
work in close cooperation with the Re-
search and Development department
of Procter & Gamble in the U.S. Chem-
ical Engineering or Chemistry is neces-
sary. Countries - Belgium, Canada,
France Italy, Philippines. 1) U.S eiti-
zens. Men with a degree in Liberal
Arts or Business Administration for
overseas marketing training Career.
This is not a short term position but
rather they are looking for people who
want to live abroad and work with
Procter & Gamble as a career. You
will be given a paid furlough every
two years to come back to the U.S.
You will be located in any of the
countries listed above.
Procter & Gamble Co. of Canada,
Ltd., Location of work: Canada. Cana-
dian citizens only. Men for 1) Adver-
tising; 2) Purchasing; 3) Sales: 4) Fi-
nance; 5) Factory Management; 6)
Technical Staff. For further informs-
tion on the positions please read the
information listed under Procter
Gamble Co., Overseas Division.
Fri., March 18:
Sears, koebuck and Co.-See Thurs-
Travelers Insurance Co., Hartford,
Conn. Location of work: Detroit, Hart-
ford, (home office) or offies through-
out the U.S. Graduates: June, Aug.
The company writes all kinds of in-
surance and bonds commonly obtain-
able. The policies cover individuals
and groups and corporate property and
other assets against substantially ev-
ery insurable loss. Men and women
with a degree in Liberal Arts or Busi-
ness Admin. for the following divi-
sions: Actuarial, Claim, Sales and
Service, Underwriting, or Admnistra-
tion. In most cases, training combines
formal instruction with on-the-job
rotation through various aspects of
Food and Drug Admin., Dept. of
Health, Education and welfare, De-
troit, Mich. Location of work: Detroit.
Mich.: offices in principal cities of the
U.S. Graduates: June, Aug. The Food
and Drug Admin. Is resonsibe for the
protection of the public from harmful,
contaminated or improperly labeled
foods, drugs, devices and cosmetics.
Men with a degree In science (Re-
quire 30 semester hours, any combin-
ation of physical or biological sciences)
for Food and Drug Inspectors. One in-
spects production and distribution es-
tablishments, collects, samples, inves-
tigates injury complaints, outbreaks of
poisoning, and reports evidences of
violations of the law. He examines the
sanitary conditions in manufacturing
establishments and the techniques and
controls employed in the processing,
labeling and packaging of foods, drugs
The following part-time jobs are
available to students. Applications for
these jobs can be made in the Non-
Academic Personnel Office, Rm. 1020
Admin. Bldg., during the following
(Continued on Page 6)
To the Editor:
I WAS SHOCKED and surprised
at the action taken at the Big
Ten meeting in Columbus to out-
law participation in NCAA spon-
sored championship events and
hence to end the season with the
conference meets. I feel that this
action is the athletic directors'
ultimate weapon in their power
struggle with the faculty repre-
sentatives for control in the forma-
tion of athletic policy.
This motion was initiated by
some athletic directors as an ex-
pression of disgust and protest
over faculty action in killing post
season football competition. It
seems to me that the athletic
directors feel that the faculties at
the individual schools will not
back this resolution and thus a
resounding defeat will be inflicted
upon the faculty representatives
and hence force them to retract
their stand regarding post season
* * *
BANNING NCAA competition in
all sports is certainly not con-
sistant with the recent Big Ten
decision to continue NCAA foot-
ball television policies through
1961 and reject a large offer from
a private source to televise all Big
It seems consistant with recent
policies of deemphasis of athletics
in the member schools of the Big
Ten that the faculties will ap-
prove the resolution. Banning
NCAA competition in such sports
as swimming, hockey, wrestling,
basketball, track, golf, tennis and
baseball will undoubtably result
in the lowering of quality of com-
petition and interest in these
sports to a point where they will
die due to apathy on the part of
the coaches, the athletes, students
and alumni from which support
so necessary for the maintenance
and growth of these sports is de-
What athlete of Olympic or near
Olympic caliber will want to at-
tend a Big Ten school knowing
that he will be able to compete in
no meet above the level of the
-Lanny Geibman, '61
New Books at Library
Bottome, Phyllis - Walls of
Glass; NY, Vanguard Press, 1959.
Brennan, Louis A. - No Stone
Unturned; NY, Random House,
Clark, Gerald - Red China To-
day; NY, David McKay Co., 1959.
It Takes Two To Tango, but 22 To Con-Con