EhA Mitigan Baly
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD N CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. 0 Phone NO 2-3241
When OpWi Are Free
Trluth Will Prevauo
Many Flee, Protest
Ideological Press ures
(EDITOR'S NOTE: The following is the third in a three-part series of
articles discussing the state of education in East Germany.)
By BARBARA BERG
(From the Antioch (oUege Record's "University Series")
J"E INCREASED ideologiclal pressure was strongly opposed by many
students and professors. In 1957, student demands secured the re-
moval of Russian from the prominent place it then held on the uni-
During the period from January 1 through July 31, 1958, 680 col-
lege and university students, as well as 23 professors and 85 lecturer
and assistants, reported to West Berlin refugee officials. Other refu-
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
SATURDAY, MARCH 5, 1960 NIGHT EDITOR: NAN MARKEL
Tuition Increases Must Carry
Increased Scholarship Funds
WHAT EVER happened to the historical The University presently has two million
principle of free education at a state uni- dollars out in student loans, and between three
versity? The question is especially pertinent and a half and four million dollars are dis-
with the recent speculations of a new tuition tributed each year for scholarships. Should
Increase at the University. tuitions be raised, this amount will not be ade-
The answer to the question lies, of course, quate to meet expected demands. The best
in the well known fact that just about every- answer to this problem seems to be the setting
thing costs more today than it did in the past. aside of an adequate per cent of the Univer-
The University must pay more to keep its sity's income for more student scholarships
faculty, construction of new facilities cost and loans. These funds could be taken out of
more than ever and the costs of employing increased student fees which seem to be in
non-academic personnel has risen steadily. store for the University in the coming aca-
The money must come from somewhere and demc year.
seemingly the Legislature will not and can-
not pay its fair share in supporting the Uni- THIS DOES not solve the general problem of
versity. Traditionally, student fees have aver- increased costs of education, but it seems
aged around 22 per cent of the University's insolvable for the time being. Inflation will
total operating budget. Both administrators continue and the University cannot stand
and legislators plan to maintain this ratio, against it and still maintain its excellence.
saying that it is only fair for students to pay But the financial selection of students will
for a part of their education, be lessened by increased scholarship funds. If
University officials are now trying to reach education costs for students should rise, it
an agreement with the Legislature in deter- is the duty of the state and the University to
mining a mutually agreeable level for student see that no worthy students are forced to drop
fees in view of the steadily increasing operat- out of school or be discouraged from entering
ing costs of the University and the limited f- a university because of financial need.
nancal resources of the state. The potential for academic excellence is
MAIN PROBLEM in any tuition raise is equally distributed throughout the income
not whether to increase student fees or not spectrum, and if this state and this country
but one of financial selection of students. Ob to produce more and better students,
viously, as education costs go up, fewer stu- scholarship funds must be expanded.
dents will be able to afford a college degree. -THOMAS KABAKER
Favorite Indoor Sport
AT MICHIGAN, one institution receives al- STUDENTS have launched invectives at the
most as much abuse as dorm food. Criticiz- exorbitant fees that Health Service charges.
Ing the Health Service, whether it is in fact We can only assume that they already knew
good or bad, is a favorite indoor sport. that, to save money, there is a complete phar-
Various comments, all equally plausible, float macy in the basement. They obviously also
around campus: "I came in with a sore toe realize that every year Health Service operates
and they told me I had appendicitis"; or "I at a deficit, because they only charge the bare
came in with a cold and they made me come minimum to cover expensive drugs and the
back ten times to have my ears, eyes, nose, physician's fees.
throat and head checked."
Presumably, too, everyone knows that he is
From the sounds of the complaints, one allowed 15 days of general hospitalization per
would think that all the doctors in Health semester at a fraction of the ordinary cost of
Service made concentrated efforts to mis- spa rm.Asfrere"rgn'fe
diagnose, mistreat, and mistrust every student a hospital room. Also free are "surgeon's fees
daring to disturb their professional peace and for acute conditions," simple drugs and dress-
quiet. ings, and ambulance fees in emergencies. Also
psychiatric aid is available at the incredibly
WHAT IS the matter? Is all this criticism exorbitant cost of $2.00 a visit.
merely rebellion against authority? It would No one paints hexes on the walls, but the
seem a bit more mature to take out this self- undercurrent of grumbling is overwhelming.
assertion more constructively. Perish the thought of going to health service
It may come as a shock to many, but our for that cold or stomach ache-the upper class-
University Health Service is one of the best men would scream in horror.
In the country. With the services of one of However, personal gripes, prejudices or ag-
America's greatest medical centers available, it gressions notwithstanding, the services of an
employs a highly trained staff and covers a experienced physician at Health Service just
wide range of activities. The doctors happen to might do more good than a chip on the shoul-
be human, with human imperfections, but if der.
you Insist we might try to mechanize them. -SUE HERSBERG
TODAY AND TOMORROW
Television and Press
By WALTER LIPMANN~
"... Sure it looks innocent enough but wait 'til they get organized-next thing it'll be world disarm-
ament, then world peace-why we'll never have a career when we graduate."
Prospect, of United Europe
gees included .96 students from
technical schools and 134 high
school graduates and student ap-
The total number of refugees
do not report to the official refu-
gee offices and some go directly
to the emergency camps in West
THE NUMBER of people ar-
rested in East Germany for op-
posing the rigid measures also in-
creased. Professors and students
who were arrested during the
period from January through late
July, 1958, have been counted at
70, and the figure may be as-
sumed to be even higher since
many persons are arrested se-
To check the flight of scholars
and students to the West, a reso-
lution was passed by which per-
sons admitted to a doctor's degree
or state diploma "will have their
academic degrees w i t h d r a w n
should they violate their alle-
giance to the industrial and agri-'
cultural workers' state and ab-
scond to the camp of imperial-
Considerable shortages of
teaching and research personnel
have resulted from the flights, ar-
rests, expulsions and suspensions.
* * *
DURING THE past few years
the center of ideological opposi-
tion has been Leipzig University.
Here Professor Ernest Block, a
leading Marxist scholar and head
of the Leipzig Institute for Phil-
osophy, and Professor Hans Mey-
er, head of the Faculty of Ger-
man, were extremely influential
in opposition to the regime.
They supported the views of,
the unorthodox Hungarian phil-
osopher and critic George Lukacs,
and the ideas of the young Hun-
garian and Polish intellectuals in
1956. Both were attacked strongly
and Professor Bloch was removed
from his position and forbidden
contact with students.
Thus it appears no coincidence
that in 1958-59 the students at
Leipzig were asked to declare their
allegiance to the government be-
fore matriculation in the follow-
ing oath: "I swear to pursue my
studies at the Karl Marx Univer-
sity, Leipzig, in the spirit of So-
cialism, to support actively the
policies of the government of the
German Democratic Republic and
to acquire thorough knowledge on
the basis, of dialectical and his-
AT THE STATE:
CONSIDERING that the current
cinema these past weeks has
concerned itself primarily with
sexual perversities, cannibalism
and an infinite number of homi-
cidal acts, Ouida's unpretentious
tale of a provincial chap in Bel-
gium intent on becoming a painter
should have emerged as refreshing
Unfortunately, it doesn't.
Certainly no one will want to
quibble with the breathtaking
photography of Otto Heller of the
well-turned screenplay which suc-
cessfully attempts to capture the
original flavor of the tale. Both
make considerable use of the wide
screen expanses successfully and
professionally, and some of the
exquisite views of the lovely Bel-
gian countryside are worth the
film's inspection alone.
BUT THE DIRECTION of Robert
B. Rachowitz is a bit too flourish-
ing and ostentatious and he has
not been able to sustain the neces-
sary deft quality which is of the
essential to its success.
In his direction, there is a
touch of grandiose and an excess
of showmanship without a sufi-
cient balancing quality of light-
But besides the cumbersome di-
rection, the film often flounders
because of the inadequacy .of the
moppet members of its cast.
DAVID LADD, is too often un-
convincing as the aspiring painter
and he is given little support by
the other younger members pres-
ent. Unfortunately this is disas-
trous in spots and only the sea-
soned performance of veteran
actor Donald Crisp was imbued
with the proper endearing quality.
Unfortunately "Dog of Flanders'
is too often statis and insuffici-
ently spirited but I can't help but
add, that although I found the
film disappointing, the cute tooth-
less seven-year-old blonde in back
of me was held in rapt attention.
-Marc Alan Zagoren
By NORMA SUE WOLFE and
Special To The Daily
B RUGES, Belgium-Located in
this quaint, medieval Belgian
village, "Europae Collegium" is
uniquely fighting for the develop-
ment of a future united states of
"There are 43 students repre-
senting 14 nationalities, including
four Americans," Prof. Henry
Brugmans, rector of the College
of Europe, told The Daily.
Chivalry . .
To the Editor:
REMEMBER when you were a
little boy or girl and your
mother would say to you, "Now
don't forget to stand up on the
bus and give your seat to a lady."
Well, that's what my mother used
to tell me and for a while I even
did. it. But for the past seven or
eight years I haven't seen one
"gentleman" get up on a bus and
offer his seat to a lady.
The theory lately has been "I'm
Just as tired as she is. Let her
stand. After all, modern women
want equality with men and even
go so far as to dress like them fre-
quently. Let them prove it by
standing on the bus."
I THOUGHT everyone had just
about taken this theory for grant-
ed when I had occasion to go to
North Campus on the University-
operated bus one day. This bus
runs hourly and provides trans-
portation between the main cam-
pus and the North Campus re-
search buildings and the North-
wood Apartments (Married stu-
dents apartments on North Cam-
pus). The majority of riders are
married students, both male and
As the three o'clock classes let
out the bus began to fill up. Final-
ly everyone was seated except five
men. As the bus was preparing to
leave, two women got on and be-
fore they had a chance to catch
their breath there were two vacant
seats and two extra gentlemen
standing in the aisle. One even
excused himself and climbed out
from a window position.
*- * *
WHEN the bus stopped to pick
up the students from the hospital,
three more women got 'on. Again,
to my astonishment, three more
men got up and offered their seats.
Upon questioning the person
sitting next to me I learned that
this is a common occurence on
this bus. It made my heart feel
good to see that there is a place
on this fast-moving earth where
men still show women courtesy
and respect in a public place.
Chivalry is not dead; not by a
long shot. Maybe you have to be
married to appreciate the oppo-
site sex. At any rate, my hat is off
to you gentlemen of North Cam-
These students want to profes-
sionally devote themselves to prob-
lems connected with European in-
tegration. We live and eat in these
buildings donated by the city of
Bruges during our one-year period
of study, he explained.
"EACH STUDENT must select
one major and two minor fields of
study," Prof. Brugmans said. "The
seven disciplines offered include
geography, history, political
theory, sociology, economics, com-
parative government, and com-
parative, constitutional and in-
"These post-graduate students
receive their instruction through
seminars, regularly scheduled dis-
cussions and lectures by visiting
professors, statesmen and foreign
dignitaries," he continued.
Their education is partially
sponsored by the six nations of
the European Common Market"
Prof. Brugmans said.
* * *
AND ALTHOUGH the European
masses may not be emotionally
moved by the prospect of a united
Europe, the students, at Bruges
are, he believes. Their discussions
often extend into the small hours
of the morning over glasses of beer
in their favorite cafe.
The basic idea for their studies
in European economic and politi-
cal integration had its beginnings
at the end of the Middle Ages.
"Since the period when the hold
of Christiandom on Europe as a
whole fell apart and national and
dynastic power became strong, a
good many people played with the
idea of restoring the unity of the
continent," he said. "Their ideas
remained academic, though, and
never made history."
* * *0
DURING THE 20th Century,
the idea came into being as a
political force, Prof. Brugmans ex-
plained. In 1929, it was realized
that the League of Nations could
not create a real peaceful order
out of international chaos,
In that year, a German and a
Frenchman proposed creating
"something like a united states of
Europe" -- some kind of European
federation. It was understood that
no particular country would have
to give any part of its national
"The idea collapsed partly be-
cause it wasn't thought out and
partly because of the world de-
pression. Protectionism and na-
tionalism precluded any move-
ment towards unity.
"World War II started for this
reason - because Europeans were
unable to build up unity," Prof.
Brugmans continued. "Some hoped
that Hitler was the man who could
accomplish this unity."
During the occupation, under-
ground units discussed a European
federation in freedom. Besides the
defeat of Hitler, the underground
wanted a new society established.
RATIONALIZATION for the es-
tablishment of an integrated Eu-
rope was dictated by the new
technological age and the neces-
sity for protection against such
a powerful country as the Soviet
"The idea was formally launched
at the first meeting of the Council
of Europe in 1948," he said. "Win-
ston Churchill, presiding over the
Hague convention, initiated the
basic idea that a Franco-German
alliance must form the nucleus of
the new order.
"We expected Great Britain to
take the lead in European integra-
tion," Prof. Brugmans added, "but
the British were retarded by psy-
chological ties with the Common-
wealth and their geographical
separation from the Continent."
BUT BRITAIN did participate
with 14 other nations in the found-
ing of the Council of Europe at
Strasbourg in 1949. Because the
organization required unanimity
among its 15 ministers to act, its
power was very limited.
Realization of this difficulty led
six member countries to form the
"Inner six," or the European Com-
mon Market. France, Germany,
Luxembourg, Holland, Belgium and
Italy wanted to relinquish part of
their national sovereignty -to set
up plans for a common market
with no trade barriers. :Since
France rejected a European de-
fense community, the final goal
of the three republics and three
monarchies became progressive
* * *
MINISTERS of the six nations
met to form commissions for
studying possibilities of an eco-
nomic common market and inte-
gration of atomic energy re-
sources. Both treaties were ratified.
"The common market is doubt-
less a success for both industrial-
ists and agriculturalists," the rec-
tor appraised. "Hundreds of agree-
ments between firms of the 'inner
six' nations for dividing labor have
led to greater productivity, great-
er welfare, and success."
Prof. Brugmans expects three
major developments in the future
of European integration. First, he
foresees a shorter period than the
anticipated 15 years for complete
economic integration of "inner
Next, there should be direct uni-
versal suffrage for a stronger Eu-
ropean Parliament which may one
day construct a constitution for a
united states of Europe.
Finally, the professor anticipates
integration of the "inner six" not
only with the "outer seven" (Great
Britain, Portugal, Switzerland,
Austria and the three Scandina-
vian countries), but with the
United States and Canada as well.
And the work of the College of
Europe is to bring about this uni-
fication through education.
RECENTLY, the President of CBS, Mr. Frank
Stanton, made a speech arguing that in
principle the government, which grants the
licenses, has no right to concern itself in any
way with the character of the broadcasts. He
calls this "free television" and asserts that all
forms of regulation and accountability are
wrong. What the country must have is "a
vigorous, freely competing, unrestricted televi-
This is probably the first time that anyone
in a responsible position in the television in-
dustry has claimed for it an unrestricted right
to set its own standards of conduct. This is
certainly not the intent of the law under which
Mr. Stanton operates. The intent of the law
which was passed by Congress in February
1927, was expressed, as Mr. George Sokolsky
recently noted, by ex-President Herber Hoover,
then the Secretary of Commerce. Mr. Hoover
said that "the ether is a public medium, and its
use must be for public benefit. The use of a
radio channel is justified only if there is public
MR. STANTON WOULD, I suppose, say in
reply that the greatest public benefit will
come if we leave it to the unrestricted judg-
ment of the industry itself what programs are
in the public interest. To support this position
Mr. Stanton argues that television stations are
like newspapers, and that the government has
no more right to concern itself with what is
broadcast than it has the right to concern
itself with what is printed.
This is a thoroughly false argument. A tele-
vision station is not like a newspaper. It is like
a printing press. It is a mechanical medium of
communication. Now, let us suppose that in a
whole region around some city there were.only,
E IS AN essential and radical difference
between television and printing, and Mr.
Stanton should not pretend that they can be
or should be treated alike. It may be true, as he
says ,that "most metropolitan centers in the
United States have more competing television
stations than competing mass circulation
dailies." But Mr. Stanton has missed the
point. The three or four competing television
stations control virtually all that can be
received over the air by ordinary television
sets. But besides the mass circulation dailies,
there are the weeklies, the monthlies, the out-
of-town newspapers and books. If a man does
not like his newspaper, he can read another
from out of town, or wait for a weekly news
magazine. It is not ideal. But it is infinitely
better than the situation in television.
Networks which are very few in number, have
a virtual monopoly of the whole medium of
communication. The newspapers of mass circu-
lation have no monopoly of the medium of
print. The situation being so different, the
application of the principle of freedom is
bound to be different ttoo. Free speech is a
cherished principle. But how it can be exercised
depends upon where it is exercised.
WHEN WE come to the question of how to
protect and promote the public interest in
television, Mr. Stanton has more of a case. He
has read the report of the Harris Committee,
and he shrinks with horror from the idea of
being regulated by a public commission.
His horror is almost certainly exaggerated
because the political commission will almost
certainly be ineffectual. For my own part, I
do not think that public regulation has much
promise of correcting the deep faults of
television and it might well produce a mess of
(Continued from Page 2)
All degrees: All fields. June grads. Must
be male U.S. citizen.
Atli-sChalmers Mfg. Co., varied lo-
cations. All degrees: EE, EM, ME, NA,
and Marine. BS-MS: Mat'ls. MS-PhD:
ChE, Instru., Nuclear. Feb., June and
Aug. grads. Men only.
Automatic Music, Inc., Grand Rapids,
Mich. BS: ME. BS-MS: EE. Feb., June
and Aug. grads. Men only. Cannot con-
sider foreign students 'who do not plan
to become citizens. Summer employ-
ment. 1961 grads only.
Bridgeport Brass Co., Bridgeport.
Conn.; Adrian, Mich.; Indianapolis,
Ind. BS-MS: IE, ME and Met. Feb.,
June and Aug. grads. Summer employ-
ment: Please check Placement Office
on March 7. Men only.
The Clark Controller Co., Cleveland.
Ohio and major industrial centers. BS:
E, IE, ME. Feb., June and Aug. grads.
(a.m.) Harris-Intertype Corp., Gen-
eral Office, Divs., Subsidiaries. BS: EE
and ME. June grads. Men only. Sum-
mer employment: See Poster on Place-
ment Bulletin Board.
Hercules Powder Co., Research Cen-
ter, Wilmington, Delaware. BS-MS:
ChE. MS: Mat'Is. Feb., June and Aug.
grads. Men and women.
Indiana, State Highway Dept., In-
dianapolis, Ind. All degrees: CE. June
and Aug. grads. Men and women.
Litton Industries, Los Angeles area,
Calif. All degrees: EE, EM. ME. BS: E
Math and E Physics. Feb., June and
Aug. grads. Summer employment: Only
if applications have been reviewed in
advance. U.S. citizenship required.
March 7 and 8:
Hughes Aircraft Co., Culver City. Ful.
lerton, El Segundo, Newport Beach,
Santa Barbara; Tucson, Ariz. All de-
grees: BE. Physics. ES:EB.Physics with
electronics interest. 'Feb., June' and
Aug. grads. PhD's please schedule one
hour appointments. U.S. citizenship re-
The Detroit Edison Co., Detroit,
Mich. BS: BE, ME, also ChE with 2-3
yrs. exp. In investigating Ind. prob-
lems associated with organic chem.
MS-PhD: Nuclear. June grads. Sum-
mer employment: Soph. and Jrs. in
EE, ME, also one opening for ChE stu-
dent and one for math student. Mur*
be male U.S. citizen. Summer: March
7. Permanent: March 8.
California State Gov't., Mate Per-
sonnel Board, Sacramento, San Fran-
cisco, Los Angeles and throughout the
state. BS-MS: CE. June and Aug.
grads. U.S. citizenship required.
March 9 and 9:
Collins Radio Co., Cedar Rapids, a.
All degrees: EE and. ME. BS-MS: I.
MS-PhD: EM. June and .Aug. grade.
Summer employment: Jrs. In above
fields. Must be male U.S. citizen.
Radio Corp. of America, RCA Cor-
porate and RCA Laboratories, Camden
and Princeton, N.J. All degrees: Phys-
ics, EE and ME. BS: E Math, and X
Physics. MS-PhD: Math. June and Aug.
grads. Summer employment: Men and
The following part-time jobs are
available to students. Applications for
these jobs can be made in the Non-
Academic Personnel Office, ism. 1020
Admin. Bldg., during the following
hours: Mon. through Fri., 1:30 p.m. to
Employers desirous of hiring 'students
for part-time work should contact Jim
Stempson, Student Interviewer at NO
3-1511, Ext. 2939.
1 Food supervisor (5 days per week, 4
hrs. per day, experienced dietician.)
1 Dissecting insects (should have had
courses in Botany or Zoology, 8 a.=6
to 10 a.m. Mon.-Fri.)
2 Meal jobs.
2 Rooms in exchange for yard and
5 Waiters (hours flexible).
5 Boys to shovel snow.
3 Typists (20 hrs. per week)
2 Typists (8 a.m. to' 12 noon, Mon.-Fri.)
1 Cafeteria server. (20 hrs. per week,
11:30 to 2 p.m. and 5 p.m. to 7 p.m.
1 Food supervisor (5 days per week, 4
hrs. per day, experienced dietician.)
1 Dissecting insects (should have had
courses in Botany or Zoology,/ a.m.
to 10 a.m. Mon.-Fri.)
... by Michael Kelly
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