Diplomats Increase Hope
WASHINGTON (M)-The United
States and four Western allies
were reported last night to have
made some progress in developing
a Western disarmament plan for
negotiation with Russia.
But disappointment at a lack of
greater achievement was also'
voiced by some of the allies.
Top disarmament experts of the
United States, Canada, France,
Italy and Britain are working on
a three-stage plan designed to
reduce national forces to a mini-
mum, eliminate nuclear and other
mass destruction weapons, and
turn over to some international
military force the task of guarding
Disappointed in U.S.
Diplomats said privately that
disappointment among the allies
resulted first from lack of any firm
United States policy on disarma-
ment proposals until a little more
than a week ago and a lack of
forceful and imaginative proposals
when a United States plan was
One phase of the meetings ended
yesterday. The top disarmament
experts of France, Britain and
Italy finished their participation
for the time being to return to
their capitals. This leaves the work
for the next week or 10 days in
the hands of staff experts and
A state department announce-
ment said the delegation chiefs
will meet again in Europe before
the start of their negotiations with
a five-power Soviet bloc group at
Geneva March 15.
Frederick M. Eaton, who will be
chairman of the United States
delegation in the Geneva confer-
ence, will continue to take part
in the talks here on preparation of
High level talks started about
10 days ago, but not until a day or
so later did the United States come
up with proposals of its own.
The general United States line
was set forth in a speech by Secre-
tary of State Christian A. Herter
It contained no new ideas, al-
though it did give fresh emphasis
to the concept of transferring the
job of keeping world peace from
national forces to a single interna-
tional military organization prob-
ably under the United Nations.
is armament Parley
Discrimination Protests Spread
By The University Press Service
"If we can stand up and be
served, why can't we sit down and
be served?" one Negro coed at
North Carolina College Durham
asked, verbalizing the thought that
had first stirred action in a
Greensboro, N.C. variety store two
weeks ago, and by last Friday had
sparked a movement which had
spread to nine cities in four states.
It all began at 4:45 pim., Feb. 1,
when four freshmen from North
Carolina Agricultural and Techni-
cal College in Greensboro entered
an F. W. Woolworth store in the
heart of Greensboro. They bought
a few articles, then sat down at
the lunch counter for a snack.
According to New York Times
dispatches, the following conversa-
tion ensued. The students said
they were approached by a Negro
kitchen woman who said, "You
know you're not supposed to be in
here." She later called them "ig-
norant" and a "disgrace" to their
The students then asked a white
waitress for coffee.
"I'm sorry but we don't serve
colored here," they quoted her.
"I beg your pardon," Franklin
McCain, 18 years old, of Washing-
ton said, "you just served me at
a counter two feet away. Why is
it that you serve me at one counter
and deny me at another. Why not
stop serving me at all the count-
The four students sat, coffeeless,
until the store closed at 5:30 p.m.
Then, hearing that they might be
prosecuted, they went to the exec-
utive committee of the Greensboro
NAACP to ask advice.
NAACP President, George C.
Simpkins contacted the New York
office of Congress on Racial Equal-
ity (CORE); since he had heard
of their successful attempt to de-
segregate a Baltimore restaurant,
and CORE's field secretary Gor-
dan R. Garey arrived in Greens-
boro the next day.
According to "New York Times"
reporters, protests followed similar
patterns. Students entered the
stores and requested food service.
They met refusals in all cases and
remained at the lunch counters
in silent protest.
The reaction of store managers
in such instances was to close
down lunch counters and, when
trouble developed or bomb threats
were received, the entire store.
(Both Greensboro variety stores
received bomb threats and closed
down last Saturday.)
Hastily painted signs, posted on
the counters read: "Temporarily,
Closed," "Closed for Repairs,"
"Closed in the Interest of Public
Safety," "No Trespassing," and
"We Reserve The Right to Service
the Public As We See Fit."
After a number of establish-
ments had shut down in High
Point, N.C., the S. H. Kress & Co.
store remained open, its lunch
counter desegregated. The secret?
The demonstrations attracted
crowds of whites. At first the heck-
lers were youths with ducktailed
haircuts. Some carried small Con-
federate battle flags. Later they
were joined by older mien in faded
khakis and overalls.
The demonstrations have aroused
action on the part of Duke Uni-
versity, whose Women's Student
Government last week passed a
resolution expressing "sympathy
for the attempt to attain justice"
and urging every attempt to be
made to reach an equitable solu-
Rutgers Fraternity Plan
Integrates Pledge Classes
LANSING VP) - A Republican
legislator yesterday joined Demo-
cratic Gov. G. Mennen Williams in
criticizing the Chrysler Corpora-
tion for what they said was incon-
sistency in approaching state and
local tax problems.
State Rep. George W. Sallade
(R-Ann Arbor), member of the
House Taxation Committee, wrote
a letter to William C. Newberg, a
Newberg told some Detroit area
Rotary clubs Thursday that his
firm might pull out of the state
unless there was early reform on
taxes, particularly of the local
property tax on plant, machinery
Sallade said proposed tax re-
forms that would have benefited
Chrysler were blocked in the 1959
legislature-after the House ap-
proved them-by business lobby-
ists, including Chrysler's.
He referred to a tax package
built around a combination per-
sonal-corporate income tax. It in-
cluded major relief from existing
Sallade said the lobbyists, in
fighting the whole package, ap-
peared to have taken the short-
sighted view of merely protecting
high-salaried executives from the
personal income levy.
The House tax package was
thwarted by Republican senators
who often have said they acted for
reasons of "principle" and a pref-
erence for a sales tax increase
rather than in response to pleas
The Governor's remarks at a
news conference somewhat paral-
Williams said he agreed with
Newberg -on the urgent need for
re-evaluation of state and local
tax systems, and hoped to set up a
conference with Newberg to dis-
cuss his point of view in greater
Sen. Clyde H. Geerlings (R-
Holland), chairman of the Senate
taxation committee, said the warn-
ing from the Chrysler executive
presents a serious problem for
The Holland Republican added
that Williams' idea of a tax system
"is one that piles tax on tax-or
one in which one-third of the
people would be taxed to support
public services for all."
Geerlings also reported he is
thinking of asking the legislature
to initiate an expenditures survey.
Its goal would be to determine
where the tax dollars go and de-
fine the responsibilities for public
service of state and local govern-
SAN FRANCISCO OP) - Cali-
fornia's governor, stirred by world
reaction and a telegram, from the
U. S. State Department, spared
Caryl Chessman's life yesterday
when he was less than 10 hours
and a dozen steps from death in
the gas chamber.
A jangling telephone outside
the green-walled execution room
flashed word at 12:05 a.m. from
Gov. Edmund Brown in the execu-
tive mansion at Sacramento to
Warden Fred Dickson:
"You can send him back up-
stairs. I am going to grant him a
It was the eighth stay in 12
years for the 38-year-old Chess-
man, under a double death sen-
tence since 1948 from Los Angeles
In an all-campus educational
campaign, Rutgers University has
begun integration in three more
fraternities this year. This makes
over half their fraternities inte-
When final pledge classes were
announced recently, Zeta Beta
Tau, Sigma Alpha Mu, and Chi
Phi had various races and faiths
represented on their lists. In ad-
dition, six or seven other houses
announced sincere intentions of
integrating in the near future.
The educational program began
with the Student Council presi-
dent's address to the incoming
freshman class. President Harry
Morgan explained, ". . . I come to
you with an appeal. First I ask
you to recognize that discrimina-
tion does exist here and that it
is a problem.
"You may answer this appeal
by simply saying - 'I intend to
pledge a house of my faith and of
my color.' This is not an answer;
this is an avoidance."
Morgan emphasized that only
the rushees and their attitudes
toward segregation can solve the
problem of fraternity discrimina-
for lovers' lane crimes which in-
cluded sex depravity but no loss
Gov. Brown, who previously had
refused clemency, said he took the
1. After a telegram from the
U. S. State Department said there
might be hostile demonstrations
during President Eisenhower's
visits to Uruguay and Brazil if
Chessman were executed
2. Because he wants the state'
legislature, which meets Feb. 29,
to consider doing away with the
Brown told a news conference
yesterday he gave great weight in
his decision to a telegram from
He urged the freshmen to join
one of the houses that is trying
to integrate and not to be afraid
to "break the discrimination bar-
The "Rutgers Daily Targum"
furthered the program through
columns, editorials, and articles.
Richard Sandler, "Targum"
individuals is learned behavior.
Editor-in-Chief, wrote a series of
articles on discrimination, empha-
sizing that ". . . Discrimination in
"People are not born with pre-
judices and for this reason, we feel
that steps can be taken to do
away with discrimination.
"While we firmly believe that
fraternities should not discrimin-
ate, we must also add that the
process of integration should not
be forced, but undertaken by
every sectarian house as a sin-
cere effort to promote the true
brotherhood that the fraternity
Work from Outside
- .The freshmen have some,
control in the integration process.
They can work from the outside
and aid the internal forces that
are working for integration. Only
by breaking down provincial atti-
tudes can fraternities continue to
Progress was evident when at a
pre-rushing forum the question
which 70 per cent of the rushees
asked was, "Is your house inte-
grated?" Another indication was
the result of a "Targum" spot poll
revealing that many freshmen re-
fused to pledge a segregated fra-
South American Trip
SAPTFefb.22 0 %
WASHN( 1ONGr -.. .1t .
C 0 ASANJAN
VLNEZELA Rt15tH GUIANA
PARACIA I1 R1* FEb4
IKE'S ROUTE-Ike's tour to South America and back, beginning
Monday and ending March 6, is plotted on the map above. The
solid line traces the approximate route and points 'to be visited,
while the broken line indicates his return trip to Washington..
Asst. Secretary of State Roy R.
Rubottom, Jr., adding:
"Between you and Me it was
the hand of God."
Among Many Telegrams
It was among thousands of
telegrams, the governor received
'Thursday. There were far too
many to open quickly, and "it was
in the hand of God that this one
would be picked out after I left
the office," Brown said.
"I weighed this execution
against its proposed effect on
what we are doing throughout the
Appeals have poured in from all
over the world asking that Chess-
man's life be spared, largely on
the contention his nearly 12 years
on death row was punishment
enough for a crime not involving
A legal athority in the State
,Utorney General's office, Arlo
Smith, a deputy, said it would be
possible for a jurist to set the
new execution date for 61 days
Brown told his news conference
that three men due to die in the
San Quentin chamber in March
will get reprieves and no one will
be executed until the legislature
has acted on a bill to abolish
WAS HINGTON (N) - The
United States, with a red face, ad-
mitted yesterday that a small pri-
vate plane raided Cuba from a
United States airfield.
It apologized to Fidel Castro,
The State Department ordered
bitter critic of America.
the top United States diplomat
remaining in Havana, Daniel
Braddock, to "express to the Cu-
ban government this government's
sincere regrets that the plane
managed to escape the vigilance
of our intensified airfield patrols"
Washington acted quickly after
its own check confirmed a new
Castro allegation about United
States-based planes fire-bombing
Cuban sugar fields.
Castro told a Cuban television
audience the little craft crashed
Thursday while attacking a Cu-
ban sugar mill.
He said the occupants, both
killed, were Americans. Cubans
named them as Robert Ellis
Frost of Portland, Ore., and Rob-
ert Kelly of the United States
Civil Air Patrol, not further iden-
Castro called for an end to this
kind of action by raiders who he
said had destroyed 225,000 tons of
sugar cane in 30 attacks this year.
Second Front Page
Saturday, February 20, 1960 Page 3
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