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October 24, 1963 - Image 8

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-10-24

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

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Brazer Discusses Economic Decisions

Cuba- One

Year Later

Decisions concerning the econ-
omy are not based solely upon the
advice of economists but rather
upon political theory and pres-
sure from myriads of sources,
Prof. Harvey E. Brazer of the eco-
nomics department explained yes-
Prof. Brazer, who has had ex-
tensive experience in, this area
during his years as director of
Michigan and Minnesota tax tud-
les, director of the Office of Tax
Analysis and deputy assistant sec-
retary of the treasury, noted that
the results of tax reform efforts
often differ from the original in-
tentions of the economists -who
formulate them.
As an example he cites the re-
cent attempts of the Kennedy ad-
ministration to reform laws.
"The main purpose of these re-
forms was to eliminate some tax
PROF. HARVEY BRAZER deductions and exemptions on one
tax reforms hand, and cut taxes on the other.


"However, great debates arose
over the specific proposals. Elim-
ination of tax exemptions for mu-
nicipal bond holders was one such
proposal. Reducing the .oil deple-
tion allowance was another."
Brazer notes that as the eight
million municipal bond holders
and the oil-producing states of
Louisiana, Texas and Oklahoma
represent powerful political en-
tities, pressures against reform in
these fields were very evident.
On the other hand, a cut could
not be made in medical deduc-
tions because of the high national
medical expenditure.

Another area in which reform
is needed is in the area of corpor-
ation profits taxes, Prof. Brazer
notes. Taxes here were raised dur-
ing the 30's, during World War II
and again during the Korean con-
flict in order to provide funds for
arms expenditure.
However, reform in this area
too was stymied due to various
political factors.
All these events are very dif-
ficult for the economist to watch,
he comments. "It is agonizing to
watch the proposals fall one by
one, often without serious consid-

ReerlC m iteViews Council Moves

Associated Press Special Correspondent
WASHINGTON - The cri s i s
broke like a sudden storm;
through six agonizing days, a
trembling world stood on the
threshold of nuclear hell.
Even now it is impossible to cal-
culate the full impact of the
drama which began a year ago to-
day. But the Soviet-American
confrontation o v e r Communist
missiles in Cuba surely was one
of the most significant and de-
cisive moments of the' global cold
The nuclear powers, as Secre-
tary of State Dean Rusk was to
say months later, for the first
time "had a chance to peer into
the pit of the inferno" and were
required to calculate soberly just
what a nuclear exchange might
mean. The possibilities were awe-
Fall Start
Clouds of the crisis began to
gather over the Caribbean early
in the fall, after Moscow had dis-
closed an agreement to a Cuban
request for new military equip-
ment. Twenty Soviet ships un-
loaded huge cargoes in Cuba.
Thousands of Soviet military per-
sonnel arrived in the island.
The United States verified that
the Russians had sent nuclear-
capable missiles and jet bombers
to the Castro regime.
Suddenly, on Oct. 22, President
John F. Kennedy imposed a
blockade. He called it a "quar-
antine." Soviet ships would be

I , {

(Continued from Page 2)
mentation of this part of the plan
as presently drafted and to ap-
point a non-student member to
the Membership Tribunal would
give the plan an insecure founda-
It would create a situation un-;
der which this jurisdictional issue
would arise anew to embarrass the
Membership Tribunal when it
should seek to exert its author-
ity. ..
The Committee on Referral de-
sires also to call attention to an
ambiguity of language in Section
24 of the Membership Regulations
Plan. The first sentence states that
"The Membership Tribunal ...
shall have power to impose on be-
half of Student Government
Council appropriate sanctions on
student government organizations
." The last sentence states: "All
sanctions must be immediately im-
posed by Student Government
Council and cannot 'e altered by
the Council." (Emphasis added.)
If sanctions can be "imposed"
by the Membership Tribunal on
behalf of SGC, why does SGC have
to "impose" them also? Was not
the intent rather to obligate SGC
to enforce sanctions already im-
posed by the Membership Tri-
bunal? However, as this commit-
tee interprets Section 4B of the
SGC Plan, only the SGC may ac-
tually withdraw recognition from
a student organization.
This committee is of. the opin-
ion that the language of this Para-
graph should be revised so as to
indicate that SC assumes the re-
sponsibility to 'review and accept,
reject or modify the penalties rec-
ommended by the Membership
Tribunal ...
Respectfully submitted,,
Joseph E. Kallenbach, Chairman
Oliver Edel

Olive, elephant grey, brown/gold
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of colours. F~or the perfect
follow-through of colour,
cloth and comfort, visit us now
and seethe new Daks trousers range.

A- A
S T I r nhCs
State Street on the Campus

DEC. 27th JAN. 10th

Jonathan H. Trost
R. H. Hoisington
Anatol Rapoport
Dissenting Opinion
While in basic agreement with
much of their comments and con-
clusions, I believe I must abstain
from the majority report of the
Committee on Referral's action ..-.
-Most importantly I disagree
with the majority's definition of
a "student committee." In my
opinion "student committee" only
signifies that a given committee is
responsible to a student body, in
this case, SGC, not that the mem-
bership should be restricted only
to students. For this reason, I
think it's proper for SOC to se-
lect members of the University
community, other than students,
for the tribunal ...
-Kenneth B. McEldowney
Regents Grant
Faculty Leave
For Next Year
The Regents granted leaves of
absence to the following faculty
members at their October meeting.
Wallace S. Bjorke, music libra-
ian, was granted sick leave from
Aug. 1 through Sept. 13.
Sick leave for Izzudeen M.
Essa'id, catalog librarian, from
Aug. 1 through Sept. 30.
Extension of leave for Dr.
Ralph W. Gerard, professor of
neurophysiology, departments of
psychiatry and physiology, from
Oct. 1 through June 30, 1964, to
be a visiting professor at the
University of Cisifornia at Irvine.
su Grant Sick Leave
Sick leave for Prof. Harold W.
Himes of the architecture and de-
sign college from Feb. 11 through
May 25.
Leave for Prof. Robert C. Lee-
stma of the education and dental
schools for the second semester,
1963-64 and the first semester,
1964-65 to become deputy chef
education division, office of in-
stitutional development, bureau
for Africa and Europe, Agency for
International D e v e 1o p mn e n t in
Leave for Prof. Robert Edison
Moyers of the dental school from
Jan. 15 to July 15, 1964, to com-
plete a book, visit selected child
growth centers throughout the
United States and the Neuro-
physiologic Institute in Denmark.
To Continue Study
Leave for Prof. William J.
Schull of the anthropology depart-
ment from Feb. 1, 1964 through
Jan. 31, 1965, to continue hisud-
sdes on the genetic effects of atomic
bombs in Japan.
Leave for Prof. Theodore O.
Sippel of the Medical School from
Jan. 1 through Dec. 31, 1964, to
work in the field of ocular bio-
chemistry at the Kresge Eye In-
stitute in Detroit.
Off-campus assignment was ap-
proved for James M. Davis, direc-
tor of the International Center
and associate professor of educa-
tion, from Oct. 4 through Nov.
30, to act as a technical consultant
to study the structure and pro-
gram of the East-West Center in
Dean Willard C. Olson of the
education school was granted an
off-campus assignment from Dec.
2 to Jan. 15, 1964 to visit loca-
tions in India in connection with
a recent grant between the Uni-
versity and the State Department.
Prof. Allen L. Mayerson of the
business administration school
from Nov. 1 to Dec. 31, 1964 to
serve as commissioner of insur-
ance for the state.
Dr. Manos A. Petrohelos of the
Medical School from Oct. 15
through Oct. 14, 1964, to organize
a department of ophthalmology
at the Evangelismos Medical Cen-
ter in Athens, Greece.

* I
U 2x4's, 2x6's, etc. I
1 x6's, 1 x8's, etc.
Al! Lengths

from United States shores. Khru-
shchev insisted he had saved the
Castro regime by exacting a "no
invasion" pledge from Kennedy.
-The United States, cracked
down hard on Cuban exile at-
tempts to raid and harass the
Cuban regime. The resulting con-

stopped and searched for offensive
cargoes, and the word to United
States forces was "shoot if neces-
Dismantle Bases
Six tension-backed days follow-
ed before Soviet Premier Nikita
S. Khrushchev backed down and
agreed to dismantle the missile
bases in Cuba. By Dec. 7, the
United States announced it was
satisfied that the 42 medium-
rangebmissiles and 42 jet bombers
had been removed from Cuban
soil. The Soviet troops remained.
Who won and who lost?
The question will be debated for
a long time. The full cost for solu-
tion of the crisis to both great
cold war antagonists cannot be
fully assessed.-But there was a
price on relief from the immediate
threat of nuclear war. Both sides
likely will make installment pay-
ments for many years.
Long-Term Effect
The crisis had effects like these:
-It had a strong bearing on
development of Washington-Mos-
cow contacts which led to agree-
ment on a partial nuclear test
-It played a large part in
bringing the Chinese-Soviet Com-
munist differences into the day-
light glare of world publicity and
helped crystallize a split in Com-
munist ranks around the world.
-It made Cuba in some re-
spects a difficult satellite for the
Soviet Union.
-It seemed to imply that the
United States would coexist with
a Communist regime 90 miles

fusion just about destroyed what-
ever effectiveness the exile organ-
izations had as an anti-Castro
Elusive Victory
Victories in the cold war are
elusive things. In the immediate
wake of the crisis, the United
States had appeared to be the
winner.There seemed to be a new

-Associated Press
MISSILE RANGE-Soviet missiles i'n Cuba brought the threat of
nuclear destruction to the United States' and Latin America's
doorstep. This country was vulnerable to intermediate missiles
based 90 miles from its shores instead of long range Russian based
. mssil.

respect for America around the
world, and a ' closing of ranks
aganast the Communist drive for
wcrld supremacy.
Khrushchev had pictured the
United States as too liberal to
fight, but suddenly he was faced
with the reality of an America
which could and would fight if
necessary. He backed away, trying.
unsuccessfully to salvage some-
thing: a deal for abandonment of
NATO alliance bases in return for
the dismantling in Cuba. The
United States had the initiative,
however, and toe USSR was uin-
ready for the risks involved in
standing firm.
Khrushchev did not consult
Cuba's Castro about the dismantl-
ing, and Castro pictured himself
as humiliated. Clearly he was
angry with the Kremlin.
"New Munich'
In Peking, the Red Chinese
scornfully labeled Khrushchev a'
coward, the architect of a new
"Munich," a man who was "scared
stiff" of the United States.
But thousands of Soviettroops
remained in Cuba. Some sources
estimated the total at about
40,000. The administration at the
beginning of the year said the
total was about 17,000. Khrush- '
chev said the troops were tho1ke
only to instruct Cubans in the
use of modern weapons.
A hot controversy developed on
Capitol Hill about the extent of
the Soviet buildup in Cuba. But
the administration insisted, the
sort of weapons stocked on the
island were not the types which
imperiled United States security.
A few th~usand Soviet troops left
early in the spring, but this did
little, to end the debate. And to-
day nobody could say how many
thousands of Red bloc technicians
were swarmirg over the island.
Own Troubles
The Kremlin was having its
own troubles over the Cuban crisis.
The events sharpened differ-

ences a m o n g Communists in
Latin America - the impatient
ones aching for swift, violent re-
volutions, and the careful, more
orthodox Communists who heeded
Moscow's words of caution.
Moscow's quarrel with R e d
China became noisier and more
violent every day. Khrushchev ac-
cused the Red Chinese of wanting
to foment a nuclear war between
the Soviet Uhionand the United
States, so that China then could
step -in and pick up the pieces.
'he Red. Chinese said Khrushchev
was unfit to lead the world's
Communists because he showed
himself afraid of revolution.
Near Break
The quarrel reached its peak
with the initialing in Moscow this
summer of the partial nuclear test
ban, to which the Cuban crisis had
contributed so mach. Peking and
Moscow seemed close to a final
parting of the ways.
Castro apparently took a dim
view of the test ban, too. Although
under pressure from the Russians.
he was in no hurry to sign it.
Indeed, in early September, Cas-
tro pointedly declared he had not
made up his mind about it. The
Russians seemed annoyed. There
was even a hint of Castro black-
mail in this-an implied threat
to cast his lot publicly with the
Red Chinese unless hbe USSR
came through with far moresig-
nificant help for his regime.
In the l.ng run, the United
States had reason to hope that
the Cuban crisis would lead to
something positive in the battle to
thwart uastro-Comtnu-' t ambi-
tions in turbulent Latin America. \
The Latin-Russia-China influ-
ence split and slight progress of
the Alliance for Progress has
brought some hope for Western
Latin success. But these gains
have been balanced against in-
creasing concern about military
dictatorships sweeping the hemis-

-Associated Press
FATEFUL MEETING-President John F. Kennedy (left) and Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A.
Gromyko meet in early October, 1962. Gromyko assures Kennedy that Soviet missiles in Cuba are for
defense purposes only. United States intelligence finds out differently, however, and by Oct. 20, Ken-
nedy 'puts this nation on the alert and embarks toward a showdown with the Soviets over the missiles.

-Associated Press
FORCED EXIT-Fuselages of Russian mombers lie on the deck of a Soviet warship as the six day
"quarantine" blockade of Cuba forces a Russian withdrawal. The United States Navy confronted and
inspected Soviet ships heading toward Cuba while a worried world waited breathlessly to see if an in-
cident would spark the two world super-powers to war.


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