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Seventy-Three Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXIV, No. 35 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, FRIDAY, OCTOBER 11, 1963 SEVEN CENTS
~U' Class Sizes
By ROBERT GRODY
The weighted average size of classes at the.University for the"
_ all semester, 1962-63, increased by almost 10 per cent, from 17.52
..to 19.15, according to a recently released report.
The report, jointly compiled by the Office of Institutional
Research and the office of Vice-President for Academic Affairs
Roger W. Heyns, explains why the weighted average size is the
most accurate unit of class measurement.
. If any kind of meaningful measure is to be obtained, the
various classes must be weighted rather than have equal influence
on the result," the report said. Weighting means giving classes
with more credit hours and
meetings per week a higher con-
sideration than those with few-
er credit hours and weekly
Thus, a course of five cred-
it hours, meeting six or sevenn
times a week will affect the
weighted average more than a
two-hour, two-credit course.: U,
The 10 per cent increase in:
class sizes would normally rim- "k:*t...
ply a rise in student credit hour.
production per full-time facul-.
ty member, provided teachings'4_tf?
loads remain constant.
Teaching Load Down
However last fall, the teach-s
ing load actually decreased,
rendering the rise in class size ROGER W. HEYNS
ineffective upon the student
credit hour productiWity of the faculty.
The report said that student productivity rate per, faculty
member remained "virtually unchanged."
Mainly as aresult of large lectures and recitation sectionsX
for freshmen and sophomores, the size of classes decreases with
an advance in the course level.
The decrease becomes more evident when one considers the
greater tendency toward' small recitation sections for upper-
classmen and very small seminar sections for graduates.}
This tendency was illustrated in the average class sizes last,
fall, broken down by level of advancement: freshman and sopho-
See STATISTICS, Page 2
t "..J", .}'> .3.. % .." 3,r'..r. :} . >. . : i . "'"'
CIVil Rights Organizations
T Pi1ket in Ypsilanti
By WILLIAM BENOIT
The Ann Arbor Area Fair Housing Association, an affiliate of the
Congress of Racial Equality voted last night to support next Sunday's
march in Ypsilanti to be held in protest of the bombing of four Negro
children in Birmingham last month.
The march is sponsored by the Ypsilanti chapter of the National
Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Approximately
WASHINGTON (P)-The House
voted a $5.1-billion appropriation
for the National Space Agency
last night but said none of the
money could be used to cooperate
with Russia in sending a man to
Its action was a rebuff to Presi-
dent John F. Kennedy, who told
the United Nations on Sept. 20
tha't the United States was willing
to cooperate with Russia in a joint
moon project if a suitable agree-
ment could be reached.
The ban on a cooperative moon
shot was proposed by Rep. Thomas
M. Pelly (R-Wash) and adopted
by a standing vote of 125 to 110.
It was supported heavily by Re-
publicans and Southern Demo-
crats, with 198 members not voting
Pelly's amendment, to an om-
nibus $13.1 billion appropriation
bill sent to the Senate by rolcall
vote, said no funds of the National
Aeronautics and Space Adminis-
tration could be used for expenses
of "participating in a manned lun-
ar landing to be carried out joint-
ly" by the United States and any
It would not affect cooperation
in any other space projects.
The brief debate on Pelly's
amendment centered on whether it
was germane to the bill.
Rep. Albert Thomas (D-Tex),
chairman of an appropriations
subcommittee that drafted the
measure, predicted the amendment
would be eliminated before the bill
becomes law. The reasoning was
that the Senate would reject it
and a compromise version would
toss it out.
The President fared better when
Republicans attempted to cut an
additional $700 million from space
agency funds, which Thomas'
committee already had pruned to
$612 million below the President's
An amendment by Rep. Louis C.
Wyman (R-NH) to impose the ex-
tra $700 million slash lost by a
standing vote of 132 to 47.
Wyman's amendment would have
reduced allotments for the Apollo
moon shot program and for other
lunar and planetary exploration.
Opponents of the amendment
countered that the cut proposed
would junk the moon program or
at least slow it down at a time
when it is making progress.
OAS To Study
WASHINGTON (M)-The Inter-
American peace committee yester-
day termed the recent military
takeovers in Latin America a
"grave and urgent situation" and
decided to look into the matter.
The United States, Argentina,
Colombia and the Dominican Re-
public endorsed Venezuela's call
for action by the committee, a
specialized agency of the Organi-
zation of American States.
The Dominican Republic sup-
ported the peace committee's stand
even though it was the scene of
one of the latest coups.
The move was viewed by Latin
American observers as a step to-
ward a conference of American
Thus far this year military
takeovers have occurred in Guate-
mala, Ecuador, the Dominican Re-
public and Honduras.
Conservatives Seek New Leade
By LAURENCE KIRSHBAUM
Graduate Student Council pass-
ed a motion last night calling for
an official investigation into the
United States National Student
The council also gave approval
to a letter to Director of Univer-
sity Libraries Frederick Wagman
asking that an experimental low-
cost and efficient photo-duplica-
tion servicebe set up. This is the
first of a series of library recom-
mendations that GSC hopes to
In passing the bookstore motion
expressing the council's "interest
in the question of a co-operative
bookstore" and stating its inten-
tion "to investigate the current
operaion . .. in Ann Arbor," GSC
first debated the council's right to
enter into the matter.
Several individuals on GSC are
currently members of an ad-hoc
committee seeking to rearrange
the structural and financial set
up of the co-operative for greater
One of the members of this ad-
hoc committee, Peter Roosen-
Runge, Grad, noted that recent
criticisms of the current USNSA
bookstore have partially been aim-
ed "at getting people to examine
the basic philosophy and advant-
ages for having a co-operative
Arlene Abel, Grad, questioned
"the right of GSC as a University
student organization to 'go off the
campus'" and become involved
with a private business.
The Regents have made a policy
statement declaring that they will
not give co-operative mercantile
organizations special considera-
tion on the part of the University.
GSC Vice-President Michael
Rosen, Grad, raisedthe possibility
that in the future the council
might wish to lend physical and
financial support to the bookstore.
He explained that the store's
current status will become better
clarified in meetings this weekend
with USNSA representatives.
The letter to Prof. Wagman re-
quests a low cost duplication ser-
vice "for students only" on a
Specifically, the letter calls for
a reduction in price from 15 cents
to five cents on each page photo-
duplicated. It also suggests that
the process of duplication-which
is used for periodicals and books
that cannot be borrowed - be
speeded up to a one day service.
Acknowledging the complica-
tions involved, including perhaps
the need for a library subsidy,
the letter reminds Wagman of
the "ever increasing amount of
new material with which the
graduate student must become fa-
miliar but which is only available
to him through periodicals, jour-
nals, technical reports, etc."
In other actions, GSC formal-
ized its committee structure, hold-
ing over its parking and library
committees while establishing new
bookstore and graduate depart-
HAROLD MACMILLAN RICHARD A. BUTLER
. he's resigning ... he'll move up
... he's hoping
KAUFMAN ON KAFKA:
Characters Feel False Guilt
MSU To Try
New Proj ect
By ANDREW ORLIN
Michigan S t a t e University's
Academic Council approved the
revised Educational Development
EDP is an attempt by MSU ad-
ministrators to improve the qual-
ity of instruction, increase non-
academic efficiency and to pre-
pare for the student population
boom which will hit the state in
the 1964 academic year.
"Presently with EDP we are
dealing with generalities., We'll
have to wait until we get down to
specifics before any decision can
* be made," Acting Provost Howard
R. Neville, a member of the coun-
EDP deals with three major
1) Improving the effectiveness
of the academic program..
2) Evaluating co-curricular ac-
tivities to see whether or not they
contribute to the goals of MSU.
3) Increasing efficiency in the
non-academic areas such as the
business o f f i c e, administrative
structure and the use of physical
Some 1500 copies of the revised
EDP were handed out to faculty
members for their suggestions.
Faculty recommendations. will be
made through the educational
policies committee of the ,Aca-
Neville said that there were no
plans to hold up the program un-
til Gov. George Romney's Citizen
Committee on Higher Education
presents its interim report. The
interim report will deal with the
needs of Michigan higher educa-
tion for the 1964-65 school year.
"I don't think that the two
studies are especially related. EDP
"50 people from Ann Arbor will
participate in the mich.
AAAFHA-CORE also announced'
that funds are being raised to
pay fines of demonstrators ar-
rested for sitting-in at the Ann
Arbor City Hall. Money is being
solicited by mail and through sale
of a special record album.
Also, AAAFHA-CORE has con-
ducted investigations of the hir-
ing practices of several local firms
and intends to begin negotiations
with some companies soon to dis-
cuss employment opportunities for
"The recent ruling of state At-
torney General Frank J. Kelley
will almost certainly delay any
effective action in civil rights by
the state or local governments for
some time," Lamar Miller, chair-
man of AAAFHA-CORE, said last
"Therefore, the use of non-
violent direct action by private
citizens at the sources of dis-
crimination is all the more urgent.
Local officials may delay having
the courage to challenge the rul-
ing in court," Miller said.
By JEFFREY GOODMAN
"Kafka's protagonists are de-
humanized by being enmeshed in
a bourgeois morality," Prof. Arn-
old Kaufman of the philosophy
department said last night.
Speaking in the fifth Student
Government Council Reading-Dis-
cussion Seminar on the works of
Franz Kafka, Prof. Kaufman pos-
tulated that the protagonists in
"Metamorphosis," "The Trial" and
"The Penal Colony" not only feel
guilty of sins they did not com-
mit but actually are guilty of a
far more significant transgression.
"Each of these men has clearly
LONDON (P - The Financial
Times reported yesterday the
Soviet bloc has handed Cuba an
ultimatum demanding that it re-
vamp its struggling economy and
restore normal relations with the
And if Cuba doesn't bow to
these demands, the paper said, it
will cease receiving economic aid
from Soviet bloc countries.
The Financial Times, quoting
unofficial reports, said the show-
down with the Cubans developed
at this month's Prague meeting
of COMECON - the Soviet - led
Eastern bloc economic organiza-
It said the ultimatum will call
on Cuba to receive a powerful
economic commission from East-
ern Europe which will reform the
Caribbean island's economy and
even part of its political system.
At, this meeting, the paper re-
ported, the Soviet bloc countries
rejected a Cuban request for a
loan of $500 million over 1963-
1965. At the same time, Cuba
was accused of squandering aid-
which has been running at $1.6
million a day during the past year
--on unrealistic experiments.
The Czech delegate accused the
Cuban regime of favoring Chinese
policy and dismissing Cubans
favoring the Soviet line.
failed to fulfill his obligation to
himself to live a life of integrity,"
Prof. Kaufman said.
Thus Gregor Samsa in "Meta-
morphosis," even after his trans-
formation into a bug, continues.
to express only his desires for
commercial advancement and re-
payment of certain family debts
to which he has bound his life.
Joseph K. in "The Trial" is
arrested for unspecified offenses.
He vigorously asserts his inno-
cence, even while he does not
know his non-existent crime; by
doing this and by continuing to
search for his sin he prostrates
himself to the court.
But his real sin, Prof. Kaufman
asserted, is his insincerity. He de-
nies desiring his friend Frau
Burstein,, he talks of his integrity
while planning devious methods.
of influencing the judge, and he
rejects concern for his case only
to return to the court, unsum-
moned, to argue for himself.
At one point,, K. sees his legal
predicamentrmerely as a business
deal, thus revealing his totally
The third protagonist, the offi-
cer in "The Penal Colony," com-
mits extraordinary cruelties in
the name of the conventional jus-
tice to which he has submitted
Thus each of these men, Prof.
Kaufman asserted, is guilty of
almost voluntary dehumanization.
Each lacks the personal dignity
necessary to extricate himself
from the vices of the standard
morality in which he is caught.
But hand-in-hand with this
theme of guilt goes the theme of
redemption, Prof. Kaufman said.
None of the three protagonists
is able to achieve redemption,
none can recover his integrity.
Gregor Samsa, having discom-
forted and alienated his family
with his insect form and his in-
ability to change his modes of
thought in any way, goes to his
room and quietly "peters out."
Joseph K.,. continually trying to
understand the law so he can dis-
cover his guilt, realizes only at
the end the grotesqueness of the
court procedures. When he "dies
like a dog," as Kafka puts it, he
can feel no redemption in having
accepted this unknown guilt and
yielding up his life.
The officer in "The Penal Col-
ony" also dies, endingsup with a
spike thrust through his forehead.
BUENOS AIRES (M)-President-
Elect Arturo Illia has named an
eight-man cabinet that will be
sworn into office tomorrow short-,
ly after he is inaugurated as Ar-
gentina's 29th president.
All but one of those named to
the cabinet are members of Illia's
party, the People's Radical Civic
Union. Two held cabinet posts
under former President Gen.
Pedro Eugenio Aramburu from
1955 to 1958.
Held as Contenders
For Prime Minister
By The Associated Press
LONDON-Harold Macmillan is
stepping down as prime minister
of Great Britain.
The "unflappable Mac" who
took over the government in the
wake of the Suez crisis, then led
his Conservative party to victory
in 1959 ,elections, announced his
decision yesterday. He said he will
not be well enough to lead the
party into next year's elections Or
to fulfill the tasks of Prime minis-
ter for any lengthy period.
He underwent a successful oper-
ation yesterday for removal of his
prostate gland. A long period of
convalescence lies ahead. He is 69
and has been prime minister since
Jan. 10, 1957.
Resignation Timing Unknown
He left it indefinite when he
will resign, but this will be after'
the party names a new leader. Un-
der British procedure the prime
minister is the leader of the major-
ity party in Parliament.
Richard A. Butler seems at this
stage most likely to take over.
After nearly seven years in of-
fice, Macmillan's decision came at
a low point in his career. Buffet-
ed by the Profumo affair and oth-
er national crises, he was under
heavy party pressure to quit even
before he was stricken by illness
Macmillian's resignation was an-
nounced by Foreign Secretary
Lord Home at The annual Con-
servative party convention in
Butler in Charge
Deputy Prime Minister Butler,
charged by Macmillan to head the
government during his illness, has
a chance to consolidate his claims
to the job tomorrow when he ad-
dresses a mass meeting of party
workers in Blackpool.
Other contenders are :
-Lord Hailsham, science minis-
ter and leader of the House of
Lords, a favorite of some rank-
and-file Tories for his fervent pa-
triotism and flamboyance.
(Hailsham injected himself in-
to the race to succeed Macmillan
with an announcement last night
that he would give up his peerage.
As a peer he is a member of the
House of Lords and consequently
ineligible for the prime minister-
-Reginald Maudling, chancellor
of the exchequer, supported by
most Conservative members of
Parliament and looked upon as a
sort of new frontiersman among
-Lord Home, pushed forward by
party members who think his un-
blemished political record qualifies
him for special consideration. He
always has held himself aloof from
rivalries and personal politicking
within the party and is believed
reluctant to involve himself in in-
ter-party slugging and to surren-
der his ancient Scottish earldom.
Two ironic factors emerged in
the timing of Macmillan's step-
First it provides a"striking par-
allel with the withdrawal from of-
fice of Sir Anthony Eden.
Eden, now Lord Avon, was forc-
ed out of office by illness at a
time when his political stock was
low as a result of the abortive at-
tack on Egypt.
Secondly, Macmillan's retire-
ment comes at the moment of
fruition of one of his most prized
endeavors-completion of a tread
ty.- banning nuclear tests above
Operation Foil went into
operation last night in an at-
tempt to keep such letterings as
"MSU" and "State" from ap-
pearing on University buildings
over the weekend.
All 25 men's residence halls
are being organized by the
T..nar_©na, A..nrrln fVml to~ *
Blair.C redits Less Tnsio
To Interracial Cooperation
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-Col. Earl Blaik yesterday attributed the easing
of tension in Birmingham, Ala., to "excellent cooperation by both
Negroes and whites."
Blaik and Kenneth Royall, who form the two-man public com-
mittee named by President John F. Kennedy to look into the Birming-
ham situation, met with the President and Attorney General Robert
- ---- "
Opera Modern Look
By JOHN BRYANT
New ideas and techniques in production have given new directions
to opera, Boris Goldovsky, director of the Goldovsky Opera Company,
said last night before the company's presentation of Puccini's "Tosca."
Goldovsky cited the fiberglass ceiling used in the production as one
example of a new development. "This ceiling, developed under a Ford
Foundation grant, aids the acoustics in the hall and serves to balance
the vocalists and the orchestra."
Under the same grant, Goldovsky also developed fiberglass scenery
to replace the conventional painted canvas props. This has the ad-
vantage of being more durable than canvas as well as reflecting sound
"Another, more revolutionary development, is the double projec-
tor, which we developed under the same grant," he added. This pro-
jector makes it possible to change scenes instantly while a production
The basic system is that of a slide projector with two lenses ar-
ranged so that two slides are in position to be projected on a fiber-
glass screen from behind the set. When it is time to change scenes, the
>Kennedy last night for over an
Blaik said that although he and
Royall are not ready to turn in a
final report, they'll probably not
return to Birmingham. The meet-
ing last night was an interim re-
port, and the two will meet with
the President again next week.
Robert Kennedy will have to
appear before the House Judiciary
Committee next week to tell them
where he stands on the civil
rights bill now before the com-
The bill was drawn up by a
subcommittee dominated by liberal
democrats who strengthened al-
most every facet of the bill, but
feel that the bill will have to be
cut back in order to have any
chance of passage in either the
House or the Senate.
Civil rights leaders say that the
Justice Department opposes the
formation of a Fair Employment
Practices Commission which the
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