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September 29, 1963 - Image 10

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In This Issue

. .

pages four and five, has been
a subject of considerable political
analysis in the last few years. The
American debate on "Foreign Aid
to Yugoslavia-Yes or No?" is an
example of the controversy sur-
rounding this independent Com-
munist state. Joe Oppenheimer, a
Graduate student in Economics,
holds an AB degree in political
science from Cornell University,
where he was a teaching fellow in
international relations. He served
as Acting Chilean Desk Officer for
the Department of Commerce, a
post of co-ordination of U.S. for-
eign policy for Chile, and forma-
tion of U.S. commercial and eco-
nomic policy . .. a change in em-
phasis from a political view to a
personal view comes in the Editor's
travel notes based on a week and
a half spent in "Tito's Land of Hos-
pitality" . , . Americans tend to be-
lieve this is the only nation con-
cerned about the state of its edu-
cational facilities. B u t educa-
tional systems all over the world
are undergoing an "agonizing re-
appraisal." Mrs. Carol Barker, a
British citizen, considers her own
nation's problems in "Soul-Search-
ing in British Education" on this
page. Mrs. Barker went to a private
school in Wales until age ten, when
she took up her private school edu-
cation in Bristol, England, until
age 15. Commercial trainng follow-
ed. Mrs. Barker took two English
courses at the University's summer
session, noted she would "probably
never get into an English univer-
sity" and thus was very happy for
the American opportunity . .. From
"The Music Scene, Parts I and II,"
pages seven and eight, come articles
from students in the Music School
.. , Jeffrey K. Chase wrote "Bern-
stein: A Study in Musical Passion"
after backstage observation and
conversation with the famed con-
ductor. Chase is a Music Literature
major and a Masters Candidate who
has covered Hill Auditorium for The
Daily for three years . . . The Uni-
versity Musical Society, in another
concert of the Choral Union Series,
presented Gyorgy Sandor this week
in a brilliant preformance. Evan
Ferber interviewed the Hungarian-
born pianist to write "Sandor:
Artistic Expression in Hungary"
Ferber is a senior concentrating in
Piano. He plans to be a performer-
teacher upon graduation . . . The
Book Review Section is on page six.
COVER: "Haven and Hill" by Robert
Chambers. A sewer at that address.
PHOTO CREDITS: Daily, page three;
Associated Press, pages four and
five; James Keson, page six; Gerald
Ahronheim, page seven; University
News Service, page eight,
In Ann Arbor. . ..
MUSIC . , . Two Choral Union
series concerts in October Monday,
Oct. 7, Jerome Hines, Bass, of the
Metropolitan Opera Company and
Friday, Oct. 18, the Bulgarian Na-
tional Ensemble, Philip Koutev,
Director . . . "Tosca," Puccini's Op-
era, Oct. 10.
Association of Producing Artists be-
gins its season Thursday, Oct. 10,
with Shakespeare's "Much Ado
About Nothing" . . . at the Cinema
Guild in October, the controversial
Alain Resnais film, "Last Year at
Marienbad" (3, 4), "Grapes of
Wrath" (5, 6) based on the Stein-
beck novel.M
ART . . . From the Guggenheim
Museum, the most exciting art ex-
position of the year . . . the Art
Museum across from the Union will

present pop art in "Six Painters and
the Object." An art fair is scheduled
for the Diag on Oct. 9. Also, student
painters in a fall show at the Thalo
Blue Gallery, 1004 Forest, shows at
the Forsythe Gallery, Nickels Ar-
cade, and the Artist's Gallery,
Washington Street.

Soul Searching in, British
Elimination Of An Outmoded
May Be A First Step

LONDON-London has decided to do
away with the controversial school exam-
ination for 10-year-olds that bars all but
the "clever" ones from a higher academic
The test is called the 11-plus, because
it determines whether a child will get an
academic or vocational education from the
age of i 1 onward.
With few exceptions, the examinations
remain in effect outside London.
The London County Council announced
recently that a working party of teachers
and council officials was to begin work
immediately on the procedure for doing
away with the examination completely be-
fore next fall.
"There will no longer be any official
designation of some pupils as being suited
for academic courses and others, by impli-
cation, being unsuited," the council said.
Its intention, the council said, is to end
official selection and leave it entirely to
parents to decide what sort of education
they want for their children.
Copyright 1963, The New York Times
DURING THE LULL after the Second
.World War, 600,000 children as well as
their teachers returned home to London.
Their evacuation experience was over, but
for the education authorities problems
were just beginning. 1150 out of 1200
schools in the London County area were
either totally destroyed or badly dam-
aged, there was an acute shortage of
teachers, and the birthrate was increas-
ing rapidly.
Quick and effective educational reor-
ganization was imperative. The 1944 Edu-
cation Act achieved some sort of order
and efficiency when it provided for a na-
tional examination to be taken by all
English school children at age eleven. The
limited number of academic places were
awarded to those who obtained the high-
est marks and the remainder of students
were filtered into schools of a more prac-
tical nature, where the school-leaving
age was generally fifteen. In effect, the
English students' educational future was
to be decided with a single examination
taken at a very young eleven years of age.
The idea was, however, sound at that
time and functioned quite well during the
post-war years. But as times have chang-
ed dissatisfaction with 'the conclusive
single examination has mounted, and
more and more criticism levelled at the
"Eleven-plus." It has now become one of
the most controversial and talked-about
problems in the British Isles.
The writer therefore was both pleased
and incredulous to see "New York Times"
coverage of an important story from Brit-
ain: "London Dropping Test for Schools."
The article noted that, instead of the one-
day examination, routine tests would be
held as part of the normal primary school
curriculum, and this series of tests would
be the basis for a decision on a place-
ment of the child. In light of this infor-
mation, teachers and parents would dis-
cuss the child's particular aptitude, and
in the final event the parents would be
entirely free in their nomination of two
secondary schools, in order of preference.
T HE NEWS CARRIED by the "Times"

greater understanding of its import can
be achieved by an initial look at the total
scheme of English education.
Under the 1944 Act, responsibility for
education provision was laid on local au-
thorities. The English school system is
highly decentralized. The expenditures of
local authorities are met partly from lo-
cal taxes, partly from government grants.
There are also voluntary, or private,
schools in England, which are either con-
trolled or aided by local authorities. As a
result of the grants made locally to these
voluntary schools, many with a long his-
tory and the inheritors of ancient tradi-
tions, their future has been assured. In
London County alone, they provide places
for abbut one quarter of the student pop-
ulation, offering the same education as
state schools. The Ministry of Education
controls the system through rigid inspec-
tion; even the private and independent
schools are inspected and closed by the
state if found inadequate. Central ad-
visory councils act as liaison agencies be-
tween the local authorities and the Min-
istry of Education.
A SHORTAGE of teachers has been a
problem plaguing every Western nation
since the war and England is no excep-
tion. Birthrates are higher, and more and
more children are staying at school be-
yond the age of fifteen. Teachers are
trained in a total of 185 institutions.
These include 24 University Departments
of Education providing a one-year course
for graduates. Teacher-training colleges
provide a three-year course for those
prospective instructors who do not hold a
university degree. It is not necessary for a
teacher to hold a university degree, if he
has undergone the approved courses in
the training colleges. A large scale plan of
expansion has now been initiated, pro-
viding 24,000 additional places in the
training colleges, the equivalent of three
new universities, by 1966, thus almost
doubling the previous number of places.

Payment of teachers is standardized
throughout England and Wales with a
salary of £600-1,200 or $3,200-6,720 for a
non-graduate three-year trained teacher,
to £890-1,490 or $4,984-8,344 for an hon-
ors graduate with six years degree study,
research and professional training. The
feminists rejoiced in April, 1961, when the
salaries of men and women teachers be-
came equal.
A CHILD can start his education at the
early age of two at a state-supported
nursery school. Compulsory schooling,
however, starts at age five when the chil-
dren enter the primary stage of their edu-
cation, and go first to the infant school,
and then aged seven,- to the junior school
where they remain for four years. To-
wards the end of their period at primary
level the more responsible children are
made prefects and house-leaders. Their
small duties are intended to foster the
ideal of good citizenship in the students,
although there does not seem to be so
much emphasis on this as in the United
States. The realization that this is foster-
ing social responsibility does not occur to
the student; probably the underlying
point for all these duties is to help the
overworked staff, rather than mold per-
fect citizens, although this is the premise.
But the examination begins to loom
even larger on the horizon as the last
term of primary school gets under way.
A slip is sent around to the parents on
which they write, in order of preference,
the two schools favored by them. Most
parents prefer the academic education.
Children all over the country sit the
examination on a certain day. Results
start coming through about two months
later. The children who did well learn
that they will go to the secondary gram-
mar schools and will have the oppor-
tunity to take examinations leading to
entrance into the universities. Those who
did not do as well go to the secondary
modern schools where the general school-


Bernstein: A Study in Musical

strides the American musical scene
like a federal bureau and, democracy that
we are, it is we who have elected him to
this office of ubiquity.
We have packed his concerts to greater
capacity than we did Toscanini's, Leonard
Marcus writes. We have formed lines to
his musicals, which we then voted Oscars
and Tonys. We have tuned in to his
Emmy-awarded telecasts for nearly a
decade and have made both his record-
ings and his books best sellers. He, in
turn, has converted our teen-agers into
musical enthusiasts, lectured our concert
audiences on how to listen to the musical
portions of his programs without becom-
ing restless, and stimulated our intelli-
gentia to buy television sets."_"High Fi-
delity," May, 1963.)
The Bernstein style arouses mixed emo-
tions among serious concert goers, even

though they admit the validity of the
Marcus assertion. For Bernstein, music
is a universal expression; it transcends
the mundane and should be shared and
enjoyed by all classes and conditions of
people. He does not think that mass ap-
preciation lowers the level of art, but
that the high quality of the art brings
the masses to it. The conductor's highly
controversial and often criticized foot-
stamping, singing and physical gesticula-
tions at the podium are often looked upon
as a vulgarization and an egocentric
display by highbrows. But Bernstein feels
that this style helps him to set the mood
of the music and to project his intentions
to his orchestra. For Bernstein, almost
any means justify musical ends.
Still, the conductor of the New York
Philharmonic never forgets that he is a
spectacle, a sensational personality. His
popularity, in fact, rivals that of many
Hollywood stars. Bernstein is unique: how
many musicians do you know who try

to be conducter, composer and pianist all
at the same time? This is Leonard Bern-
stein. How many conductors have a doting
valet with lit cigarette, olive-colored
towel, and a drink ready between bows?
This, too, is Leonard Bernstein. What
other conduuctor is impressed with Hill
Auditorium acoustics, not for excellent
projection of music, but for the deafen-
ing noise of applause which reaches the
performer on stage? "Hill Auditorium
must have been made for applause," said
Bernstein. And the list goes on and on .. .
Sincerely amiable with all of the auto-
graph seekers and curious admirers
(mostly girls) who surround him after
every concert, Bernstein greets them with
a smile, and a look of interest, that one
can only find charming. He is willing to
speak with each one. No one is turned
His friends, associates and even slight
acquaintances call him "Lenny," a fact
at first insignificant, but really a key to
his personality. A friend of all, living in
the glamorous world of the demigod,
Lenny is the cute little boy of American
music. His sincerity and devotion to his
profession is boundless. "My music is my
life," he says.
Do people attend his concerts to watch
the man or to listen to the music? "I
know of nobody who goes to a concert
for visual experience only; a musical con-
cert is primarily an aural sensation,"
Bernstein said backstage at Hill. But
there was a note in his voice which sug-
gested that perhaps he recognizes
people really do go to concerts to see
just what this American "wunderkind" is
all about.


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