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September 05, 1963 - Image 8

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The Michigan Daily, 1963-09-05

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

TH SDAY. SEPTEMBER 5. 1

THE ICHIAN UAITYTillflAY ~I~TR+RR !

M AL' IVii ;+JM my ,

Probl
EDITOR'S :NOTE: Associated
ss education writer G. K. Hoden-
Id reviewvs the problems of en-
ument pressures and dropouts
ing American education, as well
the experiments being tried to
et them and enrich American
cooling.)
hools Face
a jor Paradox
ASHINGTON - There is an.
ic paradox in the two biggest
lems facing American educa-
today-the high school drop-
and the college crush.
n the one hand there is the
)lem of keeping young men'
women in school until they
at least a high school di-
va. Without that diploma they
i become frustrated and hope-
privates in the army of the
nployed.
ri the other hand is the prob-
of finding space for the grow-
millions who do graduate from
school and want to go on
ollege. Without that space, the
on may be depriving itself of
e leaders of tomorrow.
Dropout Problemxs
' the two, the dropout problem
Id seem to be the most press-
and the most difficult to
e-.
i affluent society can build
srooms and, with more diffi-
y, find the teachers to staff
n. But the riches of Croesus
t make up for the neglected
lation that forces ma , young-
s to quit school in despair.
1 recent weeks there has been
uirry of national attention di-
ed toward the dropout prob-
esident John F. Kennedy told

ems,

Changes

Run Amuck

in

Us.S

Schools

M

a recent news conference that
"the end of this summer of 1963
will be an especially critical time
for 400,000 young American who,
according to the experience of re-
cent years, will not return to
school when the summer is ended.
"Moreover, with a special effort
to reverse this trend, another
700,000 students will return to
school in September, but will fail
to complete the school year."
The President announced that
$250,000 would be provided from
the Presidential Emergency Fund
for guidance counselors "to see if
we can get some of these boys and
girls back to school. They will ap-
preciate any effort we make for
the rest of their lives."
'Each One to Reach One'
Soon afterward, the National
Education Association asked its
860,000 members-most of them
classroom teachers-to embark on
an . "each one reach one" cam-
paign to keep potential dropouts
in school. The National School
Boards Association urged local
school boards to get personally in-
volved in the stay-in-school cam-
paign. Other educational and civic
groups, professional organizations
and labor unions joined in.
But to many a hard-headed ex-
pert in the field this seemed to be
locking the barn door after the
horse had gone.
Most of those dropping out of
high school do so because they are
failures. The damage was done
when they were passed from grade
to grade without really learning to
read or write or use numbers.
Dropout Problem
Louise Daughtery, a school of-
ficial in Chicago who has special-
ized in the dropout problem, says,
"When a youngster tries to do
school work with third and fourth

grade reading ability, he imme-
diately falls so far behind there is
no hope of catching up. If he can't
read, he fails. If he fails, he quits.
There is nothing to hold a young-
ster in school if he is a complete
failure at school work."
B. Frank Brown, principal of
the Melbourne (Fla.) High School,
adds "The major reason for the
catastrophic dropout rate is the
failure of the schools to provide
a curriculum geared to the needs
of youths of varying abilities.
"We have as many push-outs
as dropouts. We push these young-
sters out of school by not provid-
ing work geared to their academic
pace. We march boys and girls to-
ward diploma in lockstep con-
formity while their abilities and
ambitions are shaped and colored
as differently as pebbles on a
beach"
Propose Draft
An article in a national mag-
azine recently proposed that high
school dropouts be drafted into the
army, where tough sergeants could
prepare them for a job.
Most educators, however,dbe-
lieve the place to tackle the drop-
out problem is in the early years
of formal education, by providing
special techniques, classes and
courses for slow learners.
Until this is done on a national
scale, they say, the frightening
figures will remain unchanged: 30
per cent of those who enter the
9th grade will never complete the
12th: 7.5 million young people will
enter the labor market during this
decade without a high school di-
ploma, and one out of every three
or four dropouts will find it im-
possible to get any job.
The story of the college crush
is told in figures: in 1953 there.
were 2.4 million students enrolled
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in college and professional school:
this year there will be 4.4 million:
in 1965 there will be 5.2 million,
and in 1970 there will be 7 million.
Colleges and universities, par-
ticularly the public institutions,
are striving mightily to keep pace
with the demand for education,
but the problem will remain as
long as even the most optimistic
can foresee.
Sees Advance
In Techniques
WASHINGTON - This is the
decade of change in American
education.
A complete transformation of
the schools is underway.New
educational techniques are mov-
ing from idea to experiment to
standard practice with unpreced-
ented speed.
Scientific technology has taken
its place in the classroom in the
form of educational television,
teaching machines, foreign lan-
guage labs and evenrelectronic
computers.
New Ideas
Even m o r e important than
technology has been the spread of
new ideas.
Educators are beginning to real-
ize that children can learn almost
anything at almost any age if
taught properly.
A generation ago, algebra and
geometry were reserved for high
school. Today they are being
taught to some second graders.
Calculus and the theory of sta-
tistics are moving from college to
the high school level.
Earlier Studies
For years teachers clung to the
theory that children weren't ready
for reading before they reached
the magic age of 6%. Now they
know that many children can and
do profit by learning to read be-
fore they enter school.
Home television viewing has
had. a tremendous impact on edu-
cation. First graders who watch
United States astronauts blast off
into space aren't content to wait
until junior high school for an
introduction to general science.
Teachers have known for years
that children vary widely in their
abilities to learn. Now, with a
better public climate for experi-
mentation, they are capitalizing
on that knowledge.
No Grades
The result is that the century-
old practice of marching young-
sters in lockstep from kindergar-
ten through high school just be-
cause they are the same age is
headed for the academic ashcan.
Instead, many of the nation's
schools are adopting the non-
graded concept, in which pupils
move through their studies as

fast or as slow as their individual
abilities dictate.
If this is a boon for the bril-
liant student, it also is a life-
saver for the not-so-bright. Each
progresses at his own rate with-
out boredom or frustration.
Semesters Depart
Another tradition-bound idea
that may be completely out of
style before the end of this decade
is the nine-month school year
followed by a three-month vaca-
tion.
Last year the University School
in Tallahassee adopted a revolu-
tionary program which combined
an 11-month school year, longer
class periods, Saturday and eve-
ning classes, and a non-graded
program from first grade through
high school graduation.
This week in Fort Lauderdale
a similar plan went into effect at
Nova School with. 1500 students
in grades 7 through 10.
Both schools have a 220-day
calendar. Because statelaw re-
quires only 180 days, enrollment
is voluntary. Despite this, both
schools report more applications
for admission than they can ac-
commodate.
May Spread
Joe Hooten Jr., director of the
University School, believes the 11-
month school year will spread
across the nation.
"There is so much to learn to-
day and so little time in which to
learn it," he said. "Horse-and-
buggy education isn't going to
prepare our youngsters for the
space age."
The decade of change is affect-
ing every phase of education from
the shape of the schoolhouse to
the length of the class period.
Study Cubicles
Many of today's- new schools
provide individual study cubicles.
Sliding walls can change a large
lecture room to smaller rooms for
group discussion.
Libraries are getting bigger and
being kept open longer. Books are
being placed out in the open, so
the students can browse.
So rapidly is the educational
scene shifting that yesterday's in-
novation is today's relic.
A case in point is the language
laboratory, an array of tape re-
corders, earphones, and/or phono-
graphs that gave students indi-
vidualized instruction in speaking,
hearing and reading a foreign lan-
guage.
Restricted Use
Today the language labs are be-
ing criticized as too restricted in
usage. What's needed, some edu-

cators are saying, is a laboratory
for use in teaching speech, music,
typing and other subjects as well
as foreign languages.
Hawthorne High School in Los
Angeles County is typical of the
schools which have adopted a flex-
ible schedule of classes.
Instead of a rigid program of
50-minute periods, classes at
Hawthorne can range from 30
minutes to more than an hour.
Classes also are broken down into
lectures and small group discus-
sions of varying length.
Teachers Find
New Militancy'
WASHINGTON - American
teachers are on the warpath.
They want higher salaries, bet-
ter working conditions, and a big-
ger say in what goes on in the
schools.
And,for the first time, they are
prepared to close schools to en-
force those demands.
Two Cases
Two cases, almost a continent
apart, illustrate the teachers' new
militancy.
In New York City, disgruntled
teachers have voted to strike when
school reopens next Monday un-
less their financial demands are
met. If there is astrike, perhaps
30,000 of the city's 40,000 teachers
will stay away from their jobs.
In Utah, where most of the
state's 10.000 teachers threatened
to boycott the public schools this
fall, there is an uneasy truce
while a special state committee in-
vestigates teacher grievances.
Complex Problem
In both situations, higher sal-
aries are only part of the problem.
The teachers also want what one-
called "a chance to really teach."
In Utah, for instance, the teach-
ers asked for an increase of $25
million in state spending for edu-
If you or anyone you
know has met discrimin-
ation in housing, employ-
ment, etc., please send
complaint to the Human
Relations Board, SAB,
Ann Arbor, Michigan

cation which has been running at
$78 million. Of this increase, 42
per cent would go for salaries, 30
per cent for maintenance, and 28
per cent forsuch special services as
programs for the gifted and the
retarded, employment of coun-
selors, purchase of teaching ma-
chines, and an extension of the
school year.
New York Demands
In New York, the demand is for
$26 million in salary increases and
about $5 million in other benefits.
The teachers originally asked for
$56 million in salary increases.
New York has been spending
$400.6 million on teacher salaries.
As in Utah, the New York teach-
ers are demanding smaller classes,
clerical help, and increased guid-
ance and counseling services for
pupils.
There have been rumblings of
teacher discontent all across the
country.
Restive Teachers

times the line of distinction is al-
most invisible.
In Utah, teachers threatened to
refuse to sign contracts for the
1963-64 school year. This was call-
ed sanctions by the Utah Educa-
tion Association, an NEA affiliate.
In New York City, the same
threat to refuse to sign contracts
is still alive. But this is called a
strike by the sponsoring United
Federation of Teachers, an affili-
ate of the American Federation of
Teachers.
The goal in each case: to en-
force teacher demands by a threat
to close the schools.
NEA Sanctions
Sanctions, as envisaged by the
NEA, can range from publicity
campaigns to the "withholding of
professional services."
And NEA sanctions do not call
for interruption of work when a
contract is in force.
Whatever approach the teach-
ers use, they can expect stern

4

i

So restive have teachers become opposition from school boards, the
that it doesn't seem to matter "managing directors" of American
whether they belong to a labor education.
union or a "professional" organ- NSBA Statement
ization. A policy statement of the Na-
There are two main organiza- tional School Boards Association
tions representing the United puts it bluntly: "School boards .
States teacher: the 860,000-mem- shall refrain from compromise
ber National Education Associa- agreements based on negotiation
tion (NEA) and the 80-0Q0-mem- (the "professional approach) or
ber American Federation o f collective bargaining (the labor
Teachers, AFL-CIO. union approach), and shall not
The NEA calls itself a profes- resort to mediation or arbitration,
sional organization, in the same nor yield to threats of reprisal on
category as the American Medical all matters affecting local public
Association, etc. schools ...
Opposes Strikes Spokesmen for both the NEA
The NEA opposes collective bar- and the teacher union have de-
gaining and strikes by teachers. nounced this attitude as high-
Instead, it says, there should be handed and dictatorial.
professional negotiations, enforc- "We can no longer tolerate a
ed if necessary by the invoking of situation where teachers are treat-
sanctions. ed as second-class citizens. No
The American Federation of group of teachers can keep their
Teachers is frankly a labor union, self-respect when they are con-
employing the same techniques of stantly frustrated in their at-
other unions. tempts to reach an understanding
There is a difference between with the board of education and
sanctions and strikes, but some- the administration."
rI

t.

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

}.

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(Continued from Page 2) Service, Room. 128H, W. Engrg. Bldg., to
receive maximum consideration by em-
pment, supplies, research assistance, ployers. Delay may prevent your quali-
necessary research travel. AppliCa- fications from reaching the attention of
necssay eserc trvel Aplia-employers in whom you may be inter-
for these grants should be return-e e
y- Sept. :20, 1963. Grants, will be es/ed.

e before the end of the first semes-

Application blanks may be obtained
from the office of the Phoenix Project
at the Phoenix Memorial Lab.-Room
3034, Ext. 86-406-on the N. Campus.
Student Organizations: Registration
'of student organizations planning to be
active during the present semester
should be completed on or before Sept.
24, 1963. Forms are available in the Of-
fice of Student Affairs, 1011 Student
Activities Bldg. Privileges such as the
use of the Organization Notices column
in The Michigan Daily, use of meeting
rooms in University buildings, assign-.
ment of Student Activities Bldg. facili-
ties, etc. are available to recognized
organizations only. Student organiza-
tions registered by this date will be con-
sidered officially recognized for the cur-
rent semester.
If you wish to be listed in the Stu-
dent Directory, please supply the presi-
dent's name, address and telephone
number to Miss C. Bilakos, 1011 SAB by
Sept. 16, 1963.
Preliminary PhD Exams in Economics:
Theory examinations will be given on
Thurs. and Fri., Sept. 26 and 27, 1963.
The examinations in other subjects
will be given beginning on Mon., Sept.
30.
Each student planning to take these
exams should leave with the secretary
of the dept. of economics not later than
Sept. 10, 1963, his name and the three
fields in which he desires to be exam-
ined,
Tickets for individual performances
In the Choral Union Series, Extra Se-
ries, Chamber Arts Series, and Chamber
Dance Festival, as well as the special
performance of La Boheme by the New
York City Opera Company, are avail-
able beginning today at the office of
the University Musical Society, first
floor, Burton Tower.
To meet the heavy. demands of the!
public sale the society offices will' be
open from 9:00 to 4:30, Mon, through
Fri., and 9:00 to 12:00 Sat. morning. On
concert evenings, the sale will be from
the auditorium box office one hour
and a half before performances begin.
Fri., Sept. 6, is the final day for addi=
tional or corrected information to be
submitted for the Faculty-Staff Direc-
tory. Information must be received in
writing by the Publications Office, 3564
Admin. Bldg., before 5 p.m. Fri.
Events
Astronomical Colloquium: Fri., Sept.
6,. 4:00 p.m., Room 807, Physics-Astron-
omy Bldg. Dr. Dennis Walsh, Dept. of
Astronomy, will speak on "Results of
the U. of M. Radio Astronomy Rocket
Shot of Sept. 1962."
Placement
Engrg. Seniors and Grad Students: If
interested in employment contacts this
year, file your "College Interview Form"
immediately with the Engrg. Placement

POSITION OPENINGS:
Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich.-1)
Safety Engineer-Age 30-40, MA in Ind.
Hygiene (or equivalent). Ability to
communicate with management & per-
sonnel. Layout plans for plant. Exper.
2) Transportation Engineer-Operate
garage of fleet of cars & trucks. Manage
car pool. Desire automative Engineering
bkgd. with some business exper.
Summy-Birchard Co., Evanston, Ili.
--This is a music publishing company,
specializing in music & music-related
materials for use in the schools. Have
recently completed publication of a
basic music series & seeking additional
personnel to help in bringout materials
before the music educ. profession. Re-
quire both general representatives as
well as professional music educ. con-
sultants. Background should include
familiarity with the terminology of mu-
sic, etc. Music Educ. Consultant should
have some exper. in music teaching.
Clinical Research Center for Children,
Columbus, Ohio - Seeking Senior Tech-
nician-To assist in the setting up &
operation of a non-routine clinical lab
for the study of metabolic disorders of
children. Qualified person with 2-3 yrs.
exper. Will arrange schedule so can at-
tend Ohio State Univ. graduate school.
Work in this lab should be acceptable
in partial fulfillment of graduate de-
gree requirements.
Centaur, Div. of Lombard Industries,
Ashland, Mass.-Offering student deal-
erships to qualified individuals to sell
Centaur folding motor scooter. Must be
interested in running own business,
have little or no capital to invest, & be
sincerely interested in working hard in
order to earn a substantial part or all
of college expenses. Will receive free
advertising literature, free mats for
ads in school or town newspapers & a
profit of $74.95 for each scooter sold.
Texaco, Tyler, Mich.-Salesmen for
outside sales to Texaco Stations. Ad-
ministrative responsibility. Future pos-
sibility of relocating. Will work now in
metro. Detroit area. Degree. Exper, not
necessary. Age to 30.
Disability Determination Service, Lans-
ing, Mich.-Disability Examiner-Degree
in related field including Rehab. Coun-
seling; Psych.; Soc. Guidance; Social
Work; Special Educ.; & Vocational
Educ. For higher level positions, exper.
is required.

Oakland County Republican Party,
Birmingham, Mich.-Seeking Field Rep-
resentative who will be responsible for
raising operating budget (fund raising).
BA with Poll. Sci. or Econ. major. No
exper. required-want someone right
out of school. Desire Oakland County
resident. Age 21 & up.
IBM, Kingston, N.Y.-Industrial Psy-
chologist position. PhD in Psychology
with major in industrial psych. Minor
in clinical or counseling psych. is de=
sirable. Exper. as an indust. psychologist
desirable. Must be able to qualify with-
in a year for New York State certifica-
tion as a psychologist.
.General Foods Corp., White Plains,
N.Y.-Opening at Post Div. in Kanakee,
1l. Purchasing-Trainee. Degree in Bus.
Ad., Econ., Mktg., Purchasing, Ind.
Supv., or Ind. Mgmt. Should have inter-
est in purchasing as immediate voca-
tional objective with breader mgmt,
positions secondary future goals.
* * *
For further information, contact Gen-
eral Div., Bureau of Appts., 3200 SAB,
Ext. 3544.

N

r

I

11

Walk...

Walk...Walk
and

if

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FREE FREE
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SEPTEMBER SPECIAL
A FREE LUBRICATION on Your
I mported Car-W I TH TH I S AD.;
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aU
We service ALL imported cars.
* I
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424 S. Main St.-NO 3-4213
* Dealers for-Volvo, Saab, Fiat, Alpine u
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Run . .Run ...Rn
to
Universit Bike Hospital
214 S. State St.
NO 2-6986
then Ride..Rid.Ride
on a NEW or USED BIKE

WANTED:
Writers, Photographers,
sales people.
The MICHIGANENSIAN
yearbook staff.
SIGN UP NOW:
3 to 5, Sept. 5-11th,
420 Maynard St.

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new bikes
$41.95

used bikes
$18.95 & up

complete
bike repairs

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Don't Forget
Panhellenic's
Hootenany
Saturday, Sept. 14
8 :30P.M.

000000
New Styes First at Wild's OPEN MONDAY NIGHTS
--
vzusa
set a fashion pace for University Men:; ?} } }
Gentlemen of learning exercise superior taste when , .k
they select a university wardrobe from this proprie-
tor's presentation. Notable is the muscle in the wool- .
lens and the strength in the colors of every fibre, nat-
ural or made-by-man. An entire course of fashion may:-
be chosen under this one roof. . .:
Vested Fall Suits in solid shades-herringbones-
and Glen Plaids from .............. . ......$69.50
Repp Silk WILD'S exclusive flannel BLAZER
from Varsity-town............. . ....$35.00
'1 es 2.50..
H. Freeman and Varsity-town Sport Coats
Varsity-town from...............$39.95
H. Freeman from................$69.50
Wild's ....
State t --O n the Cam pusMI
.:jj I r~

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