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October 25, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-10-25

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Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevails.s
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

The Cuban Crisis:
A Third View

HIS REPORTER views with a mixture of
disgust and sadness, the efforts of elements
bbth on and off campus to simplify and over-
simplify the world situation into a glaring
condemnation of President Kennedy's action
in the Cuban situation.
The right to criticism, the right to dissent is
inviolable; the right of distortion 'is a right
of the most questionable sort.
An editorial in these columns yesterday re-
soundingly proclaimed, "If World War III is
the end result of the present Cuban debacle
the United States will have had the dubious
distinction of starting it, no matter who
starts flinging the bombs first." On the diag
yesterday, like minded students dragged out
the old reliable protest rally. Their leaders
declared in the Daily letter columns yester-
day, "Though only a few moments, perhaps,
remain before the final crash, sane voices must
be heard, urging that the truly courageous
action would be to stop playing "chicken" and
start living as responsible men-responsible to
mankind, to principle, to life." How stirring!
How pompous! How absurd!
THE THINKING--and I use that word doubt-
fully-of these people divides into two cate-
gories. Some of them feel that the Cuban
threat is minimal, that Washington is guilty
of mass hysteria and overbearing self-interest.
Others go farther and say that no matter what
the nature of the threat the United States
is not justified in the use of force.
The overwhelming fact. of life, sad as it
may be, is that this country does not live in
a vacuum. However trite, that statement is
undeniable. This is not a world of our own
choosing. It is a world of action and reaction.
We cannot wish things into being. Reality de-
rives not from what countries should do but
from what they do do.
Few are unfamiliar and many are sym-
pathetic to the principles of an ideal society.
Force in the perfect world is an absolute evil.
But it is utter suicide to play around, in the
nuclear age, with a unilateral elimination of
the tools of force. Those very elements which
make war so final in this seventh decade of
the twentieth century also make a unilateral
turn toward peace impossible.
THIS NATION has not historically been an
armed camp. In the past when a war
situation arose-aggressive or defensive-we
put a military machine together on the spot.
As late as the conclusion of World War I,
we were able to dismantle this machine.
But modern technology precludes the element
of time. If any potential enemy holds a mili-
tary advantage over the United States-this
means a nuclear advantage--and decides to
attack, we are simply and unequivocally dead.
To contend that this country should ignore
reality, whatever the cost, by allowing its
enemies-and the Communist states have de-
clared themselves our enemies so there can
be no fuzzy thinking along that line-to man-
euver into a position to destroy us while we
sit back and extoll the virtues of the "should
be" - world is preposterous.

T HIS THEN brings on the other question:
the hature of the Cuban threat. And this
question is undebatable. It is not that President
Kennedy's intelligence information and his
estimate of same could not be wrong. The
simple fact is that no one without that in-
formation can make any accurate judgment
of the situation. We must accept on faith
the idea that the government has a real cause
for concern in the Caribbean.
If the Soviet Union is turning Cuba into an
offensive base equipped with missiles which
can strike anywhere in the United States with-
in ten minutes, then we must act. Our whole
retaliatory system is based on the premise
that if Russia unleashes its missiles on us
we will have enough warning time to unleash
Missiles from Cuba eliminate this warning
time. We will be rendered helpless before we
can fire a single shot. Cuba does not yet have
the missiles to destroy us; we cannot let the
situation progress to the point where it does.
PRESIDENT KENNEDY has not suddenly
become a madman. He realizes completely
the gravity of the situation he has created; he
has called for this blockade with the greatest
reluctance. For months, while a growing right
wing has clamored foolishly for war, he has
told the nation to remain calm. We must
concede that his changing position is based
on alarming evidence.
There are all sorts of diplomatic channels
open to the two powers, and the United States
is ignoring none of them in an effort to soothe
this crisis. But we cannot barter with Russia
at the conference table and, at the same time,
let her keep moving arms into Cuba unchal-
The blockade is an awesome, frightening
event; the alternatives are more frightening.
We are running the terrible unwanted risk
of atomic war, but if Cuba ever becomes able
to make a devastating first strike against us,
we will live in 24 hour fear.
OUR PAST MISTAKES in Cuba do not
apply now. We have made many-from the
unjustifiable war McKinley started in 1898 to
the contemptable Bay of Pigs invasion we,
fostered last year. But the world situation has
swept past our mistakes.
The world is now under the gravest danger
of war ever. Berlin or Tibet could explode into
atomic particles at any time. And now Presi-
dent Kennedy has made Cuba the most dan-
gerous troublespot of all.
History will be the only judge of his de-
cision. And the sole criterion will be whether
or not atomic war breaks out. Many people
wish that we could act in accordance with
ideals; even more wish that we could act with
10 per cent safety. This chaotic world denies
ideals and safety. There is no universal order
from which to derive the formula of life. We
can struggle to change the world, but not in
the utopian vacuum. We can never lose sight
of reality.

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Programmed Instruction

Typical 'U' Students
Deny Minority Rights

To the Editor:
T HE STUDENTS of the Univer-
sity have outdone themselves
again. Wednesday afternoon, they
put on a demonstration which
clearly showed their maturity and
their basic compliance with the
United States Constitution and
all it stands for. It was a pleasant
sight to see a minority group get
up before the students and try to
express their opinions openly. I
was completely overjoyed at the
fact that these people were sub-
sequently egged, mocked a n d
cursed. These actions typify the
attitude of University students.
Who cares about the First
Amendment which guarantees
freedom of speech and freedom to
assemble peaceably. Who cares if
a minority group cannot get up
and express its opinions. The ma-
jority is always right 4nd the mi-
nority cannot express its opinion.
With these actions, it is time
to realize that the United States
is not a free country. It's time to
realize that a minority must be
suppressed. It's time to realize that
these tactics are not much differ-
ent from the Russian's or the
Maybe the next demonstration
given on the diag will be a minor-,
ity group wanting freedom of re-
ligion, speech, and press. Are we
going to have eggs ready for this
-Ron Kramer, '64
Reality ...
To the Editor:
IT IS interesting to note that
many persons active in protest-
ing the Cuban quarantine are the
same persons active in integration
activities in the south through
various non-violent groups. These
groups certainly have been instru-
mental in the successful acquisi-
tion. of long overdue civil rights
for the Negro.
However, it is a curious incon-
sistency that these same people
will deny a nation the right to de-
fend the principles in which they
believe and upon which a way of
life is based.
It should be noted that the
rights for the Negro in the south
were not gained at a conference
table, for integration workers
found talk with the racists rather
fruitless. Instead the integration
workers found they could best ac-
complish their goals by the sys-
tematic application of force (some
call it non-violence, but never-
theless it still is force). We would
all like a world in which all prob-
lems could be solved at a confer-
ence table; where problems of
peace could be discussed in a con-
text of humandignity; where bar-
gaining power would be an irrele-

vant factor in the final' arbitra-
* * *
BUT HISTORY has shown that
unfortunately the world is not the
ideal rational place we would like
it to be. Mr. Hayden was aware of
this factor of irrationality in hu-
man nature, when he called our
attention to the concept of the
"absurd" working in the south. But
The Absurd is not only at work in
the South, but in every aspect of
human endeavor. We must solve
our problems in the context of
"what is today" and not in "what
we would live human nature to
It is time we face the realities
of cold war power politics. Isn't
Dr. Martin Luther King risking his
life in defense of principles which
he feels are worth preserving?
-Paul Lurie, '65L
SGC's Role...
To the Editor
IN THEIR editorial Tuesday, Gail
Evans and Richard Kraut de-
lineated some of the defects in the
operation of Student Government
Council. They declared that poor-
ly prepared representatives, fac-
t i o n a 11i s m, and submissiveness
among SGC members are prevent-
ing Council from functioning as
a significant part in the power
structure of this university.
Fulfilling its function within the
superstructure of the University
involves SGC in debates which
often do seem self contained, such
as the fraternity and sorority bias
clauses and judicial reform, which
are issues germane only to campus
life. However, while one views SGC
as something detached from so-
ciety as a whole, he is committing
both himself and his representa-
tives a disservice.
A DUTY of SGC is the cultiva-
tion, within the student commun-
ity, of awareness of the political,
social and economic issues of the
world at large. Its seminars should
be even more dedicated to express-
ing the different views regard-
ing issues such as nuclear warfare,
civil rights, HUAC, big business
and labor, and academic freedom.
By its very existence, SGC en-
courages students to act in their
role as electors. SGC encourages
him to exercise his rights to choose
them by whom he feels he is fair-
ly'represented. To the whole cam-
pus community the coming elec-
tion is relevant and important.
This is the student's opportunity
to elect representatives who can
offer the sort of support he feels
is most constructive in creating a
University wherein free inquiry
and association can survive and
-Regina Rosenfeld, '04

Newton Backs Down

FOR A WHILE there was a hope that Quigg
Newton, president of the University of
Colorado, would champion the field of academic
freedom. For a while there was a hope that
Newton would allow his university to be a
locus of free expression without penalty. For
a while there was a hope ' that Newton would
face unyieldingly political pressures of the
most unacademic consequences and stand with
his students instead of against them. For a
while .
Last week Quigg Newton fired the editor of
the Colorado Daily, Gary Althen, "in the best
interests of the university." Two weeks before,
it had been the same Newton who had con-
demned Senator Barry Goldwater for demand-
ing Althen be fired for running an article
critical of Goldwater.
The University of Colorado joins the ranks of
unfortunate universities headed by presidents
who desert the spirit of education in the most
difficult time . . . political attack.
THE EVENTS leading up to the firing are
simple enough. Editor Althen ran a guest
article by Carl Mitcham, a Colorado senior.
The article bitterly attacked Senator Gold-
water, who in rebuttal attacked Althen and
the university as irresponsible. The senator
demanded that Newton fire Althen.
Newton admirably defended Althen and the
Colorado Daily and blasted Goldwater for his
"lack of sense of academic freedom." He held,
at the time, that the university newspaper
would be unhampered, even if it ran un-
popular, even highly controversial material.
THE REPUBLICAN Party of Colorado, which
had centered political attacks on the uni-
versity for its tolerance of Mitcham's first ar-
ticle, was joined by the Democratic Party.
nemnratic Gnovenr cNicn l nscndmned

ALL OF THESE statements came at a time
of silence from the president, Newton, who
had the power to fire Althen. The statements
indicated that Newton was actively considering
action again Althen,
And then it came. Gary Althen was relieved
of his duties, and an interim editor appointed
by the Board of Publications, which.also issued
a statement opposed to Newton's action.
At least one function of a university presi-
dent is to try to maintain his institution as
free from political censorship as possible. That
simply means that he must defend his in-
stitution, and its students, from forces which
would extinguish exchange and free debate
and substitute for them partisan politics or
lists of unquestionable taboos.
NOT ONLY has Newton failed to protect his
campus from such pressures, he has served
as the agent for those pressures in his action
against Althen. Newton has succumbed to
political pressures in the face of academic and
administrative opposition from all possible
He announces that there is no editorial cen-
sorship at the Daily; that is true. 'But the
editor knows full well that if he prints any-
thing too critical of either political party, or
anything too incisive in interpretation of uni-
versity or national policies, if he allows his
paper to enter into conflict, he will lose his
UNFORTUNATELY there are more issues
asking condemnation, more policies which
need critical and bitter analysis, and more
politicians and political university presidents
that must be rebuked than there are possible
editors of the Colorado Daily.
Will each assertion of the right of expression

itial publicity has cast such
aspersions on the field of pro-
grammed teaching that its being
utilized to any great extent within
the next ten years is rather im-
probable. The obvious reaction to
an attempt to "teach only the
right answers" is naturally going
to be negative on the part of any-
one who cherishes even the small-
est desire to preserve academic
freedoms, yet this reaction should
not mean that any examination of
the possibilities the field might
have to offer will be precluded.
Essential in the effort to guard
and nurture the opportunities of
unhampered scholarship is a close
appraisal of all -factors which
might ultimately help or hinder
the learning process. Failure to do
this can result in the neglect of
some innovation which could add
immeasurably to improving the
ability to learn, just as well as it
can leave uncovered an aspect of
teaching which is harmful and
does in reality prevent an honest
and unbiased grasp of the sub-
ject. It is fallacious to assume that
the exclusion of factors pertaining
to the learning process from con-
sideration will ultimately lead to
a better understanding of how to
meet the complex problems of
education. Whether they are good
or bad, the very knowledge of
them assures a more valid assess-
ment of the possibilities educators
have at their disposal.
* * *
which programmed learning is
normally viewed arises from a
basic misunderstanding of its ob-
jectives. It is not a plan designed
to take over the entire field of
education and teach all subjects
via a machine accepting only the
right answers. This is not, and
never wil be, either possible or
in any way desirable.
Since the first course was taught
in 1951, a number of false claims
about what programmed learning
can do have been made, and they
have done much to discredit the
honest workers in the field. The
majority of these indicents have
occurred in the business world,
but they have been reflected by
feelings of mistrust and fear in
the world of education. Industry
is just now overcoming the pre-
judices for which the unethical
claims laid the foundation. It will
take much longer before educators
feel they too can afford to look
at the situation objectively.
The ground work for the pro-
gram was established by Prof. B.
F. Skinner, a behavioral psychol-
ogist at Harvard.
From his work with the various
aspects of behavior, he validated
the assumption that all learning
is a process of change in the be-
haviroral pattern of the individual.
Thus one of the basic criteria for
programmed instruction is that
the learning environment be con-
trolled. If, for example, a student
is being program taught a course
in geology, he is not given a mass
of information to be absorbed at
the outset. He learns each fact
individually and every fact he
learns to the next in an order;y
progression so that his under-
standing of the material follows

teaching anything other than
purely factual matter in this way,
they would be justified in their
position, and throwing up their
hands in despair would not be
enough. Action would then have to
be taken to prevent such an oc-
currence. Until it is clearly evi-
dent, however, that this is im-
minent it is unfair not only to
the people involved in programmed
teaching, but also to the students
and faculty whom it ultimately
can benefit to castigate it without
a sufficient understanding of the
The only reason programmed
teaching would be used in any
course would be to facilitate the
students' ability to reach a work-
ing grasp of the basic terminology.
It is not designed to "feed" only
the instructor's point of view to
the student. Consider the average
survey course and see if the lec-
turer is not interpreting the sub-
ject, to a greater or lesser degree,
according to his own beliefs.
The situation is necessarily in-
evitable, but programmed instruc-
tion would not be interpreting ma-
terial even to this extent. It is
not a question of concept versus
fact. There can be no successful
attempt to replace the thought
process. The fact that the op-
ponents of programmed instruc-
tion seem to be conceding such a
possibility does exist places them
in a pessimistic world of unreal-
ity where man's individuality is
held to be no more enduring than
the nearest teaching machine.
* * *
restricted to certain areas and
confined within certain boundar-
ies, but within these limitations
the possibilities it offers to edu-
cators are extensive. A biology
class, a psychology class, or a
physics class, could go far be-
yond the subject matter it is
presently restricted to by the time

limit of one semester. If the stu-
dents are able to learn the tedious
names of phyla, difficult to re-
member technical terms, and
mathematical formulas in half the
normal time through program
learning, the instructor is then
free to deal with material normally
impossible to introduce in a one
semester or even two semester
Lectures and text books are
neither eliminated nor lessened in
number. One can still talk about
ideas with the instructor and with
fellow students. There need be no
"learning machine."
Even at the graduate level if
the technicalities of the subject
can be learned in a measurably
shorter time the advantages would
be enormous. A tremendous in-
crease in the understanding of al-
most all subjects requiring basic
technical competence for their full
mastery would result. A student
could easily double his knowledge
in almost any area without in-
creasingthe time spent in the
classroom. To prevent such an
advance would be just as morally
wrong as to make an attempt to
establish an Orwellian society.
* * *
THEREFORE the men who have
worked to create the field of
programmed teaching are being
dealt an injustice when they are
branded as immoral and impos-
sible realists. They, perhaps, are
more idealistic than many of those
who call themselves idealists. They
have worked to make it possible
for those seeking knowledge to be
free to devote their time to the
pursuit of this knowledge.
They have attempted to remove
the restrictions of time consuming
memorization and endless strug-
gling with basic factual concepts
from the learning process. Only
with this in mind is it justifiable
to make a judgment on the rela-
tive merits of program learning.

Ibsen Drama.Brilliant
IBSEN'S PLAYS demand a perception and an excellence of acting
technique that are so exacting that the plays are seldom produced
and more rarely produced adequately. Eva LeGallienne's production
of Ibsen's "Ghosts" for the University of Michigan Professional
Theatre Program is far more than adequate.
In fact any strong adjective pales when applied to ' Miss LeGal-
lienne's performance of Mrs. Alving. Brilliant, great and marvellous
have been applied to so many inferior theatre experience that they

Offers Dull Fare
11HE FRENCH NATIONAL ORCHESTRA under the direction of
Charles Munch presented the second orchestral concert of the year
in Hill Auditorium last night. The program consisted entirely of works
by French composers and was generally similar in style to that per-
formed by the Detroit, Symphony two weeks ago.
Before going into the performance, I would like to register a sec-
ond protest to the programming on our concert series. Last year, within
a two-month period three orchestras played symphonies by Brahms
(the May Festival usually includes a good number of works by this com-
poser also). This year, we are getting a diet of romantic French music.
I have little objection to Brahms or to the best of French music,
but I do believe the University Musical Society owes its audiences more
variety and better taste in the choice of programs.
* * * *
THE FRENCH NATIONAL ORCHESTRA has a tonal quality which
is unlike that of most American orchestras, but fairly typical of the
French. The woodwinds and brass have a small, sweet tone which takes
some getting used to. It is not a bad sound. I rather like it.
The concert opened with a rousing performance of Berlioz' "Le
Corsaire" Overture. This is a wonderful opener and Munch made the
most of it.
Milhaud's "Serenade" is a charming, ingratiating work. The two
outer movements are spirited with a good deal of melodic and rhythmic
repetition. The inner movement is tranquil and lovely.
MUNCH BROUGHT OUT the various weaving lines of many of the
sections very well, and the general clarity of sound produced by this
orchestra enhanced the work.

cannot be used. Miss LeGallienne
standable that one finds it diffi-
cult to take his eyes from her face.
It is unfortunate that there are
more than ten rows in the Lydia
Mendelssohn Theatre, for anyone
who misses Miss LeGallienne's
tears, slightly quivering lips, her
very breaths will lose part of the
rare experience of studying an
artist completely engrossed in the
communication of a complex per-
sonality. Of course, even to stand
in the lobby and only hear Miss
LeGallienne will be something to
brag of in years to come.
* * *
THE APA resident company has
been loudly proclaimed an excel-
lent acting ensemble. However,
they-as the adjectives used to de-
scribe them-also pale beside Miss
LeGallienne. They are, for the
most part, merely excellent.
Rosemary Harris in the small
role of Regine is nearly definitive
in her portrayal. Her final "good-
bye" is unexpectably defiant, lusty
and fatalistic. It is the kind of in-
terperetation that an intelligent
actress can give that adds immeas-
urably to the significance of the
character and the intent of the
DAVID HOOKS and Clayton
Corzatte as Engstrand and Osvald
gave laudable performances, but
Richard Woods overplayed Pastor ,
Manders earning every possible
laugh but nearly reducing one of
Ibsen's particularly interesting and
well developed characters to cari-
cature. It was often amazing that
Miss LeGallienne reacted such
heights of emotion with so little
help from Mr. Woods.
Perhaps, Mr. Woods will earn
some respect for his character
duringdthe week so that he will
not reduce him to ridicule. Cer-
tainly, there must be -s cne good
in a man who f r. Alvin ,, nnilA

is so intensely real and under-
(Continued from Page 3)
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Control. Summer Employ.: only Chem.
students considered. Locations one of 4
plant locations in Mich., Pa., Maine or
Tennessee Valley Authority -- Feb.,
June & Aug. grads. Candidates with ma-
jors appro. to job descriptions listed
below for positions in various divs. of
TV'A: Trng. Officer on Mgmt. Services
Staff; Stat. in Market Analysis Branch;
Specialist in Prop. Mgmt.; Research
Analyst on Power Res. Staff; Purchasing
Agent; Mathematician; Personnal Offi-
cer; Data Processing Analyst; Biologist
or Attorney. Also openings for Econo-
mists and Public Admin. candidates.
Women considered only for positions of

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