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October 14, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-10-14

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Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Mississippi and After



Distribution Requirements:
The End of the Affair

TWO YEARS AGO the faculty approved
approved changes in the distribution require-
ment for the literary college. The distribution
requirements encompass a concept which is
basic to the educational philosophy and goals
of the college, and yet to a certain degree the
changes were expedient.
The changes, which affect this year's fresh-
man, include dropping mathematics for dis-
tribution credit, placing philosophy under hu-
manities and increasing the hours of humani-
ties necessary for graduation, and dividing the
natural sciences into two groups.
The faculty also considered but did not ap-
prove a change in the social science distribu-
tion courses.
THE MOST regretable change, and apparent-
ly the most expedient, was mathematics-
philosophy. The rationalization for the former
requirement was to place a primary stress on
clear and exact reasoning, to deal with ques-
tions which have a greater generality than
those of any science or other discipline and to
furnish tools for the study of other subjects.
One reason for the recent change was that
the former requirement did not seem to be ac-
complishing its purpose effectively. The multi-
tude of sequences offered failed to confront the
student with rigorous logical processes.
Having survived math 133 and 134 and philo
134 and 263, I believe that seldom, if ever, did
lpgic appear. To be sure the math sequence dealt
with manipulation of integrals and furnished
a tool for physics and the philo sequence dealt
with broad generalities.
But the failure of these courses to train stu-
dents in logic is not sufficient reason to drop
the requirement. A philosophy sequence featur-
ing logic and a mathematics course tracing the
rigors of the scientific mathematical process
could and should have been prepared. The fac-
ulty must believe that revision of courses them-
selves is undesirable.
THE ATTITUDE of these two departments in
not devising or revising their courses is also
reflected in their belief that it is not feasible to
offer special distribution courses for the non-
major which would be elected by large numbers
of students.
The whole purpose of distribution courses,
however, is to provide a genuine intellectual ex-
perience for those students not concentrating
in that area. The mathematics and philosophy
departments are not against the concept of
distribution courses, but apparently have
enough troubles manning and teaching their
own majors.
The mathematics department especially has
an overflow of students and an overload on the
teaching staff. It is difficult }o lure instructors
away from lucrative offers in industry, to guar-
antee office space and research facilities.
With little financial aid above and beyond
subsistence, it is nearly impossible to increase
the staff. It is much easier to cut down on the
number of students electing mathematics or
THIS IS a most expedient and unacademic
reason for dropping mathematics and plac-
ing philosophy under humanities where it can
be avoided. It is not in keeping with the spirit
of the distrbution requirements nor the idea of
the liberally educated man.
A mathematics proficiency is not a require-
ment for entrance into the University and rem-
edial courses are no longer necessary. This in-
creased proficiency and the new physical science
requirement are expected to fulfill the logical
and manipulative aspects of the old math-philo
requirements while the philo hidden amidst
great books, fine arts and music lit, will deal
with broad concepts and ideas.
The philo may be ignored and the mathe-
matics department has, apparently, shifted the
responsibility of teaching mathematics to the
physical sciences. Although this attempt may
well fail, it is a convenient excuse for changing
the natural science distribution requirement.'
But there are better reasons for the new nat-
ural science line up.
WHEN THE CHANGES were considered, few-
er than five per cent of the non-science
students in the literary college elected courses
in physics or chemistry. Reading between the
lines this means that biological sciences were

overcrowded. Similarly those students concen-
trating in the physical sciences and mathe-
matics generally avoided the geological and
biological sciences.
Then, except for the math teaching in physi-
cal science, the new division is intellectually
commendable. The physical and biological sci-
ences are different in nature and a well rounded 4
individual should have contact with both. The,
new division provides just that, but again some
courses offered in this area are "snaps" and1
really ought to be toughened up.
The change in mathematics-philosophy, then,
was made for the most part, on non-academic
non-intellectual reasons. The natural science#
changes were made partially on grounds of
Business Staff

expediency but are academically and intel-
lectually sound. But the worst is yet to come.
IF THE MATHEMATICS and philosophy de-
partments did not offer sequences which ful-
filled the purposes of the distribution require-
ment,, if the natural sciences have "snap"
courses which provide giant loopholes in the
requirements, then the social sciences suffer
from the faults of both the above and some of
its own.
If ever a section of the University needed a
thorough overhaul it is the social science dis-
tribution courses. While the natural sciences
and mathematics offer different levels of dis-
tribution instruction based on background (a
student may elect physics 120, 125, 145 or 153),
and the humanities and languages offer place-
ment tests, the social sciences push everyone
through political science 100 or sociology 100 or
psychology 101 ad nauseam.
They illogically assume that everyone is
equally ignorant of the social sciences-a false
assumption. Political science 100 could easily be
substituted by a year's subscription to the New
York Times and Psychology 101 can be mastered
on a week's reading and just plain horse sense.
AT SOME POINT the faculty debated a possi-
ble revision of the social science distribu-
tion courses along the "macro-micro" dimen-
sions recommended by the Social Science Study
Committee. A macro social science would deal
with society as a whole. For example, govern-
ment courses or international economics would
be in the macro division.
The micro division deals with man as a social
animal. Most phychology courses along with
voter and consumer behavior courses would fall
into this category.
But where does macro end and micro begin?
And what would happen to the departmental
organization which would now be badly split in
certain areas-sociology and economics? It is
surely a tricky question but the debates and
rationale, the proposals and ideas are safely
hidden in the faculty minutes-far from stu-
dent and public eyes.
THE MACRO-MICRO proposal was apparent-
ly supported by a majority of the psychology
department and part of the sociology depart-
ment. It was drastically opposed by the politi-
cal science and history departments-leaving
economics, probably itself secure in either world,
rather indifferent.
The opposition of the history department is
understandable since historians themselves do
not know whether history is a social science or
humanity. And since history covers such a vast
period of time in any course yet deals with the
individuals who shaped events, where do the
courses fall-in the macro or micro divisions?
The political science department adamantly
opposed the change because of its deeper im-
plications. They opposed it because it could
lead to a behavioral-non behavioral split.,
Behavioral social science contends that some
underlying principles of human behavior exist
and may possibly be found through an applica-
tion of the scientific method, and that purely
descriptive accounts of social behavior are valu-
BUT MOST of the political science depart-
ment believes that politics is the difference
between the "what is" and the "what ought to
be." They cannot bear to see the "what is"
placed on an equal standing with the philosoph-
ical "what ought."
They could not, in good faith, teach a purely
descriptive course in political science dealing
solely with political events as they occur. So
adamant are they that they consider under-
graduate knowledge of the existence and con-
cepts of purely descriptive behavioralism heresy.
The macro-micro proposal was also opposed
by the natural sciences and mathematics for
two reasons. The scientists believe they have
"dibbies" on the scientific method and do not
wish to see it perverted to the needs of the
social sciences. They probably also see a set of
semi-autonomous departments being told what
to do by the college.
Most likely ii order to preserve their semi-
autonomy at a future date and maintain "dib-
bies" on the method, the natural science and
mathematics professors opposed the social sci-
ence change.

ALTHOUGH it might have resulted in more
challenging and comprehensive courses pre-
senting a broader view of social science and its
intellectual problems, the macro-micro proposal
has its drawbacks. The department splitting re-
mains, above all, a tribute to the somewhat ar-
bitrary and yet ambiguous division between the
social sciences as they exist today.
The distribution changes were a faculty de-
cision but affected the students as well. Ex-
cept for the unrepresentative and sequestered
literary college steering committee, few students
knew of the proposals until they were a fait
accompli and then the full story is still buried
in faculty minutes.
This editorial was based on the facts that
the faculty and administration made available
- interviews with professors remembering
events of two years ago, and a literary college
curriculum committee report dated April 25,

THE PRESIDENT and the attor-
ney-general have done well by
the country in their handling of
the Mississippi affair. They have
used force without bluster, never
forgetting that the inevitable
wounds must be helped to heal.
For myself I feel, as I have not
felt since the Cuban fiasco of 1961,
that the President has become the
accomplished master of the enor-
mous forces he commands. For his
reward in .Mississippi, he has
crushed Gov. Barnett's rebellion
and has earned the preponderant
assent of leading and enlightened
opinion in the South.
The only mistake he made was
that in his desire to conciliate the
people of Mississippi he trusted
the Governor too much. He trust-
ed the Governor to use the state
police forces co prevent mob viol-
ence. As it turned out, the Gover-
nor let the mob try to do what he
had boasted he would do but in
the event could not do. He had
declared that the police forces of
the state of Mississippi would be
interposed to prevent the enforce-
ment of the Federal law.
But when he was faced with the
Federal forces, he abandoned that
threat and instead allowed the
state forces to let the mob attack
the Federal marshals.
THE DOCTRINE itself has been
put forth recurrently for over 160
years. Its original authors were
Jefferson and Madison who, in
their efforts to nullify the hateful
Alien and Sedition Laws passed
by the Federalists, drafted resolu-
tions for the state governments of
Virginia and Kentucky. The reso-
lutions asserted the right of a
state to nullify a law which it
considered to be a violation of the
The resolutions were never acted
upon because after Jefferson's
election in 1800 the Alien and Se-
dition Laws were repealed. Never-
theless, in 1803 Chief Justice Mar-
shall in the famous case of Mar-
bury vs. Madison laid down the
paramount rule, of our constitu-
tional system that "it is emphat-
ically the province and duty of the
Judicial Department to say what
the law is"
The idea of interposition recur-
red again on Nov. 24, 1832, when
the legislature of South Carolina
voted to nullify the so-called "Tar-
iff of Abominations," which had
been passed by Congress. To this
"Ordinance of Nullification" Pres-
ident Andrew Jackson replied in
a proclamation of Dec. 10, 1832,
declaring that "I consider, then,
the power to annul a law of the
United States, assumed by one
state, incompatible with the exist-
ence of the Union."
THE THEORY of interposition,
nullification, and even secession
came alive again after 1954 when
the Supreme Court in Brown vs.

Board of Education ruled that seg-
regation in public schools is un-
constitutional. The resentment at
this decision has been the nucleus
of other resentments against the
Federal government, against tax-
es, welfare measures, industrial
and agriculture regulation, and the
like. The cluster of resentments
against the Federal power is the
basis of the Radical Right, ex-
tending all the way from the ro-
mantic Goldwater to such rowdies
as Gen. Walker.
In a great continental federa-
tion like ours there will probably
never be a time when local com-
munities, believing that their way
of life is threatened by the cen-
tral government, will not try to re-
sist. At the present time the hard
core of theresistance is to inte-
gration in the public schools.
Although the President has suc-
cessfully upheld the law in the
University of Mississippi, resist-
ance to integration will not soon
melt away. It will persist, and
when the troops and the marshals
have been withdrawn, it is almost
certain to recur.
' ** *
IT WILL RECUR unless the Fed-
eral government does what it has
not done since the Supreme Court
decision. It has never worked out
a policy, it has never negotiated a
plan and an understanding, with
the enlightened leaders of the
Southern states, where, as in Mis-
sissippi and in Alabama, the prob-
lem is acute.
It is not a sufficient policy to
be prepared to use Federal forces
to back the individual man or child
who has obtained, or had obtained
for him, a decision from a Federal
court. That is no doubt law en-
forcement. What is needed is to
win consent in states like Missis-
sippi for a policy of law obser-
My own hope, based on the ac-
tion of most Southern states from
Louisiana to Virginia, is that a
policy might be worked out by ne-
gotiation which would be based
on this principle: that in the Deep
South desegregation should begin
with the education of the Negro
elite of lawyers, doctors, engineers,
ministers, teachers, and journal-
ists, and that for the near future
the really difficult problems of in-
tegrating the co-educational high
schools shall not be pressed.
* * *
MR. MEREDITH is a good sym-
bol of such a policy. He is not an
adolescent. He is in fact 29, he is
married and has a family, and he
is a veteran. Quite evidently, he is
on the way to being a leader in the
delicate relations between the two
races in his state.
I know that this approach runs
contrary to the abstract principle
of legal equality. But I believe it
deals with the problem of how-
with all the deliberate speed that
the realities permit-the principle
can eventually be carried out.

CouCD1 l'r GAT t\Lo)1& WITHOUT

00 Tf<1&&

The Dead, Past

MEN'S PASTS often get entan-
gled in politics. It is unfortu-
nate that this happens for it often
diverts attention from legitimate
issues and can be unscrupulously
used to destroy candidates. -.
However, the past is not an il-
legitimate issue when treated prop-
erly. The public has the right to
know how sincere and honest
candidates' promises are and the
past is an imperfect, but available
means of gauging sincerity.
If the past is handled in a sen-
sationalist, emotional manner, it
is one of the dirtiest campaign
tactics. When handled rationally
and reasonably, it can be most 11-
* * *
A NUMBER of recent examples,
on both the state and national
levels, are good illustrations of the
rightful and wrongful uses of the
Perhaps the most devastating
use of the past is McCarthyism. In
his heyday, Sen. Joseph McCarthy
would ofttimes dig out associa-
tions with the feared left. He would
then, with the aid of the press,
blow these relationships way out
of proportion and would not pro-
vide his victim-an adequate forum
to defend himself. With a hysteri-
cal public, fearing anything that
seemed left or unconventional, the
man was shunned, scorned and
ruined for many years.

Richard Nixon, when running in
California and for the vice-presi-
dency, applied these tactics to both
men and institutions with a good
deal of success. Many lesser men
did also.
THE VESTIGES of this type of
smear-tactic use of the past have
not died out-especially in Michi-
gan. George Romney in his quest
,to become the first Republican
governor in 14 years has alluded
to past "Communists" in the Dem-
ocratic party and has indirectly
impugned the "Americanism" of
Democratic congressman-at-large
candidate Neil Staebler because
he ran for Ann Arbor City Coun-
cil on the Socialist ticket in 1931.
Yet Romney has found himself
subject to the past as a campaign
weapon. During his appearances
on UAW's Telescope program,
commentator Gun Nunn repeated-
ly referred to a 1950 speech in
which Romney questioned social
security ,the rights of unions and
the "Socialist"attitudes of then
President Harry S. Truman. These
statements diverge from his cur-
rent position and would cost him
the votes of interest groups that
he is assiduously wooing.
However, Nunn gave Romney
an opportunity to answer these
allegations and Romney rightfully
pointed out that the speech cannot
be taken out of its 1950 context.
Nevertheless, Nunn's badgering
tactics did not leave room for rea-

soned consideration of either the
charges or the counter-charges.
Even the President of the Unit-
ed States can be subject to smear
charges. Right-wing, hate-group
publications had been circulating
the story that Kennedy had been
secretly married and divorced ie-
fore he married the current Mrs.
Kennedy. The allegations built up
to such a point that the Washing-
ton Post and Newsweek Magazine
were compelled to stop ignoring
them, and to publish a denial.
HOW CAN the past be fairly
used in a campaign? Only parts
relevant to the issues of the cam-
paign or the functioning of gov-
ernment are pertinent. Personal
life and long-past associations and
activities have no part in politics
unless it can be proved the latter
are still maintained and effect his
political judgment.
Then the accused, when faced
with the past, should have a fair
opportunity to answer such charg-
es. Often, even when smeared, the
candidate can turn these charges
aside or use them to his advan-
True, such ground rules take the
spice out of campaigns, leaving
only the issues to debate. But the
public should insist upon this and
not be swindled by sensationalist
past-mongering. With such gar-
bage cleared away, the public hasj
a much better opportunity to vote
on the basis of merit.

Angels' Heavenly

Discussion of College

To the Editor:
ticle on Tuesday contains a
number of implications which are
misleading and I should like to
correct them.
No decision has been made con-
ceriingthe establishment of a new
college in connection with the Col-
lege of Literature, Science, and the
Arts or elsewhere. Such a sugges-
tion has been made by the Cur-
riculum Committee of the College.
The Executive Committee of the
College of Literature, Science, and
the Arts has properly decided to
provide the opportunity for gener-
al discussion of the idea of a new
college by the faculty of L.S. & A.
At an appropriate moment, other
schools and colleges will undoubt-
edly be asked to rarticipate.
It is important that this process
of discussion not be compromised
by the implication that the basic
issue has been settled. Since the
decision to establish a college has
not been made, observations con-
cerning the number and location
of such colleges, administratave or-
ganizat ins, relationship to the
existing college and emphasis of
the curr.culum and staff of such a
college are premature and specula-
tive. My comments on these issues
were offered to illustrate possible
solutions to these questions.

ful examination by the faculty and
I realize that the deliberate proc-
ess in the University is slow and
reports of studies in progress make
dull reading. Yet the Office of
Academic Affairs will, in the com-
ing months, be engaged in the ex-
ploration of many educational is-
sues. I am eager that the academic
community understand that these
studies will be conducted with ser-
ious faculty participation and am-
ple opportunity for general dis-
cussion. The faculty can be assured
that it will be kept informed of
the progress, as well as results, of
these studies by means of direct
reports from this office and not by
way of news stories in The Daily.
-Roger W. Heyns
Vice-President for
Academic Affairs
To the Editor:
THIS IS in regard to Gerald
Storch's editorial of Tuesday,
entitled "White Elephant." We
only wish to clarify some of the
many falsely conceived statements
in this editorial.
First of all, Mr. Storch might be
interested to know there will be
no traditional dance in the Intra-
mural Building this year. In past
years this dance was responsible

The Elephant Race of the Home-
coming Central Committee, Oct.
26, at Ferry Field will begin with
the Intra-Collegiate Race. The
winning elephant will then race
in the Inter-Collegiate Race,
which thus far will be enjoyed by
Adams State College in Colorado
and the University of Illinois. Such
a racing arrangement is the first
of its kind.
* * *
"the rich, stuffy alumni" seem to
be enjoying having their alma ma-
ter host such an event. As expect-
ed, not all are overly pleased, but
we have received many requests
from them to be jockeys of the
elephants. Both the Associated
Press and the United Press Inter-
national, in addition to magazines
with large circulations, are cov-
ering the event, and it has been
covered daily coast to coast.
The student publication and
communication, The Daily, has not
informed University students; of
any phase of Homecoming. We
were told by a Daily official that
unless Homecoming advertised in
The Michigan Daily, the Daily
would not print Homecoming news.
Also, NBC-TV, on the "Today"
show, has broadcast information
concerning the race coast to coast.
We will be pleased to inform
interested students about details
concerning the elephant race of

EVERY NOW and then a picture
materializes, with little or no
fanfare and almost unnoticed, that
makes it worthwhile to go to mov-
ies again. Too often these pictures
are tucked away on a double bill,
submerged by the feature attrac-
Such a picture is Walt Disney's
"Almost Angels," currently playing
second fiddle to Disney's cartoon
feature, "Lady and the Tramp,"
which is making the rounds'for
the third time. "Angels," the story
of the Vienna Boys Choir, how-
ever, steals the show. It is com-
pletely charming:
Set in Vienna, on the grounds
of the mammoth palace which
houses the choir, the film tells
the story of Tony (Peter Week),
an engineer's son, who wants to
be a choirboy. His voice is beau-
tiful and he is talented, but his
father, a railroad man to the core,
won't hear of it. So he and his
mother audition anyway-behind
father's back, and naturally Tony
is accepted.- Father, secretly
pleased, grumpily relents.
From then on its is one school-
boy antic after another, set in the
context of the boy's choir.
* * *
THE SINGING is excellent, with
that special quality that- only a
boy's choir can have, but its pres-
entation is not pretentious. Tony,
with his beautiful voice, quickly
displaces the incumb'-it soloist
(whose voice is breaking), and the
story of their difficulties and final
reunion is laughable and lovable.
But most important is a film
as this, the choir boys themselves,
not schooled in the art of film-
making, are completely natural.
Their's does not seem an assumed
performance. They are convinc-
ing because they are real.
Peter (Vincent Winter), the
youngster whom Tony supplants,
is touching in his desperation to
regain his status, and triumphant
in his transition from choirboy to
budding young composer and con-
ductor. His performance is polish-
ed, demonstrated so well in the
scene where he finally realizes
his voice is gone. He tries and

Brahms, make the picture a work
of art. Especially beautiful is their
f a m o u s rendition of "Green-
sleeves," here sung better than
ever before.
It is a pity that "Lady and the
Tramp" outshines the "Angels" on
the marquee, for it is definitely
secondary in the performance.
Even though it contains some of
Disney's best characterizations
(the Siamese Cats, Jock the ter-
rier) and some of his best music
(Bella Notte, La-la-lu) and a most
exciting chase (the dogs pursu-
ing the dogcatcher's wagon), it
cannot outdo the freshness of the
Vienna Choir Boys.
For those who saw "Lady and
the Tramp" before, "Almost An-
gels" makes it worth seeing again.
-Michael Harrah
THE NEGRO is no stranger to
this country: he is an Ameri-
can by birth and long ancestry.
But he is set apart by the color
of his skin.
Moreover, many of his hardships
are the bitter fruit of past denials
of civil rights in this country. And
the cumulative effect of these de-
nials has produced a new depriva-
tion-debilitation of hope and am-
bition-so that even opportunities
that are available sometimes go
In contrast to the conviction of
earlier immigrants that they-or
their children-could work their
way up from poverty and slums,
"the outstanding characteristics of
youth in the Negro slum is an al-
most complete lack of conviction
that life can be better."
SIMILARLY, an educator de-
scribed the hopelessness that
breeds in the Los Angeles Mexican-
American ghetto: "Joe is going to
pick fruit anyway; why should he
go to high school?"
Frustration of ambition and lack
of hope tend to erupt in delin-
quency and crime. They also


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