FXTHE MICHIGAN DAILY T"S________________________
PfITMJII! ! AIe~mryarrrw-,rI
-DAY, OCTOBER 2,1962
Tension Sparks Explosion at 'Ole Miss'
(Continued from Page 1)
ened by the atmosphere of tension
and bitterness. *One had the feel-
ing that mayhem could break loose
at any moment. as it eventually
The University of Mississippi is,
situated in a northern .arming
area of the state, about 70 miles
southeast of Memphis. The area
is poor. On small sideroads poor
whites' and Negroes go about the
business of eking out a bare exist-
ence from the tired soil. The farms
are tiny,. the houses are in poor
repair, and the people exhibit the
frustration that comes from con-
tinual poverty with little hope that
things will ever get better.
The Ole Miss campus is on the'
south side of Oxford, several.
blocks from the city county build-
ing where additional rioting broke
It is a medium size campus, as
American campuses go. Its frater-
nity row and sorority row are lined
with huge houses, some of the old
plantation style, some of modern
design. The classroom buildings
are large, 'including some new
structures. Work is in progress on
a new science center.
The campus is approached along
University Avenue, lined with
stately trees befitting the 114 years
that Ole' Miss has been in exist-
ence. At the entrance to the school
stand several monuments to Mis-
sissippi's conferedate war dead.
Behind the monuments, in front
of the administration building, is
a large circular park, scene of the
weekend's rioting. A large Ameri-
can flag flies from a pole in the
middle of the park.
Southern girls drive by in new
cars sporting bumper stickers
reading "HELP ROSS KEEP MIS-
SISSIPPI SOVEREIGN," a n d
"IMPEACH EARL WARREN."
Many Ole Miss students left the
campus over the weekend, to at-
tend the Mississippi - Kentucky
football game in Jackson, the
state's capital. Many freshmena
were in evidence, wearing the "M";
beanie with the confederate col-
The student newspaper, the Mis-
sissippian, was 'out Friday, with
a headline reading "Crowd Cheers
Barnett" referring to an ovation
MEREDITH GOES TO CLASS-United States marshals escort James Meredith to his first class on
the campus of Ole Miss at Oxford yesterday.
given Mississippi Gov. Ross Bar-
nett when he turned away James
Meredith at the gates to the uni-
versity the day before.
The students I saw and talked
to were quiet and tense. One girl
expressed a commonly held opin-
ion when she said "I just wish
this thing would get over with,
one way or another." I saw a pe-
tition backing Barnett being cir-
culated in the student union. It
had pages of signatures.
Perhaps the most prophetic
quote I heard was from the stu-
dent who said "You know what
tees all these reporters off? They
want to see us throw some bricks
Confederate flags were selling
rapidly-in the student union store.
The flags were everywhere, hang-
ing from dormitory windows. Some
students were carrying the flags
and wearing rebel hats."
A few students I talked to seem-
ed to have realized what the al-
ternatives in the crisis were: ad-
mit Meredith or close the college.
A few seemed to have realized that
closing the school would mean loss
of all college credit, ruining years
of work for degrees. But the
younger students were not wor-
ried about losing credits. They
were by far the more vociferous
in backing the governor.
Oxford townspeople expressed
the fear that if the university
were closed, it would mean the
end of their businesses. Two thou-
sand Oxford citizens are employ-
ed by the university. The already
shaky economy of nofthern Mis-
sissippi would collapse if the uni-
versity were closed, and the lo-
cal businessmei know that.
But there were many who didn't
know or didn't care. Some came
from all over the South to save
white supremacy at the South's
stronghold of academic segrega-
Certainly not all the students at
Ole Miss participated in the riots
Sunday. Probably only 25 per cent
or less did. But that one fourth of
the student population was loud
enough and boisterous enough to
render silent the rest of the stu-
dent body. There were no integra-
tionists in evidence in Oxfoid. It
wasn't wise to open one's mouth
at all if not in agreement with the
The moderates among the stu-
dent body stayed mostly in their
dorms, or left town. It will be
sometime before they are heard
from again-at least not until the
present crisis has become a thing
of memory instead of presence.
And I shall never forget one
thing about Ole Miss . . . the ex-
pressions on the faces of the Ne-
gro janitors and servants who do
the menial work on the campus.
They were quiet. They 'new that
their immediate environment was
embroiled in a crisis that involved
them whether they liked it or
They knew, too, that enraged
mobs of Southern whites have
taken to shooting Negroes on sight
in the past. Yet they said noth-
They looked at you out of the
corners of their eyes, wondering
whether you were friend or foe.
You could feel them watching you.
By DALE NOUSE
of the Detroit Free Press
DETROIT (A)) - Over the dark
Atlantic, Stephen Dinka could re-
lax for the first time in days.
He and Mary Goodfellow had
succeeded in snatching Emese
Szklenkay, 20-year-old Hungarian
dancer and his sister-in-law, from
the 'Communists who had been
chaperoning her troupe's tour of
Thestrain of the search for her
in all of Paris, of finding her in a
student dormitory, of slipping her
to freedom on the pretext of get-
ting a cup of coffee-all this was
behind them. But there still was
one shock left.
Half-dozing in the seat, Emese
turned to Dinka and said:
"We were lucky."
He nodded agreement. They had
Ann Arbor Letter
"That's not what I mean," she
said. Then she explained that the
troupe was to have had a three-
day vacation in Paris. Those were
the dates she had given her sister
in 'a letter to Ann Arbor which
had started the whole intriguing
"But they cancelled it," she
said. "We were to have left two
days earlier. I had no- opportunity
to write again. But then our plane
reservations got mixed up and
they decided to let us stay after
Dinka felt weak. For the first
time he realized that, although
he had no way of knowing it, the
whole expedition might well have
been one long wild goose chase.
I met them at New York: Dinka
showing his fatigue but looking
happy and proud; Emese calm and
At exactly noon Saturday our
jet touched down at Detroit and
within moments Emese, crying
and laughing, was in the arms of
her sister, Mrs. Marguerite Dinka.
At the modest Dinka home in
Ann Arbor, the conversation was
light and gay. But somehow, the
Berlin Wall was mentioned.
To everyone's astonishment,
"What is that?"
She explained that in Hungary,
nothing is known of the Berlin
Wall, only that United States
troops are "massed" on the border.
In the evening, Emese's future
was discussed. Given a free choice,
she said she had little interest in
continuing her, dancing.
She said that in Hungary, she
was not qualified for university
study because her father had been
a doctor. "Only working class are
admitted," she said.
Chairman of standing committees and
related bodies-to discuss projects for
present and future. For further information
Contact Ken Miller NO 3-0553
1225 SOUTH UNIVERSITY
Moves Toward Communism
South African Schools
Assist Bantu Education
By WILLIAM L. RYAN
Associated Press News Analyst
The big wheels in Bamoko call
each other "comrade."
They say they are "building so-
They've adopted a formidable
glossary of Communist cliches like
"democratic centralism" and "col-
lective party leadership."
Many in the United States never
heard of Bamoko. It is the capital
of a place whose politicians seem
beht on transforming it into a
king-size, land-locked, African-
Bamoko is the capital of a new
nation, as big in area as Texas,
New Mexico and Oklahoma com-
bined. It is called the Republic of
Mali. It is one of the states which
emerged from the liquidation of
France's African empire.
Presiding over the poverty-
stricken isolated land of 4.2 mil-
lion - most of them Moslems -
is President Modibo Keita, who is
also minister of defense, security
and foreign affairs. He is, also
secretary-general of the single
party which rules the country -
the Sudanese Union.
When France conferred freedom
on the area, the idea was that the
Sudan and Senegal, on Africa's
West Coast, would become the
Federation, of Mali. The federa-
tion lasted two months. Senegal,
disliking the political direction of
the Sudanese leaders, withdrew in
Mali retains ties with France,
for the time being. But it is being
exploited vigorously by the Com-
munist bloc. It could prove to be
the nucleus of something which
could give Communism a big leg
up in Africa.
Moscow has extended substan-
tial credits to Mali. So has Czecho-
slovakia. Mali has a commercial
agreement with Red China. The
regime pictures itself neutral in
the style of Yugoslavia or the
United Arab Republic, But Keita
has linked Mali to the totalitarian
regime of Ghana and to left-lean-
ing Guinea in what is called the
,"Ujnion of African States." At
present it is more of an idea than
an actual union.
However, as the Russians busy
themselves increasingly with the
area, the union may become more
of a reality. The Russians are
pressing Guinea and Mali to ac-
cept a Soviet program of railway
modernization which would be im-
portant to Mali.
The towering Keita obviously
admires Moscow. He was there
and in Prague only recently, got
new aid promises and was given
dazzling red carpet treatment by
Premier Nikita Khrushchev, who
used the occasion to blast the
European Common Market as a
menace to Africa.
A week ago the Soviet Commun-
ist Party announced it had estab-
lished direct ties with Mali's Su-
danese Union. The Red bloc sent
delegates to the Sudanese Union's
recent sixth national congress.
That congress produced a set
of resolutions which sounded as if
they had been lifted from the.
pages of Pravda, complete with in-
junctions to members to indulge
in "criticism and self-criticism"
and for "vigilance . . . to detect
and crush all subversive activities
against our socialist choice."
Mali is a people's democracy in
embryo. By itself it might not
vide a solid base for the Russians
mean too much, but Mali can pro-
in West Africa, similar to the
Western Hemisphere foothold
Moscow now has in Cuba.
ROY SNYDER R.Ph.
By HENRI JONKER
Associated Press Staff Writer
JOHANNESBURG - South Af-
rica's white supremacist govern-
ment points with pride to the fact
that nearly 70 per cent of its black
children now get a basic educa-
Before the 20th century ends,
authorities predict, the country's
entire black population will be able
to read and write.
Most Bantu youngsters drop out
of school after five years and at-
tendance in rural areas is still
poor, but the education drive
launched by the segregationist
government less than a decade
ago is getting results many black
African nations can envy.
Official figures show there are
10,000 black schools in South Af-
rica staffed by about 28,000 teach-
ers. This teaching force is con-
stantly expanding as 43 training
institutions turn out more than
5,000 new instructors a year.
JOHN STIRLING R.Ph.
The Bantu education depart-
ment has swelled the teaching
force by persuading Bantu tribes-
men to accept women as instruc-
tors despite the old tradition that
women should not hold such an
White teachers are used where
Africans are unavailable, but this
is a stopgap measure.
"The policy is education for the
Bantu by the Bantu," one official
The attendance total drops
sharply after five years, but offi-
cials said there are nearly 53,000
black children in high schools
where they have a broad range of
subjects including Latin, mathe-
matics, Science and commercial
Under its apartheid policy, the
government barred blacks from
the country's white universities
three years ago, but three new
universities have been established
that enroll only Bantus.
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