Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue


Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

September 19, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-09-19

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.




De lega tes

Cuban Crisis Demands
Cool-Headed Action

C ASTRO'S CUBA has caused much concern
within the United States and not without
adequate reason. For the first time, a country
within a short distance of a United States coast
has become openly communistic and is receiv-
ng the full support of the Soviet Union. Castro
is not only attempting to overhaul the ideology,
economy and life of the Cuban people, but he
is also acquiring the weapons and technology
for his "defensive wars."
The concern of Americans, however, seems
to be giving way to an unreasoning panic, panic
inflamed by the many Cuban refugees who are
continually pouring into South Florida. These
refugees deserve to have political asylum in
the United .States; however, in accepting this
country as a refuge and their temporary home,
they also have a duty to present a true and
honest appraisal of the situation as it exists
in Cuba. They have a right to form political
parties, to agitate for a recognized government
in exile and to work sensibly for action that
might free their homeland. They should not
and must not whip up a fear of Castro that is
based on half truths and falsification of infor-
Startled Miami residents have found propa-
ganda sheets stuffed in their mailboxes, under
their doors and even in their evening news-
papers. These reports signed by the "anti-
communist underground, General Headquar-
ters: Bahamas" tell of the Communist plot of
attack on the United States. Among the dan-
gers listed on this sheet are the capture of all
state and local officials of each community at
the outset of the. invasion, the use of 50,000
Russian marines who have recently arrived
in Cuba as technicians, the bombing of the
United States with missiles located on isolated
Cuban military bases, and the infiltration of
all possible industries, especially those manu-
facturing defense weapons.

THIS PROPAGANDA, although almost ob-
vious in its gross exaggeration, could and
perhaps is making a dent in the opinions of
Americans. Even after the Bay of Pigs invasion,
the exiles continue to store arms and to train
and prepare for another invasion launched
from the United States. This becomes even
more serious for Americans when armed fish-
ing boats leave United States ports and fire
on Cuban coastal installations or hotels hous-
ing Russian technicians. Men in Congress are
questioning the power of the Monroe Doctrine
and are coming to believe that the United
States should invade Cuba no matter what re-
percussions may ensue. This line of reasoning
is futile and poorly thought through.
An invasion propelled by fear and hastily
launched would greatly hurt American pres-
tige. The sight of a great and populous nation
attacking such an annoying mite as Cuba would
be labeled as both aggressive imperialism and
interference in the sovereign right of a nation
to determine its own internal policy. The "sit
back and wait" attitude of President John F.
Kennedy seems, at present, to be the most
logical step that this country can take. The
government must not be intimidated and ca-
joled into foolishly taking a step it would be,
forced to regret again publicly.
The government must place tighter controls
on the activity of Cuban exiles in Miami, and
prevent any aggressive skirmishes originating
from American soil. The Cubans must be im-
pressed with the fact that their inaccurate
propaganda merely serves to distort the actual
situation that exists in Cuba. Finally, Ameri-
cans must keep their heads and stop fearing an
invasion by Castro. The biggest danger to
America is Communist propaganda and subver-
sion in the Latin American countries. The only
way that the United States can master Castro
is to act sensibly and to keep its head.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first
of two articles analyzing the fif-
teenth national student congress,
and the performance of the dele-
Co-Magazine Editor
THE FIFTEENTH national stu-
dent congress of the United
States National Student Associa-
tion passed two important consti-
tutional changes this summer and
debated a dozen resolutions, rang-
ing from Algeria to nuclear testing
to federal aid to education.
the first constitutional change
came after a verbal battle that
lasted more than two years. The
change substitutes the phrase,
"We,sthe members of the United
States National Union of Stu-
dents" for the original preamble's
"We, the students of the United
States." Basically both are nac-
crate, but in the new sentence NSA
admits it does not represent all
American students.
But NSA is not yet a national
union of students. Rather it is a
national union of student govern-
ment leaders. NSA is composed of
student bodies represented by the
student government leaders. What
NSA does and the benefits of NSA
affiliation are little known, even
on this campus. How many stu-
dents know of the international
student discount card available
through NSA or about NSA travel
tours? How many are aware of the
magnitude and scope of the NSA
resolutions? As long as student
bodies do not directly elect dele-
gates specifically for NSA they
will not become involved in or
aware of the questions confront-
ing NSA.
t 4 *
THE SECOND constitutional
change involved a disclaimer of
NSA motions. No member school
is required to support any NSA
resolution. In short this means
"we the members of NSA agree
not to believe in NSA" The
amendment was made to pacify
several schools which were on the
verge of dropping out of the as-
sociation and to attract schools
which now will not have to sub-
scribe to anything the association
does except for payng dues.
This amendment is ridiculous.
If a vote is not unanimous and mi-
nority reports are presented and
printed for distribution, then it is
obvious that some delegates do not
consider the resolution a good one.
But in the spirit of a democratic
institution they are bound to up-
hold it until they, working through
legitimate channels, can change
the policy. Barry Goldwater and
Nelson Rockefeller both have re-
grets about some planks in the Re-
publican platform, yet both are
still Republicans and both will
support the party platform.
Many of the member schools of
NSA do not yet have the maturity
to remain within an organization
which does not do everything the
way they want it done. But what
good is an organization if no one
is willing or bound to uphold it?
* * *
BOTH THESE constitutional
amendments demonstrate a lack
of political maturity on the part
of the delegates and member
schools and indicate the great fear
of the Congress - that the stu-
dents do not want or care about
NSA is fearful of all campus
referendums both on NSA affilia-
tion and on NSA resolutions. The
organization is afraid that it will
crumble if the average student
gets his say. But a referendum on

an NSA resolution can serve only
to strengthen the organization. It
is a mandate from its constituents
-the students. If a student body
votes on a resolution in a referen-
dum, then the delegates from that
school know the wishes of the stu-
dent body. If the resolution is de-
feated in the referendum then
there is no need for the "we be-
lieve not to believe in NSA"
amendment. The school has overt-
ly voted against the resolution. If
enough schools do this on the con-
troversial issues, then the next
congress ought to reconsider or
change the resolutions. But all
this requires maturity on the Con-
gress's part as well as on the stu-
The top priority motion this
year and one which passed unani-
mously pertains to Algeria. NSA
patted itself on the back for sup-
porting the Union Generale des
Etudiants Musulmans Algeriens
(UGEMA) against French sup-
pression. (The 13th national stu-
dent congress had supported the
UGEMA because the French "pre-
vented the full development of in-
tellectual capacities, and denied
the inherent right of a student to
study his own national heritage,
language, history and culture."
UQEMA is, according to the
14th NSC, "the only representative
national union of Algerian stu-
dents." Questions: Is UGEMA
composed of individual student
members or student bodies? In
either case are non-Musulmans
permitted to join? The support of
an independent Algeria is good,
but NSA delegates often neglect
to ask pertinent questions.
4 #
A CLEARER example of NSC's
lack of information about inter-
national student affairs concerns
a special resolution passed by the
congress on Guatemala. The pres-
ident of the Guatamalan Union of
Students gave an impassioned
midnight speech to the congress.
He said he was flying home early
the same morning in order to pro-
tect his student group from sup-
pression by the right wing gov-
ernment. Don Emmerson, the NSA
International Affairs Vice Presi-
dent read a motion which was
never distributed to the Congress
but was passed unanimously. Any-
one who would have objected to
unanimity would have been stoned,
but several questions arise.
In 1954 Guatemala was the
scene of a Communist coup which
was later replaced by the present
regime. What, if any, is the re-
lationship between the students
who dislike the regime and the
Communists who are for over-
throwing it once again? What, if
any, is the relationship between
the students and any Castro
groups which may exist in Guate-
mala? Again, important but un-
answered questions.
* * *
THE BEST motion of the whole
congress was a campus issue -
due process for students facing
campus judiciary bodies. Unfor-
tunately, because of the new con-
stitutional amendment, no one is
bound to uphold or implement the
The motion included a list of
student rights including access to
all relevant information including
testimony of the student's accus-
ers, free choice of counsel and the
right to be prosecuted by someone
other than a member of the trial
body. The university is also re-
quested in the resolution to de-
lineate what constitute violations
of university regulations and what
penalties could be imposed, and to

consider the accused student in
good standing until such time as
proven guilty. It also suggests a
method of appeal. It was a com-
prehensive motion easily worthy of
The most ludicrous motion of
the congress was on "Higher Edu-
cation and the Cold War." The
motion covers too much ground
and does so inadequately. It right-
fully denounces the grant-research
program for the arms race which
detracts from the social sciences
and humanities.
The resolution also criticizes the
informal censorship which results
from this type of research. It calls
for support for research on such
topics as non-violent resolution of
conflict and urges the intellectual
community to take the lead and
help shape our society.
ALL THESE points are excel-
lent. Unfortunately they are tenu-
ously lumped together under the
heading of "cold war" and are
buried in an avalanche of liberal
verbage and generalization.
The nuclear testing motion was
passed at 6 a.m. after an all-night
debate which centered around how
to blame whom for which tests.
The more moderate delegates de-
sired to condemn the Soviet tests
which broke the moratorium and
"regret" the subsequent American
resumption. But the final motion
condemned any type of testing by
any nation. It was attacked by a
Princetonian conservative as "sep-
arating the moral principles from
the practical reality." However a
stand taken by a group such as
NSA ought to follow principles for
too many problems expedited
rather than solved following rea-
A strongly worded resolution on
the McCarran Act which urged
all member campuses to support
the repeal of the act was watered
down to urge member schools to
study the effect of the act upon
their individual campuses. This
served to procrastinate an all-out
floor fight on the act until the next
congress. M e a n w h i1e, member
schools ought to debate the Mc-
Carran Act and possibly have a
referendum on the NSA resolution.
* -* *
THE FIFTEENTH national stu-
dent congress was a working con-
gress which accomplished many
little things. It rewrote most of the
basic policy declarations on inter-
national affairs, a fact to which
many delegates were oblivious. It
passed more program mandates
than any previous congress, mainly
through the two calendar process
which separated program man-
dates from resolutions. If the na-
tional staff follows all the program
mandates it will have a busy year

Golden Comedy
In Good Old Days

Except for the McCarran Act
resolution which was watered
down, the Congress did not take
significant stands on civil rights,
in either the North or South. This
was in spite of the presence of
many students who had spent the
summer in the South registering
voters, or in Albany jails, or in the
slums of the northern cities.
* * *
hindered the congress. A majority
of the delegates do not understand
the processes of congress legisla-

tion and plenary. The entertain-
ment and speeches were too many
and cut into valuable legislative
time. One speaker merely held ten
typewritten sheets of paper in
front of his face and read them
off in a monotone as fast as pos-
sible. At another point, delegates
twisted in the aisles under scarlet
and grey lighting and pushed the
beginning of the meeting late into
the evening.
The Michigan Delegation


' HE WORLD of Harold Lloyd"
is one that will forever remain
to students of our generation an
unbelievable novelty, a relic from a
time when comedy existed, qua
comedy, only as an escape: un-
known it may be, but it's great.
Haunted, as we are, by the spec-
tor of The Bomb, germ warfare,
the grey flannel suit, HUAC, and
security groups, it is strange to us
to be able to let down and enjoy
those time-tested successful ele-
ments of the silent films - sur-
prise, action, thrills, situation,
satire and the chase.
Unashamedly unrealistic "The
World" transports the viewer from
today into an unknown yesterday
where the "average, everyday man
goes out to meet the world in a
straw hat."
HAROLD LLOYD, one of the
comedy-kings of the silent pictures
as well as the "talkies," leaps from
buildings, gets chased by police,
nagged at by his motheriin-law,
and thrown from the path of on-
rushing trolleys with the grace of
the proverbial gazelle. (Actually,
he looks a lot like Ray Bolger did
in the "Wizard of Oz" as the
The movie has seven definite
sub-plots, each independent, ex-
ampling all the six elements, plus
one "talkie" version of Lloyd's
"Surprise" is short and its hu-
mor is based on an event unfore-
seen by the audience befalling
Lloyd. For instance, after making
elaborate preparations to commit
suicide by jumping from a bridge
with a rock around his neck, Lloyd
lands.- plop - in six inches of
"Situation" is the same now as
then. Modern comedy makers
haven't changed the basic forimat.

Even then it had the nagging
mother-in-law, loafer brother and
nice but ineffectual wife.
* * *:
"SATIRE" poked at revolution-
aries - vs - military - dictatorship -
in - unnamed - South - American
Ah, but the crowning glory, the
triumph of the comedy maker's
art eclipses in "The Chase." Lloyd
has lifted the timeless children-
pleaser to its perfection.
The appeal of the chase is the
absolute nobility of Lloyd as he
leaps into a stolen car to go and
save the girl he loves from mar-
riage with the archfiend. No Gala-
had or Paris could be more engag-
ing or regal than Lloyd as he is
driving a rampaging trolleycar
through the streets scattering
chickens, pedestrians and horses.
The chicken feathers in his ears
are a magnificent adornment.
Then he abandons his trolley
and takes off on a horse-drawn
fruit wagon. As heyrips through
the town, little boys watch, eyes
ablaze, as here is the true hero, off
to conquer dragons, with all the
glow of chivalry surrounding him.
The pounding hooves carry him to
the scene of his love's unfortunate
wedding-and he takes her off
IT'S HARD to tell if you are
laughing or crying by the end of
the chase - it is dreadfully funny
slapstick, but still here is a man
after a cause, undaunted by ob-
stacles or the impossibility of his
Lloyd isn't the usual Laurel and
Hardy slapstick. He is someone
you could possibly identify with.
He gets into trouble due to unfor-
tunate circumstance, not because
he is a blundering dunderhead.
-Malinda Berry




SGC Secrecy Unnecessary

S'TUDENT GOVERNMENT Council will meet
behind closed doors when it considers dead-
line violations of seven social sororities.
The seven sororities failed to submit ade-
quate membership selection practice statements
in the Office of Student Affairs by the time
the 60-day deadline arrived last May. Conse-
quently, they face hearings before SGC with
disciplinary action a possible result.
These hearings will be held behind closed
doors in executive session, according to a Coun-
cil ruling last February, although only the fail-
ure of the sororities to submit the statements
and not the contents of the statements them-
selves are necessarily under discussion.
Complete procedures and dates for the hear-
ings have not yet been established. One soror-
ity, Gamma Phi Beta, submitted an adequate
statement Monday; but no penalty distinction
between groups still in violation and those for-
merly in violation has been announced.
THERE IS, however, absolutely no reason for
this secrecy. University regulations regard-
ing disciplinary action against student organi-
zations call for an "open hearing" to consider
violations and set penalties. Undoubtedly the
Council was trying to be protective and paci-
fy jittery fraternal organizations when it es-
tablished a procedure calling for all hearings
to be conducted in executive session "except
where the proper local and national authorities
of the organization involved request otherwise."
Blue Cross I
MICHIGAN BLUE CROSS last week demon-
strated why President John F. Kennedy's
Medicare program should have been passed by
Two weeks ago the state organization asked
for a $50 increase on policies of members over
65. The current rate is slightly over $200. If
approved, the insurance would cost over $300.
For any subscriber such an increase would be
a considerable jump, but for the elderly, living
on small, fixed incomes this fee raise often will
mean the decision of insurance or not.
Last week, Blue Cross followed its request by
Editorial Staff
Fditorial Director City Editor
JUDITH BLEIER ................ Associate City Editor
FRED RUSSELL KRAMER .. Assoc. Editorial Director
CYNTHIA NEU ............ ...... Co-Magazine Editor
HARRY PERLSTADT............Co-Magazine Editor
CAROLINE DOW............... Personnel Director
TOM WEBBER........................Sports Editor
DAVE ANDREWS ............ Associate Sports Editor
JAN WINKLEMAN............ Associate Sports Editor

Examine what will be "protected" by closed
hearings. The delinquent sororities will be
asked why their statements were not turned in
by the established deadline. It is certainly un-
likely that a group would answer that the
reason for not submitting was that there was
anything in its constitution which could be con-
strued as discriminatory. Therefore, at this
session, no secrets will be revealed.
There is little chance that the Council will
ask to see the original inadequate statements
filed last winter by the delinquent seven as well
as of all the other sororities. If such a request
were made, then there might possibly be a rea-
son for calling an executive session - at that
point, but not before.
T HUS DISCUSSION will undoubtedly center
around the right of one student organization
to judge another, the right of a transitory stu-
dent group to view descriptions of secret rituals
and practices of a national organization, and
the question of whether a national group can be
considered a student organization.
These are not top-secret topics. They are is-
sues of campus-wide interest. They are issues
already discussed openly by Panhellenic Asso-
ciation officers and sorority and fraternity offi-
cers and members.
Students have a right to know why sororities
did not submit their membership practice state-
ments. An executive session to discuss the mere
missing of a deadline is unjustified.
)eserts Aged
trying to put the squeeze on state Insurance
Commissioner Sherwood Colburn by threaten-
ing to withdraw all services to the elderly
unless the staggering boost is approved.
Blue Cross's crass action, smacking of black-
mail, belies the claims of Medicare opponents
that private and quasi-private health care
plans, like Blue Cross, can adequately insure
the health needs of the aged at a reasonable
cost. The rate increase surely indicates that
private groups are willing to insure the aged.
only when their profits are assured.
FURTHER, the cavalier manner in which Blue
Cross has treated its concern with the aged
seems to demonstrate that private groups have
no real commitment to insure them. Its threats
indicate the aged will be served when it is
economically or politically expedient to do so.
The expanded program that Blue Cross pro-
poses cannot hide this impression. While the
program may offer adequate coverage to those
who can afford it, the high cost-$360 a year
per couple--puts it out of reach of those who
need it most.
Only the government can be expected to ac-
cept the commitment to insure the aged ade-

Watchful Waiting in Cuba

who say that we are doing
nothing about Cuba, the fact is
that we are doing just about every-
thing that can be done short of
going to war. Besides the economic
embargo we are keeping the is-
land under "surveillance." We are
watching every ship that comes
to and goes from the island, and
we are keeping a close watch on
the loading and unloading of
these ships.


. :a
f ;.t.,
° 7,
a i : "'
" i,5. .
}: ",
," .t£
' 1
. f
g "j
e'y ,I
© " tr
.. z
e /
E J, , ,,
" r.

'k; .


We have accurate and current
records of building operations and
the deployment of aircraft axd
tanks and artillery. There may be
some doubt whether we have lo-
cated every missile site in the vast-
ness of the Soviet Union. But in
Cuba, unless our cameras are fail-
ing us; we are completely in-
As a result we are quite able
to know about the development
of anything like a Soviet missile
base directed against the United
States, and what may be more
realistic, we are- able to spot any-
thing like an expeditionary force
against Cuba's neighbors in the
islands and in the Carribbean.
* *~ *
OUR POLICY at the present is
to. keep ourselves completely in-
formed, and to wait and see
whether Castro and his Soviet
helpers take any .overt action
against the United States or its
neighbors. Beyond this, there is
no serious action the United States
can take to remove him which
would not be an act of war.
The United States is, of course.
able -easily to blockade Cuba. But
stopping ships under threat of
seizure or sinking would be an
act of war not only against Cuba
but also against the Soviet Union,
for we would be seizing or sinking
Soviet ships.
The invasion of Cuba would, of
course, be an act of war against
Cuba. To be sure, the United
States could easily win a war
against Cuba. We could close the
Cuban ports within a few hours
and we could occupy very quickly
Havana and a few big cities. The
countryside might be another
story. But what we could not be
sure of doing is to prevent the
retaliatory moves to which we
would have laid ourselves wide
open, moves against Berlin, or
against Turkey, or against Iran.
* * *
FOR WE would have acted on
the rule that a possible threat.
against our security or our in-
terests justifies our going to war.
We would be saying that be-
cause Cuba, which is only 90 miles
away, is in the grin of an un-

We could go to war if Castro
injures us. But we cannot go to,
war, even against Castro, because
of what he may conceivably do
in the future. We cannot wage a
preventive war against Castro
without establishing the rule that
a preventive war is legitimate
against our military position in
Berlin, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan,
Thailand, South Vietnam, For-
mosa, Okinawa; South Korea, and
* * *
IT IS TRUE, of course, that the
Soviet lodgement in Cuba is a
gross violation of the Monroe Doc-
trine. Yet we cannot invoke the
Monroe Doctrine. Why not? The
Monroe Doctrine declares that
"any interposition" by a European
power in this hemisphere would be
"the manifestation of an un-
friendly disposition towards the
United States."
But, and this is the crucial
point, the American claim for the
isolation of the Western hemis-
phere was coupled with a renun-
ciation of American interest in the
Eastern hemisphere: "In the wars
of the European powers in matters
relating to themselves we have
never taken any part, nor does it
comport with our policy so to do."
This fundamental passage in
Monroe'smessage 'is, of course, a
restatement of the principle laid
down by Washington in his Fare-
well Address: "Europe has a set
of primary interests which to us
have none, or a very remote rela-
This basis of the Monroe Doc-
trine disappeared in the twentieth
century in the two World Wars,
the Korean War, and the cold war.
We cannot invoke the Monroe
Doctrine without meeting the
question of what we are doing all
over Europe and Asia.
OUR RIGHT to put Cuba under
surveillance, and if necessary to
blockade an invader, rests not on
the Monroe Doctrine but on the
elementary right of a people to
insure its own security. For two
centuries the British felt that way
about the occupation of Belgium

t .

O ,
ax .'
..*%. o a




mi . . :,rMY ,

Back to Top

© 2024 Regents of the University of Michigan