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:

cr~e litn t

Academic Aims and Economic Policy

y

S-veny-Fifth Year,

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EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTH)RITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

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mions Are Free, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
Will Prevail

NEWS PHONE: 764-0552

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rials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1, 1964 NIGHT EDITOR: JEFFREY GOODMAN

Civil Rights: It's Time
For a New Approach

THE THEORY of nonviolent demonstra-
tion to achieve Negro civil rights is
bankrupt. Negro protest must be moved
out of the streets. s
Martin Luther King parlayed "peaceful
resistance into the first major, success-
ful push for Negro recognition, but the
doctrine is without impact now that this
recognition has been established. The
theory of nonviolent resistance, an extra-
ordinary tool once, isr no longer neede.
Its continued development has, in fact,
become very dangerous.
Peaceful demonstration is no longer
getting clear,, quick results. Frustrations
have mounted and de nonstrations have
become mote and more riotous in an at-
tempt to keep past successes from be-
coming present failures. The naked mob
violence In numerous NTorthern cities is
the final fruit of this misplaced faith In
the use of "peaceful demonstrations" to
gain the Negroes' ends. No one can con-
done this violence, which is a form of col-
letive insanity. Continued cries of "race"
in our cities' streets will achieve only re-
versals in Negro fortunes.
NEGRO LEADERS, having relied on
demonstration for so long, are blind to
the need for new couvses of action. M
ern Negro ambiti'ons can be fulfilled only
with sound political organization.
Harlemn is an, excel ent example of
the explosiveness and ultimate failure of
trying to fulfill these ambitions without
such organization. Mob violence there,
much of it in the name of civil rights,
set that community back years in its de-
velopment of a. viable relationship with
the rest of the city. It has solidified re-
sistance on all sides to experiments and"
changes in the lines of political and busi-
ness leadership and communication. Tie
streets are no place to establish the des-
perately needed cordial and informative
relationships between Negro and white
leaders. The Negro ca only lose himself
there, beating his head against a white
brick wall.
A CIVIL RIGHTS BIL L is evidence of,
the growing realization that discrimi-
nation can and must be removed. Negro
voting rights and educational and em-
ployment opportunities are protected by
law. Many colleges and businesses are
scouring the country for qualified Ne-
.groes. The time has come, therefore,
THE UNIVERSITY of Georgia has start-
ed to sponsor a series of scholarships
administrated through the National
Merit Scholarship Program. The program
is much like that at Michigan State,
one, which brought more "merit scholars"
to that institution than attend any oth-
'er university in the country. The Uni-
versity of Georgia has now proudly pro-
claimed that it has the second largest
number of merit scholars in the nation.
If the .number of merit scholars at a
university is an accurate gauge of the
quality of undergraduate education at*
that university (people at State have
frequently implied that it emphatically
is), then one wonders, .with the addition
of Georgia as second in status, what end
of the list Michigan State officials are
looking at.
-R. JOHNSTON

H. NEIL BERKSON, Edit'r
KENNETH WINTER EDWARD HERSTEIN
Managing Editor Editorial Director
ANN GWIRTZMAN ............... Personnel Director
MICHAEL SATTINGER .... Associate Managing Editor
JOHN KENNY.......... Assistant Managing Editor
DEBORAH BEATTIE ...... Associate Editorial Director
LOUISE LIND ........ Assistant &ditorial Director in
Charge of the Magazine
BILL BULLARD.....................Sports Editor
TOM ROWLAND..............Associate Sports Editor
GARY WINER..............Associate Sports Editor
CHARLES TOWLE........ Contributing Sports Editor
Business Staff
JONATHON R. WHITE, Business Manager
JAY GAMPEL ........... Associate Business Manager
JUDY GOLDSTEIN...............Finance Manager
BARBARA JOHNSTON......Personnel Manager
SYDNEY PAUKER...............Advertising Manager
RUTH SCHEMNITZ ................ Systems Manager
I'TNIOR MANAGERS: Bonnie Cowan, Sue Crawford,
Joyce Feinberg, Judy Fields, Judy Grohne, Sue
Sucher, Pat Termini, Cy Wellman.

when the Negro can successfully move
the expression of his complaints and am-
bitions from the streets into business and
industry, schools, courts and politics.
Negro votes, for example, already are
powerful. They have been instrumental in
bringing about much of what has been
accomplished in the Negro's favor. The
mayor of Atlanta, Ivan Allen, knows that
Negro voters put him in office and he acts
accordingly. President Johnson, too, had
one eye on Negro voters when he pushed
the civil rights bill tlrough Congress.
TILL, THE NEGRO has hardly begun
to realize his political potential. There
is very little political awareness within
the Negro community. This awareness
can be developed only by responsible lead-
ership and hard work at the grass roots.
It is politically elementary that Negro
representatives in positions of influence
would be far more useful than loud dem-
onstrations outside. Inferior schools,
slums and employment discrimination
need rational, clear and cooperative
thinking at all levels of leadership and
administration.
f There' is no lack of Negro leadership
for such action. Strong, well-led civil
rights organizations are abundant. But
they need to redirect their thinking, re-
shape their approach.
THE NEGRO must be careful not to
confuse the Tammany bossism' of Rep.
Adam Clayton Powell with such a new ap-
proach. Powell's consolidation of his Ne-
gro constituency has mainly obstructed
those white leaders in New York and
Washington who are genuinely interested
in defining and seeking solutions for the
related problems of big-city Negro slums,
education and opportunity.
It is to be hoped that Negro leadership
will recognize the positions of potential
power which they have so laboriously
reached. Not to take advantage of the op-
portunities being offered, to rest content
with mobs and Powell, would be a serious
default on the Negroes' part.
THESE NEW OUTLOOKS and ap-
proaches will naturally mean the Ne-
gro's assumption of the responsibility for
his own destiny. They will mean the end
of much of the drama and showmanship
th.t have thus far characterized the Ne-
gro revolt. They will mean the end of the
Negro revolution and the beginning of
the true integration of the Negro into
American society.
What is to come will be harder and
longer and often more frustrating to both
Negro and white than anything yet en-
countered in the long history of the Amer-
ican Negro.
Illusions on both sides must be dispell-
ed. In this country's free enterprise sys-
tem nobody owes anybody a living, even
though the stern dictum of "survival of
the fittest" has been tempered by a pa-
ternal federal government. Continuing to
yell "race" at every turn is not going to
solve the Negroes' problems. It may be as
hard for the Negro to accept himself as it
has been for the white politicians and
employers to forget their prejudice.
GOOD FAITH on all sides is called for
now more than anything else. Sensible
Negro and white leaders must realize
that their problems are common, and that
solutions will not be found until both sides
are able to recognize and believe in the
good faith of the other.
The Negro, if he will cease to rely on
nonviolent resistance, demonstration and

direct action, can now step into a real
participation in American society.,
-ROBERT JOHNSTON
CatchingU
HE NEWS from Viet Nam recently
contained a seemingly dour prediction
from "high U.S. military sources." They
estimate that the latest shakeup in the
South Vietnamese regime has set back
the war effort there "at least two
months."
But after long thought, this news turns
out not to be bad at all. It is common

EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first
in a weekly series by University
faculty members and administra-
tors. Each Tuesday a different
member of the staff will examine
an issue of higher education or
specific University problem.
By STANFORD C. ERICKSEN
LITTLE CAN BEbSAID in favor
of inefficiency but, as a teach-
er, I resist economic efficiency as
an alternative. The University of
Michigan is surrounded by effi-
cient industrial plants, but the
production of automobiles is not
an appropriate model for the pro-
duction of educated alumni. Be-
ware of "instructional costs per
credit hour as a critical cri-
terion for educational decision
making. Dollar talk should be
farther down the agenda. and we
should face these compromising
and restricting pressures only after
the primary academic aims have
been clearly stated. I sense the
need for stronger appreciation in
the academic community of why
high-cost instructional diversity
must be given distinct priority,
over matters of economic effi-
ciency in teaching.
The task of the teacher is es-
sentially one of mediating between
a particular body of knowledge
and the learning processes in a
group of individually different
students. -The instructor can use
a variety of means to help stu-
dents acquire the facts, proce-
dures, concepts, attitudes and
values that define the objectives
of his course: lectures, seminars,
laboratories, field trips, special
projects, term, papers, examina-
tions and i dependent study.
Ideally, the decision as to the best
instructional arrangement is one
that the professor makes because
he believes that a particular mode
of presentation is best adapted to
1) the nature of the subject mat-
ter to be learned, and 2) the men-
tal and motivational resources
hat his students bring to the class-;
room.
It is true that teachers must
necessarily compromise this peda-
gogical principle in adjusting to
the strong pressures of more stu-
dents to teach, more material to
cover, and greater demands out-
side of class. These negative ef-
fects can be seen when a discus-

sion group becomes a small lec-
ture class, a laboratory functions
as a quiz section, and a large
lecture room is the site for de-
tailed laboratory demonstrations.
Most of us realize that the vari-
able patterns of college teaching
represent interesting combina-
tione of tradition, trial and error,
logic, wishful thinking, empirical.
justification, space limitation and
simple inertia.
S * * * -
I HAVE EMPHASIZED that the
dominant instructional principle
should be to match the mode of
teaching with the inherent re-
quirements of the subject matter,
and the characteristics of the stu-
dents. This guideline should also
apply in the use of the several
automated media of instruction
that are becoming. available. The
professor, more than the budget
officer, should be responsible for
the final decision about instruc-
tional television, audio-visual aids
and, in the foreseeable future, the
use of computer-based instruc-
tional assistance. The capital in-
vestment for the . purchase, the
development, and the proper use
of these technological additions is
expensive and will require con-
siderable "cooperation" from the
budget makers. The. point is, the
requests and the specifications
should first be made by the fac-
ulty.
High schools and colleges all
over the country are splashing out
news releases about modern in-
novations which, in effect, multi-
ply the image and the voice of the
teacher. Many of these mass-
teach instructional procedures do
show considerable engineering in-
genuity. In time, they may "lower
instructional costs" but, I fear,
at a price we cannot afford in
terms of sacrificing the quality of
educational interaction between
student and teacher. Until the in-
dividual student, rather than the
class, becomes the primary unit in
the educational establishment,
most of the inst ructional innova-
tions and "experiments" are better
illustrations of change than of
significant improvements. *any of
the classroom television monitors,
teaching machines and audi-visual
aids that once shined with promise
are now gathering dust and rust.

The novelty has worn off and
those of us doing research on the
educational process are beginning
to feel the backlash against tech-
nological innovation. This is un-
fortunate. Automation is here to
stay; our task is to use it a better
way.
We should be glad that tech-
nological innovation has not yet
made a gross impact on the Uni-
versity. We have had time to
plan and to benefit from the ex-
perience of others. And this brings
us to the interesting position of
the Center for Research on Learn-
ing and Teaching. On the one
hand we want to protect the val-
uable diversity of instructional
arrangements that now exist on
the campus, but we also must press
for experimentation and change-
including the greater use of auto-
mation. I believe we can ac-
complish the rapprochement by

man"-teacher, department chair-
man, or dean-and urge that the
University resist any drift toward
teaching the same things, the
same way, to larger and larger
blocks of students.
The greater educational poten-'
tial of automation derives from
its major effects on the two key
participants-the teacher, and the
student:,
The instructor becomes more
discriminating 'about conditions
that promote good learning as he
selects and adapts his subject mat-
ter for' live or automated presen-
tation. Insofar as routine and
stable information can be pro-
gramed into video tape, slides or
computers, the instructor has
created the golden opportunity to
become a modern Socrates. The
teacher and student might now
pursue their joint intellectual in-
for which, pre-programed answers

STANFORD C. ERICKSEN, professor of psy-
chology and director of the Center for Re-
search on Learning and Teaching, is an expert
on human cognitive processes. He came from
Vanderbilt University to head the center when
it opened in 1962. Much of his work at the
center involves experimentation with automat-
ed teaching procedures such as programmed
learning.

port the student in his program of
independent study. He should have
access to a technologically sophis-
ticated study carrel where he con-
trols the information input, its
s, quence and rate of presentation
and with the freedom to re-view
and to re-listen and to re-study
the material via the visual image,
the audio tape, t$e computer
printout, or that still-valuable
educational resource, the book.
Ideally, the student should have
complete flexibility for selecting
and reviewing the substantive con-
tent in terms of his own resources
for progressing through this in-
formation processing system.
* * *
INSOFAR as the classrooms in
this University are dominated by
a questioning attitude toward edu-
cational orthodoxy and by search-
ing and speculations at the lead-
ing edge of knowledge, we are
coming closer to eliminating the
unfortunate and inappropriate
duality between teaching and re-
search. Automated instruction can
be a valuable means of giving the
university professor the freedom
he needs to perform his unique
educational role of combining, in
a natural and uncontrived way, his
special competence for the pro-
duiction and analysis of new
knowledge with his primary re-
sponsibility to extend this under-
standing to his students.
The lockstep chaining of the
bright and individually different
students into a faster moving pro-
duction line having uniform and
standard exposure represents the
contemporary version of a familiar
and persistent threat to the es-
sential function of a university in
a democratic society. Automation
in education, as in society, is a
powerful resource that can be used
to maintain and enhance the stim-
ulating instructional diversity that
can be offered by a research
oriented faculty. As a corollary
we cangive greater release to the
distinctive talents of the individual
student to acquire knowledge; the
kind of knowledge that' does not
lade away against the fast moving
pace of science, art and scholar-
ship.
NEXT WEEK: Theodore New-
comb.

)

including the teacher as a direct
participant in the instructional
uses of automation. Teachers have
a tremendous influence in the lives
of students; educational technol-
ogy should be used to strengthen,
not weaken, this relationship.
* * * .
IN OUR TENTATIVE probes for
improving the quality of instruc-
tion, we should not be tempted by
the production-line meaning of
efficiency. Learning and thinking
students, in contrast to memoriz-
ing students, cannot be poured
into the same mold-kingsize or
otherwise. My main point is to
emphasize that teachers and stu-
dents must use technology to
maximize the primary educational,
aims in the university- to pro-{
mote diversity of thinking and
individual freedom for the, pur-
suit of new knowledge. Easier said
than done, but I would urge each
student to "write to his congress"

are not yet available; their dia-
logue can involve the meaning and
the value judgments about, for
example, the utilization of knowl-
edge by society. The teacher can
achieve the kind of educational
environment which gives full and
functional meaning to academic
freedom-the most treasured con-
cept in academia.
Automation should be equally
attractive to the student. The mo-
tivation, the aspirations, values,
attitudes, and the general intel-
ligence and special aptitudes he
brings to' class are the most im-
portant factors controlling the
shape and height of his particulad
curve of learning. Students differ
from on another on all these di-
mensions, a basic fact of educa-
tional life that we too}often ignore
and neglect. I must maintain,
therefore, that the final and pro-
per use of automation is to sup-
quiry about. problems and issues

f

DETROIT PRIMARY:
Homeowner 's

Ordinance Will Test White Backlash'

By JOHN KENNY.
Assistant Managing Editor
TODAY'S PRIMARY election in'
Detroit is important to that
city as well as the rest of the na-
tion for it will test the pervasive-
ness of "white backlash."
One of the nine propositions on
the Detroit primary ballot is the,
Homeowner's Rights Ordinance, a
subtlely - worded document at-
tempting "to define certain rights
of Detroit residents and residen-
tial property owners."
Although the ordinance uses
only phrases like 'right to choose
his own friends and associates"
and "congenial surroundings," the
howeowner's document is an at-
tempt to permit discrimination in
rental or sale of residential prop-
erty to minority groups-especial-
ly Negroes.
* * *
THE ORDINANCE itself con-
tains three sections. The first lists
"certain rights" of the Detroit
homeowner. The second section
:eals with fines for failing to
comply with the ordinance. The
final part would repeal conflict-
ing ordinances.

Based on a so-called Bill of
Rights drafted by the National As-
sociation of Real Estate Brokers,
the ordinance was originally pro-
posed to Detroit's CommonCoun-
cil on July 18, 1963. The home-
owners group (the Greater Detroit
Homeowners Council), headed by
council candidate Thomas J. Poin-
lexter, presented the ordinance by
initiatory petition with 44,000
signatures in opposition to an
open-occupancy ordinance then
before council.
The open-occupancy ordinance
was later defeated by. council; the
ordinance presented by the home-
owners group was not acted upon
However, local law requires that
initiated legislation not passed by
council be presented to the voters
at the next general election.
* * *
IN FEBRUARY, 1964, however.
Circuit Judge Joseph Moynihan,
Jr., declared the ordinance uncon-
stitutional and prohibited its ap-
pearance on the September pri-
mary ballot. .
At that time Judge Moynihan
said, "The ordinance is patently
unconstitutional and involves an
issue of grave public interest,.

the real intention of the proposed
ordinance is to advance the cause
of racial bigotry in the field of
housing.",
Thehomeowners council ap-
pealed this decision to the State
Supreme Court. On May 5 the
court reversed Moynihan's deci-
sion because "the injunctive power;
of the judiciary may not be in-
voked properly to restrain exercise
of the right of initiative in this
state."
The court added, however, that
its action "does not imply con-
sideration of the constitutional
validity" of the ordinance. In fact,
every right enumerated by the or-
dinance is guaranteed by the Unit-
ed States Constitution and the new
Michigan constitution.
* * *
PERHAPS the most ridiculous
clause of the ordine nce is section'
1 (c) which guarantees a home-
owner the right to maintain what
he considers "congenial surround-
ings for himself, his family and
his tenants." The Detroit Free
Press called this clause "clearly
absurd."
"Does this mean that if a neigh-
bor paints his door red or plants

bent grass rather than blue grass
you have the right to force him
to be more 'congenial'?" the Free
Press questioned.
"'The right to freedom from in-
terference with (the homeowner's)
property by public authority'," the
Detroit News said, "irreconciably
conflicts with all controls, such
as zoning, which attempts to pro-
tect neighborhoods from incom-
patible commercial uses.'
t , ,
THE DRIVE to defeat the ordi-
nance' was the rallying point for
many religious and civic groups in
the city. The coordinated effort
called Citizens for a United De-'
troit, was heartily backed 'by
Michigan's Episcopal Bishop Rich-
ard Emerich.
Members of the Roman Catholic
Archbishop's Committee for Hu-
man Relations, sponsored by De-
troit's Catholic Ardhbishop John
F. Dearden, canvassed 75 of the,
city's Catholic parishes to explain
the purposes of the ordinance.
The group met constant harrass-}
ment at these local meetings from
members of a right-wing organi-
zation which calls itself the Cath-
olic Laymen's League. The league
has been repudiated by spokes-,
men for the archbishop.
Religious leaders contend the
right of a homeowner t6 refuse
any prospective buyer or tenant
"for his own reasons"-if those
reasons are based solely on race-
is plainly immoral.
* * *
IN SPITE OF thorough at-
tempts at voter education, many
experts believe the ordinance will
be. approved by the voters: in to-.
day's primary. This is not a real
tragedy since the ordinance will
undoubtedly be declared unconsti-
tutional.
The tragedy is that white bacdx
lash and resentment of the Ne-
gro's drive for complete equality
may prove to be a terrifying, con-
crete reality.

The,
O.rdinane
An ordinance to define cer-
tain rights of Detroit resident,
and residential property own.
ers, to state the public policy
of the City of Detroit:in rela-
tion thereto, and provide penal-
ties for denial. thereof. It is
hereby ordained by the people
of the City of Detroit:
SECTION 1: Each Detrol'
resident and residential.prop-
erty owner shall enjoy the fol-
lowing rights, and it is the
public policy of the City of De-
troit to recognize, respect anC
protect such rights:
a) The right of privacy, the
right to choose his own friends
and associates, and to own, oc-
cupy and enjoy his property ir
any lawful fashion according tc,
his own dictates;
b) The right to freedom from
interference with his property
by public authorities attempt-
ing to give special privileges to
any group;
c) The right to maintain
what in his opinion are con-
genial surroundings for himself
his family and his tenants;
d) The right to freedom of
choice of persons with whom
he will negotiate or contract
with reference to such proper-
ty, and to accept or reject any
prospective buyer or tenant for
his own reasons;
e) The rightto employ real
estate brokers or representatives
of his choice and to authorize
and require them to act in ac-
,ordance with his instructions.
SECTION 2 deals with fines
ind SECTION 3 with the repeal
of conflicting ordinances.

FOUR-YEAR REVIEW
What Goldwater Really
T hink~s About the UN

"I fear that our involvement in.
the United Nations may be lead-
ing to an unconstitutional sur-
render of American sovereignty."
-"Conscience of a
Conservative," 1960;
"I believe in the United Na-
tions."
-Interview, Mutual Broad-
casting System, June 21,

--Speech in Phoenix, Decem-
ber, 1961
"Well, Governor Rockefeller
goes farther. He says that I ad-
vocated getting out of the United
Nations, and I can't recall ever
having said that, and I wish he'd
point out where I had if he has
the information."
-Meet the Press, January 5,
1964

AV

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