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March 28, 1965 - Image 1

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1965-03-28

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U.S.

Viet Nam Policy

Assailed ...

...Defended at Parleys Here

By BRIAN BEACH
At this week's teach-in on
Viet Nam, United States policy
in Southeast Asia was bitterly
attacked. Several interpreta-
tions of the facts and alterna-
tives to the present policies
were offered in lectures and
seminars.
Participants heard the lec-
tures piped into the four audi-
toria and then divided into
seminars to discuss American
policies. Although each seminar
tended to dwell upon different
aspects of the U.S. policy, all
seemed to hit the same cross-
section of problems.
Assumptions necessary to
support the "domino" theory,
considerations of the legality
and appropriateness of U.S. in-
tervention, and the alleged fail-

ure of present policies received
close investigation in the Mas-
on-Hall seminars.
'Domino' Theory
In its conventional presenta-
tion, the "domino" theory holds
that the countries nearest
China are the most likely to
come under her control and
that as each nation becomes
subject to Peking rule, her
neighbors will be more and
more likely to also fall under
Chinese influence. It was point-
ed out in seminars that a
Communist government in
Southeast Asia is usually equat-
ed by the state department
with a government under Pe-
king control.
The primary assumptions be-
hind the domino theory, some
teach-in participants held, are

that China seeks control of all
Asia and the South Pacific
above all other interests, and
that as she gains control of
each new nation she is in a
better position to gain control
of the next.
In the seminars, it was
argued that China's internal
goals may seriously limit the
efforts she can make as a con-
querer and that the state de-
partment could develop more
efective policies if estimates
were made and utilized of her
internal and external objec-
tives
Major Intent
Moreover, it was maintained,
even if it is the case that her
major intention is to be a world
power, it is by no means ob-
vious that as she draws each

new nation to her side it will
be easier for her to induce the
next. It was considered a sim-
plification to hold that every
country has the same political,
economic and social make-up,
Some argued that the coun-
tries that are most likely to
r e s i s t Chinese domination
should be strengthened rather
than expend U.S. efforts in
Viet Nam where they seem to
be ineffective.
It was also reasoned that
Peking would lose her effec-
tiveness at spreading her in-
fluence as she brought more
nations into her camp since her
resources would be taxed in
keeping them in order. The
argument implies that there
See SOUTHEAST, Page 8

By NEIL SHISTER
The current position of the
United States in Viet Nam is
based upon this government's
presumption that in defending
the Vietnamese from the Viet
Cong it is acting both in their
best interest and its own ac-
cording to two United States
diplomats.
In a speech here this week,
Kenneth T. Young, the former
American Ambassador to Thai-
land, said that the policy goals
:f the United States are "to
boost the 'national revolution'
Df the Vietnamese people while
;rotecting them from the threat
of the Chinese supported Com-
munist revolution," and also to
maintain a position which will
inspire confidence among our
allies and respect among our
enemies.

President Lyndon B. Johnson
said on Feb. 17 that the United
States' purpose in Viet Nam is
"to join in the defense and
protection of freedom of a
brave people who are under an
attack that is controlled and
that is directed from outside
their country,"
In a statement issued Friday,
Johnson emphasized that the
United States is willing to ex-
tend "economic and social co-
operation for progress in peace"
on an even "wider and bolder"
scale as soon as aggression is
brought under control. This
statement has been interpreted
by some to be an offer of aid
to the North Vietnamese if a
peaceful settlement can be es-
tablished.
The United States is thus in-

volved in both a political and
military program which, in or-
der to be successful, depends
upon policy which is able to fix
long-range goals.
Rallying the villages, pro-
tecting the countryside, but-
tressing Viet Nam with regional
development, and insulating
Southeastern Asia from mili-
tary attacks out of Communist
sanctuaries are vital points of
this program according to
Young.
Young said that the United
States was asked by the South
Viet Nam government in 1954
for aid and support against the
invading North Vietnamese. He
maintained that the subse-
quent changes in the South Viet
Nam government have not al-
tered the authenticity of the

original request.
The political instability in
Viet Nam has been interpreted
by the State Department to be
a consequence of the country's
efforts at rapid transformation
from feudalism after years of
foreign domination, and not the
reflection of a basic dissatis-
faction with American presence,
Young said.
State Department representa-
tive Robert Warne said in his
talk here Thursday that to fa-
cilitate Viet Nam's transforma-
tion into the 20th century, the
United States and South Viet
Nam governments have been
working through the Agency for
International Development to
raise the standard of living
within the country by con-
See OFFICIALS, Page 8

II

I

THE KU KLUX KLAN
MUST BE CURBED
See Editorial Page

Y

tr~43Ufl

:4I aitll

LIGHT SNOW
High-38
Low-18
Continued cloudiness with chance
of light snow flurries tomorrow

Seventy-Four Years of Editorial Freedom
VOL. LXXV, No. 152 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SUNDAY, 28 MARCH 1965 SEVEN CENTS

SIXTEEN PAGES

THRESHOLD CONCEPT:
Psychology Theory Disrupted

Supports
New Ties

By SUSAN COLLINS
The average individual who has
picked up a brushing familiarity
with the science of psychology,
whether through an introductory-
level course at the University,
through a smattering of the popu-
larized readings currently avail-
able, or through bull-sessions, may
feel his knowledge of the subject
is aided by his understanding of
the concept of threshold.
Even the more advanced stu-
dent or psychologist may feel that
the threshold concept is an in-
tegral part of modern psychology.
Threshold is basically the point1
at which an individual becomes
aware of a physical stimulus. For
example, in an experiment the
threshold is the point at which
a subject first sees a light whose
intensity is gradually' being in-
creased.
Below this level of awareness,"
the subject will not see the light.
A very commonly discussed phe-
nomenon in this area has been
the so-called "pain threshold."
The pain threshold has been con-
sidered interesting because cer-
tain individuals seem to be more
hurt by painful stimuli (they
seem to perceive painful stimuli
sooner and with more pain) than
other individuals.
Pain Threshold Concept
The pain threshhold concept
has been widely utilized by many

people as an explanation for their
tendencies to seem like hypo-
chondriacs.
Fascinating and useful as all
this may be, however, the thresh-
old concept is erroneous, accord-
ing to Professor Wilson Tanner of
the psychology department and
engineering college. Moreover, he
says, the concept is not even use-
ful as a construct for mere de-
scription of behavior.
A researcher in the area of psy-
chophysics and signal detection,
and writer of papers widely known
in the field, such as "Decision
Processes in Perception," and
"Physiological Implications of Psy-
chophysical Data," Tanner main-
tains that although physical events
are easy to define, in terms of
light, power or pressure, physiolog-
ical events are not.
In a speech at the Acoustical
Society ofMichigan, Tanner de-
scribed various experimental out-
comes which contradict the exist-
ence of thresholds.
Experiment
Using the light intensity experi-
ment as an example, Tanner said
that there may be very large dif-
ferences in the threshold value of
a. given light intensity, from ex-
periment to experiment, for the
same subject.
A subject may also sometimes
report a marginal light intensity,
and sometimes not in the same
experiment.

'Or a person may report seeing a f
light he has not seen at all! 7Y i

To illustrate this, Tanner re-
called a light intensity experiment
he had conducted in which one of
four subjects never saw anything.
When called up on the carpet, the
subject improved his performance,
but also saw lights that were not
there.
50 Per Cent Probability
Psychologists can plot the 50
per cent probability of a subject's'
having seen a light, and this pro-
cedure may be partially helpful
in trying to calculate a "thresh-
old."
However, according to Tanner,
problems still exist. And, "One
should not overlook the fact that
all of the difficulties encountered
are inconsistent with the concept;
of a threshold," which is sup-
posed to be a rather precise
value.
Tanner added that "If such a
concept were reasonable, the dif-
ficulties would not have arisen in
the first place; there would have
been no need to overcome them."
Inherent Problems
Explaining the aspects of per-
ception that account for the dif-,
ficulties inherent in the thresh-
old concept, Tanner said, "Wey
see things as an estimate of what
they really are-we test hypo-
theses. We don't base this ons
physics, but interpret environ-
ment as we think it really is in
terms of usefulness."
Useful relations and perceptions,j
Tanner said, are based on exper-
ience. For instance, a picture of
a far-off train combined with a
close whistle is upsetting.}
In the light of all this, accord-
ing to Tanner, the whole structure
of psychophysics needs to be re-l
defined as "a problem of under-1
standing how we sense environ-I
See PSYCHOLOGY, Page 2

10 U ~11111a
Porter Sees Need
To Revise Policy
By MICHAEL HEFFER

Panelists and participants in
the colloquium on "United States
Policy Alternatives Toward Com-
munist China," sponsored by
Challenge yesterday, agreed that
changes are necessary in U.S.-
Chinese relations, but the policies
advocated were quite diverse..
Three speakers addressed a ---"
group in the Multipurpose Room
of the UGLI and answered ques-
Charles O. Porter, co-chairman'
of the Committee for a Review of THE INLAND S

EA is a 114-foot boat used by the Great Lakes Research Division here in its more

Our China Polic
congresman fror
clared the "di
eventually leading
Communist Chin

The Week in Review:
Two Battlefronts
By SCOTT BLECHj
Acting Assistant ManagingEditor

ine 1Ll ELI

The University's attention was focused on two battlefieldsi _
week: one in Asia and one in Alabama.-
The faculty group that had proposed a walkout for Wednesday, FEDERAL SCHOOL BILL:
gained national recognition for its 12-hour teach-in which lasted
until classes began Thursday.
a The seminars and lectures opposing U.S. policy in Viet Nam F ic nd e rs 1'red
also featured a midnight rally and an evacuation of Angell Hall
because of a bomb scare.
Thursday night, the pro-government policies were presented By SHIRLEY ROSICK Washtenaw Coun
in a lecture program at Rackham Auditorium. the public schools
University Students Prof. Ned A. Flanders of the aid needy children
In Alabama, the four University students in a Montgomery education school declaredyester- years of age.
jail were released on bond Wednesday. David Aroner, Grad; Barry dayty tholementary ad The Universityc
secondary school aid bill was volved in educa
Goldstein, Grad; Duanne Runkle, '65, and Helen Jacobson, '65, had passed by' the House Friday with projects sponsore
staged a hunger strike in protest of their being charged of "loiter- "remarkably speedy action" but since it has wonr
ing" and disobeying a police officer" in last week's civil rights predicted that Senate action on the Ann Arbor s
demonstrations. the bill would not be as spieedy. schools.

I

y and a former expensive projects. The boat is one in a fleet of four which the division owns.
m Oregon, de-
rastic changes"s
to admission of eaIncreases
ato the United
cessary because
towards World EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the order to determine the rate water measure the temperature, was sent
na." first a two part series dealing pollution is increasing at. "Up un- up to 1000 feet. The ship drew it
at the 'Chinese witil now, no one has tried this be- across the lake taking continuous
ms with the U.S. By BARBARA SEYFRIED fore," Chandler said. measurements of the air masses.
World War. This One indice of the rate of water In this way progressive changes
e ..Open Door Water pollution in the southernpoutnisheubr fmr- in temperature of a single air
>eginning of the part of Lake Michigan, the inter- pollution is the number of micro- i eprtr fasnl i
esge alsowererlatonship Lekehgn, the Gratr organisms that are in the water. mass was measured.
said from the Lakes and weather and patterns According to Chandler, these or- Ice is another subject of con-
.d War II when of water circulation are the focus ganisms are predominant in pol- cern. The involvement of the re-
g the Japanese. of this year's research program at luted areas. search division is purely theoreti-
g f the as.r hs r sReasons for Pollution cal right now, Chandler explained.
end of the war the Great Lakes Research Divi- Reasons abound for this pre- "However, we are interested in
Chaing Kai-shek sion. dominance. According to Chan- finding out how much heat is in-
turned the Chi- Pollution in Lake Michigan is dler, some of the organisms are volved in forming and melting
getting worse, according to David not palatable to fish. Another is ice."
Rowe of the po- C. Chandler, director of the Great that they feed on the organic and This has an impact on naviga-
partment of Yale Lakes Research Division. The inorganic matter which is elim- tion, Chandler said. If scientists
senting the Com- purpose of this year's study is to inated in wastes. Another contri- knew enough about the formation
illion Against the set a standard point against which buting factor is the low oxygen and structure of he ice that form-
'ATE, Page 3 future data can be measured in content of polluted water. ed on the lakes, it might be pos-
__._ __ - ___ ------ ----Chandler pointed out that the sible to keep the lakes navigatable
micro-organisms break down this for a longer period of time, he
organic matter which in turn re- added.
leases oxygen. "One thing the di- See POLLUTION, Page 8
vision wants to find out is how
much these organisms decrease
c t 77rpollution," Chandler explained. To Start Study
"Right now pollution is increasing
ty to build up gress. He has frequently testified at such a rate that these organ- O p -c io
in the area and before education committees, win- sms have no time to break it Of Education
n from five to 17 ning national recognition at oned.
time for his "marriage and baby The quantity of phosphates in Appropriations
could become in- ban" proposal.3 the water has a bearing on the
ational research Offered several years ago, it population of organisms in water.
d by the measure would have prohibited "attractive, Chandler pointed out that during "The Senate Appropriations
ked closely with intelligent females between ages seasons, in unpolluted water, the Committee probably will not be-
ystem of public 20 and 25 from marriage and quantity of phosphate varies. Dur- gin consideration of a higher edu-
pregnancy." His reason for pro- ing seasons when the phosphate cation budget for about two
well-respected posing the measure was to point content is high, organisms are weeks," Sen. Gilbert Bursley (R-
are in the Con- up teaching shortages caused be- plentiful. Ann Arbor), a member of the com-
cause "we lose the women to the "There are some adverse effects mittee, said yesterday
menand the men to industry." of this however," Chandler point- He explained that the House
menpssed out. Phosphates are usually in will not take up appropriations
Many Purposes I wastes which are dumped into the for education until the Senate acts
Flanders said yesterday the cur- Great Lakes. Detergent, for ex- on the matter.
rent school aid measure, if passed ample, has a high phosphate "There hasn't been too very
in its present form, will allocate content. The effect of this phos- much discussion of educational is-
the $1.3 billion for the following phate in polluted areas is to in- sues to this point," Bursley add-
purposes:i rcrease the number of micro-or- ed, "and there really is no accur-
-$1 billion in grants to local ganisms. This causes the unpleas- ate indication of how legislators
public school districts to meet the ant taste and odor of the water, stand on such issues as the Uni-
special needs of "educationally- Chandler explained. versity's plans to make its Flint
deprived" children of low-income The Great Lakes Research Di- branch a four-year institution next
families- vision is also studying the effects fall."
-$100 million for grants to the the Great Lakes have on weather. He said that there may be a
states for the purchase of books, "What effect the temperature of majority in the Senate who op-
periodicals, documents, magnetic Lake Michigan is going to have pose Flint expansion, but that the
tapes, phonograph records, and on weather is the specific question firm support of Sen. Garland Lane
other printed instructional mate- we are trying to answer," Chan- (D-Flint), appropriations commit-
riao r n dler said. tee chairman, is the major factor
-$100 million for grants to Snow Fall in favor of the University getting
local public educational agencies' We know of one effect it has, he an adequate appropriation for the
for establishing supplemental edu- i continued. "The reason the snow Flint expansion.
cational centers and services to fall is so high along the shores of Lane reaffirmed his position
be used by public and non-public the Great Lakes, in comparison to Wednesday that Gov. George
school students as well as out-of- tin ladr - i f n i r _,, I- o---. mai-ar ifmn n

Demands
Economic
Reforms
UMSEU Seeks
Note o n Welfare
By MERLE JACOB
The University of Michigan
Student Employes Union has ask-
ed University President Harlan H.
Hatcher for a "white paper" on
the administration's position on
student economic welfare, Barry
Bluestone, '66, p r e s i d e n t of
UMSEU, said yesterday.
In a meeting with President
Hatcher on Thursday, the UMSEU
executive board ddiscussed the
whole issue of student economic
welfare, and their concern with
spiraling costs for students.
The President declined yester-
day to comment on the meeting.
But he is known to be concerned
about the increasing pressure be-
ing applied to the administration
by activist groups.
In public and private statements
recently he has referred to the
massive demonstrations at Berke-
ley last fall. He has stressed the
improbability of such develop-
ments here. But both he and his
aides are known to be sensitive
to signs of unrest because of their
desire to maintain an unblemish-
ed image for the $55 million fund
drive currently in progress.
Bluestone suggested the idea of
the "white paper" to President
Hatcher in order to solve the com-
munication breakdown between
the administration and the stu-
dents on this matter.
Basis for Dialogue
"The report would act as a basis
in fact for dialogue between ad:
ministrators, Regents and stu-
dents," Bluestone explained. "With
a report of this kind we will know
the administration's exact posi-
tion, and we can stop bickering
and get down to business."
UMSEU has asked that the
"white paper" discuss the admin-
istration's position on the follow-
ing:
-tuition and room and board
hikes;
-the University's involvement
in such projects as a bookstore or
University owned apartments for
students;
-the wage situation, and
-the University's role as an
economic entity in Ann Arbor.
Bluestone said that UMSEU has
been corresponding with the Re-
gents since December on this sub-
ject.
"We have been sending them
our proposals and our documents
on the student's economic posi-
tion at the University," he said.
"We have been trying to ar-
range a meeting with the Regents
in order to explain our position
and our goals to them, and they
have expressed an interest in dis-
cussing the subject with us."
Met with Regent
He added that four representa-
tives of UMSEU met with Regent
Carl Barblec of Roseville inform-
ally on March 19 to explain their
proposals. Bluestone said that
Brablec was not aware of all the
economic problems that he said
the University student is facing.
Bluestone felt that the lack of
communication a n d information
between the Regents and the stu-

E
2
5

Charles Conley, the students' lawyer, petitioned to have thej
trials moved from state courts to the Federal District Court. He said
that their rights of assembly and petition, guai'anteed under the
First Amendment, were violated by the arrests.
Earlier Wednesday, 30 of the 60 students who returned from
Alabama presented demands to President Harlan Hatcher. They
wanted a statement saying that the student arrests were unconsti-
tutional. They also asked the University to boycott Hammermill
Paper Products, hoping that the company would not build a plant
in Selma.
Expressed Concern
Richard Shortt, '66, chairman of VOICE, said that Hatcher ex-
pressed concern over the problem but preferred to take a neutral
position.4
Thursday night, Barry Bluestone, '65, discussed some of his
experiences in Alabama, accusing the University of supporting the
events in Alabama by not taking any action.
In the academic spotlight was the annonucement by the Office
of Academic Affairs to give faculty members, teaching one-half the
summer session, pay equal to that received for teaching one-half a
regular semester salary.
Faculty members were originally informed last year that they
would receive 22 per cent of a full semester's pay for teaching one-
half the spring-summer session, instead of the 25 per cent given for
tania a mp nrn--- n o a fall nr witer+erm.

The $1.3 billion bill is expected vvFlanders is a
to provide nearly $500,000 to and popular figu
- . :

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