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May 24, 1966 - Image 1

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1966-05-24

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See Editorial Page

C I -

Lit i6Fa uF


Pleasant, sunny,

Seventy-Five Years of Editorial Freedom
Chemical Mind Control Experiments Perf


EDITOR'S NOTE: The following
article has been adapted from one
appearing recently in tie nwall
Street Journal. -M.E.
Eighteen University men here
recently volunteered to help test
a revolutionary biochemical con-
cept-a pill to make people smart-
er. The Wall Street Journal ear-
lier this week reported that the
students took an experimental
drug supplied by Abbott Labora-
tories and then tried to master a
complex memory - and - learning
The students had to match cor-
rectly each of eight keys on a key-
board to flashing lights on a
panel. The object was to discover
by trial and error which key con-
trolled which light, and then to
remember this on subsequent
In the series of experiments, di-

rected by University psychologist
John Burns, two "control" groups
took the same test after receiving
an inert sugar pill or dexedrine.
Another group of 24 students took
an IQ test to see whether the
drug could improve their ability
to perceive relationships.
Results of these trials, and of
similar experiments elsewhere,
won't be known for perhaps sev-
eral months when scientists have
completed analyzing their find-
ings. The fact that such tests are-
being done with human beings,
however, points up the optimism
of researchers working in a new,
highly controversial field with pro-
found implications for mankind.
These scientists, principally uni-
versity biochemists and psychol-
ogists here at the University, Cali-
fornia, UCLA, MIT, and other re-
search centers abroad, are con-

vinced they are constructing a
new theory about how memory
works. Supported by a growing
number of laboratory experiments,
the scientists locate the key to
memory and learning in RNA-
ribonucleic acid-in brain cells.
Knowledge of how RNA might
serve as a storehouse for memory
may lead the scientists to the
threshold of major discoveries and
eventually to chemical manipula-
tion of the brain. If the com-
pounds being tested now fail, sci-
entists believe it will only be a
short time before the right pills
or potions will be synthesized to
enhance memory and mental func-
If experiments are successful the
drugs could have widespread ap-
"We might be able to slow
down the process of senility in

the aging or help mentally retard-
ed people," says Dr. Alvin J. Glas-
ky, a biochemist. "Everyone could
benefit from a better memory. We
think we'll be able to control
memory and learning and thus
allow people to achieve the limits
of their native, genetic potential."
Others, such as psychologist Da-
vid Krech at the University of
California in Berkeley, feel that
the research may lead to a break-
through in control of the mind,
but wonder if the prospect should
be celebrated.
"I don't believe that I am be-
ing melodramatic in suggesting
that our research may carry with
it even more serious implications
than the awful, in both senses
of the word, achievements of the
atomic physicists," Krech told a
recent scientific meeting.
Scientists may soon unravel all

the intricacies of chemical changes Evidence for chemical theory,
that occur when people learn and particularly involving RNA is
remember. University psychologist growing in experiments with lab-
James V. McConnell says, "Even- oratory animals.
tually, then, we might be able to Some scientists feel there may
take 'blank' RNA and synthesize be a more general effect of RNA
memories in a test tube. I may upon learning. Experiments indi-
be speaking of hundreds of years cate that "untrained" RNA, such
from now, but it might be sooner." as that found in yeast, can be
Previously, scientists studying fed to animals, and the animals
memory have concerned them- will learn faster or remember
selves mainly with electronic ac- more. This is sometimes called the
tivity in the brain. They talked of nutritive theory of RNA. This is
the brain in terms of an electronic the basis for drug research such
computer in which memory might as Abbott's testing of magnesium
consist of complex arrangements pomoline, trade named Cylert, the
of "on and off" switches at the drug given Michigan students.
synapses where nerve cell endings Abbott scientists found that Cy-
contact one another, such as in a lert could increase brain RNA pro-
digital computer. Proof is lacking duction by 35 to 40 per cent by
for this theory, and more scien- stimulating an enzyme that con-
tists now look to the nucleus of trols RNA. The rats were tested
the nerve cell itself for some chem- to see whether doses of the drug
ical method of uncoding memory. would help them to learn to avoid

more quickly a shock pattern in a
Scientists have tried to estab-
lish whether RNA from ordinary
yeast can be fed to people to en-
hance memory. Results from tests
at McGill University in Montreal
claimed memory improvement in
patients approaching senility who
were given yeast RNA. Doctors
term these studies preliminary and
are reluctant to draw any hard-
and-fast conclusions from them.
Memory obliteration is also be-
ing studied, and present investiga-
tions are being headed by Uni-
versity Prof. Dr. Bernard W. Agra-
noff. Goldfish were trained to
swim from one compartment of a
tank to another to avoid a shock
preceded by a light. Some gold-
fish were given antibiotics which
interfere with RNA manufacture
of protein.

If the drugs were given right
after a 40 minute training period,
the fish remembered nothing three
days later. "Undrugged" goldfish
retained learning for days and
even months.
Other scientists are beginning
to show how memory enhance-
ment might be transferred from
one species to another. A UCLA
group trained hamsters to do cer-
tain tasks, then injected RNA from
their brain cells into the stom-
achs of rats. The rats showed
significant ability to do the same
tasks learned by the hamsters.
It is, of course, a long way from
animal experiments to a -drug use-
ful in human beings, though the
implications of memory pills and
the possibility of ruthless indoc-
trination and control over the hu-
man mind are already apparent.

Duncan Has
u, (W Iiraii ta Early Lead

aum tU U U W U U E

A STRIKE BETWEEN THE Saginaw Valley Carpenters
District Council and the Associated General Contractors ended
its 22nd day yesterday with no sign of a settlement.
Washtenaw County carpenters remained on strike yesterday
but did not picket construction sites, allowing bricklayers, who
Monday ratified a new contract with the Washtnew County Con-
tractors Association, to return to work.
Laborers in Washtenaw County are continuing to work with-
out a contract.
EAST LANSING U P)-A MICHIGAN State University official
yesterday said "it would be very unfortunate" if published charges
of involvement with the Central Intelligence Agency damaged
university research projects in India and throughout the world.
The statement followed a New York Times report which said
India's leading pro-Communist daily, The Patriot, had suggested
that a MSU research project in the central Indian city of Hyder-
abad was a cover for the CIA.
"There is absolutely no intelligence organization involvement
in any Michigan State project either in India or any other place,"
said Dr. Ralph Smuckler, acting dean of MSU's international
"Since the project is aimed at bettering the life of people
in India," he added. "It would be extremely unfortunate if it
were damaged by such unsubstantiated accusations and sus-
NEW YORK (M--ABOUT 300 COLUMBIA University men
threatened Sunday night to invade the residence halls of Barnard
College, Columbia's women's college affiliate, in a spring panty
Police said the men gathered in front of the residence halls
along upper Broadway vowing to girls in open windows that they
would enter the dormitories.
Eight policemen were sent to the scene and the students
began to return to their quarters after coaxing by university
Police said most of the students had cleared the area of the
residence halls by 3 a.m.
PROF. JAMES OLDS of the psychology department at the
University has been elected to membership in the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Olds is one of 126 Americans who were elected to Fellowship
* in America's second oldest learned society, while 24 distinguished
persons from abroad were elected to Foreign Honorary Mem-
The Fellows were elected at the Academy's 186th annual
meeting in Boston.
Olds is widely recognized as outstanding in the field of
physiological psychology. His discovery of the "reward pleasure"
function of electrical brain stimulation has been regarded as one
of the most significant findings in psychology, in the past decade.
He was awarded the Howard Crosby Warren medal by the Society
of Experimental Psychologists in 1962.

Hugh [Upsets Burns;
In Florida, Cooper
Has Kentucky Biel
By Tile Associated Press
Rep. Robert B. Duncan, cast as
the hawk in Oregon's echo of the
American debate over Viet Nam,
opened an early lead last night
in his race to become the Demo-
cratic nominee for the Senate.
In the feature race of a four-
primary night, Duncan led How-
ard Morgan, a harsh critic of the
American stand in Southeast Asia.
Across the country, in Florida,
Miami Mayor Robert King High
scored a startling upset and wres-
tled the Democratic nomination
for governor from Gov. Haydon
Burns. Kentucky and Oklahoma
also chose nominees for Novem-
Duncan, twice elected to the
House, supported President John-
son's Viet Nam policy in a cam-
paign which centered on the Asian
The winner will be matched
against Republican Gov. Mark O.I
Hatfield, whose three challengers
in the GOP Senate primary were
only names on the ballot.
In the Democratic battle, this
was the early picture from 179 of
Oregon's 2,946 precincts:
Duncan 3900.
Morgan 1844.
Gilbert Meyer 127.
Burns, who beat High two years
ago, conceded he had lost the Flor-
ida rematch - a bitter struggle
marked by his charge that the
mayor was the candidate for a
Negro bloc vote.
The governor ledrthe initial pri-
mary, but fell short of a major-I
ity vote.
Kentucky's veteran Republican
Sen. John Sherman Cooper won
renomination by a vast margin.
An old college classmate turned
political challenger, former Rep.
John Young Brown, won the Dem-
ocratic nomination just as easily.
Preston Moore, once national
commander of the American Le-
gion, beat former Gov. Roman
Gary for the Democratic guber-
natorial nomination. State Sen.
Dewey Bartlett of Tulsa won the
Republican nomination. Pat J.
Patterson, a tax attorney from
Oklahoma City, captured the Re-
publican nomination for the Sen-
ate to challenge Democratic Sen.,
Fred R. Harris in Oklahoma.

Laurie Lipson, chairman of Voice political party, the local chapter of Students for "a Democratic Society, presided over an
zational meeting last night. Voice decided to host the National Council meeting of SDS in June at the request of the nationa
Plans for the summer were also discussed, although no specific plans were formulated.
NSA GIves Bleak Viet Nam---Rep(

Students To
Get Advisory
Board Soon
Hatcher Approves
Plan, Stresses Need
For Communication
A proposal for a Student Ad-
visory Board to the President of
. . the University met with general
approval from President Hatcher
and University vice-presidents at
a special meeting yesterday after-
The administrators and student
leaders at the meeting stresssed
the need for communication and
"meaningful dialogue" between
students and the administration,
which the proposal would provide
by setting up a system of advisory
boards to the president and vice-
President Hatcher termed the
plan an "exciting idea, and Vice-
President for Student Affairs
Richard Cutler commented that
such a system would provide a
means for students to gain an
"education about the University as
sR. Copi well as in the University."
Main Areas of Concern
Thepmain areas of concern were
the problems of confidence be-
organi- tween students and the adminis-
il office. tration and continuity of student
interest, the relation of the boards
to Student Government Council
and Graduate Student Council,
and the process of member selec-
To operate effectively, many of
the boards would have to be given
access to security information by
the administration. If the boards
were trusted with privileged in-
formation, the problem of to whom
te of the the information could be revealed
would arise.
disclosed There was concern that if the
gationPod information could not be given to
expens ofSGC or GSC, communication be-
tween those student organizations
and the advisory boards would be
d for the hindered. This situation would a-
he Ameri- fect the relationship between the
Advisory Board System and SGC
five Viet- since the proposal states that the
s to visit boards must be responsible to SGC
ghout the "as the official representative of
reby avoid the University student communi-
itors were ty."
It was felt that any possibility
11 through, of competition between members
,of the advisory boards and SGC
eVietnamese should be avoided. n
idea be- Continuity of Interest
bances and In relation to the problem of
dent lead- continuity of student interest and
nvolved in participation, Cutler pointed out
ye t tisthat student interest is often a
very fickle thing." Administrators,
aid he had he said, must be assured that the
tact with system will be continued from
ganizations year to year and not die out soon
"s of urban after it has been established.
t, housing Neill Hollenshead, '67, the SGC
ervices for member who. along with Marvin
Igees from Freedman, '67, submitted the pro-
s who have posal to the group, said that stu-
ities dents have a greater awareness
of the need for continuity than
sible ever before and are interested in
hoped to building a permanent system.
South Viet In the area of member selec-
al congress tion, Cutler expressed concern that
the intense interest some student
iye of the board members might have in the
iveo the issues could also result in "a de-
n ives hrgree of lack of objectivity." What
e I moodives is needed, he said, is a balance of
ie m of objectivity and emotion.
h, of Bud- Broad Communication
ers, and of There was also general agree-
se officials ment that the communication
nts met in process must not involve only the
advisory boards, SGC, and the ad-
e following ministration, but must also ex-
tend to the rest of the student

By The Associated Press civilian population, had created seized control of those cities at
A report circulated by the suspicions about United States the outset of the current crisis.
National Student Association, the "domination," and had generally The report has been circulated
largest American student organi- failed to achieve meaningful goals over the past two weeks to the
zation, has predicted that there in economic and social assistance. NSA's 301 affiliated colleges and
would be no internal peace inunvriesTh domntwl
South Viet Nam until the United The report is a journal of a universities. The document will
Buddhist Church assumes an ac- two-week visit to South Viet Nam serve as the basis for a reappraisal
tive role in a constitutional gov- last month by Philip Sherburne, of the organization's foreignn
enent. NSA president, and two other of- policy platform at its annual con-
The leadership or the NSA gave ficers, Malcolm Kovacs and Greg- gress which will be held late in
its 1,3 million members a bleak ory Delin. August at the University of
its .3 mllio memers blek -Illinois.

account of political unrest and the
prospects of the Southeast Asian
war. It scored the United States
for continuing to support the
military junta.
The 4,250 word document also
urged that American policies, no
matter how well intentioned, had
hopelessly alienated most of the

The authors of the report saidj
they had conferred with scores of The association, considered the
student representatives-many of most moderate of the major stu-
whom had never before been ac- dent organizations, in the past'
cessible to American visitors. has been mildly critical of the
These ranged from the moderate Administration's policies in Viet
Saigon Students' Union to Revo- Nam. Last year's congress called
lutionary Student Struggle units for an immediate end to the
in Da Nang and Hue that had just bombings in North Viet Nam.

Berkeley Academic Revolution Liberalizes Outlook

Sherburne, a gradua
University of Oregon,
yesterday that the dele,
made the trip at theE
the State Department.
The department pai
transportation to help t
can organization select
namese student leader
college campuses throu
United States and thei
suspicions that the vis
officially sponsored.
The proposed visit fe
however, when South I
authorities vetoed the
cause of present disturt
because some of the stu
ers were too directly i
political action to leas
Instead, Sherburne sa
established direct con
Vietnamese student org
to begin joint progran:
community developmen
relocation, and health s
the thousands of refu
the war-torn rural area:
sought shelter in the ci
Another Trip Pos
Sherburne said he
make another trip to
Nam before the annu
to update his report,
The report is reflect
Vietnamese student opi
than polemical in tons
a gloomy picture of th
South Viet Nam's yout
dhist and Catholic lead
American and Vietname
whom the three studer
The report makes th
o erac .r

Special To The Daily
BERKELEY, Calif. - There is
another academic revolution tak-
ing place here, this time without
protests, placards, or Mario Savio.
The faculty and administration
of the University of California at
Berkeley seem to be carefully re-
constructing the university along
the lines of liberal educational
Right now, Berkeley's Academic
Senate, a faculty representative
body, is patiently arguing through
42 recommendations widely hailed
in academic circles as partial re-
medies to the many ills of a large

although in two cases, with serious
modification from their original
forms in the report-one has been
defeated, and one other has been
returned to the faculty committee
for "clarification."
This 10-1-1 record for the Mus-
catine Report is viewed as a hope-
ful omen of what is ahead for
this 27,000-man "multiversity."
Approved Recommendations
The 10 recommendations from
the Muscatine Report approved so
far would fall roughly into these
Student Grading Options: Pro-
cedure to allow students in good
standing to take, for credit, one
flfl1,na r .nimrl - n,. n n. PA..A'.

"halfway" degree, for students
who have fulfilled all doctoral re-
quirements except their disserta-
Preferred Grading: Procedure
to allow comprehensive grading at
the end of two and three quarter
Admissions: Recommendations
for h i gh school recruitment;
thorough screening of applicants;
and flexible admission standards
(changing the minimum high
school grade average to 2.8 instead
of 3.0.)
The only recommendation to be
defeated (47-42) of the 12 pro-
posed was one which would have

Academic Senate, and the vague'
wording of the original report.
Entrenched conservatism and
academic tradition are, as expect-
ed, the chief obstacle. Most of the
power of the conservatives is cen-
tered in the history and chemistry
departments, for some reason. The
most common conservative argu-
ments have been:
-"This is all too drastic, or
sudden, or untested;"
-"This is going to contradict
all of our policies; we don't have
the machinery to do it;" and
-"This is going to penalize the
good, hardworking student who
wants to get good grades."

the Muscatine Report. The report
mentions specific policies but did
not explain or diagram adminis-
tration of these, and many of the
policy revisions have turned out
to be more comprehensive than
the report-writers o r i g i n a 11 y
thought. The Senate has been
pondering realistic implementa-
tions of the more general policies,
and in some cases has not found
any solution.
Some reforms may be practically
unworkable. One recommendation
which the Senate has found to be
particularly difficult has been the
new pre-doctorate degree. A reso-
lution was accepted by the Senate,
hut it had two important weak-

fied-from the resolution, leaving
the degree unnamed. One observer
remarked on how important the
title will be to the new degree:
"No matter how good the new de-
gree will be, if the Grad Council
decided to call it 'Dullard of Arts'
it will be useless.
Political and Practical
These same problems--the po-
litical and the practical-are ex-
pected for the 30 recommenda-
tions remaining. Six more are on
the Senate agenda before Summer
recess as part of meetings held
May 17 and scheduled for May 25.
Among thebimportant recom-
mendations being considered in

: I



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