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July 27, 1966 - Image 1

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1966-07-27

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See Editorial Page


Sir i ritAau


Scattered showers
likely all day

Seventy-Six Years of Editorial Freedom


Do Students

Want the

ree om' They



EDITOR'S NOTE: Though we feel
this report's opposition of the con-
cepts of student freedom and com-
munity is misleading, we reprint it
here because of what it contributes
to the study of the university as a
socializing process.
Most college students are not
ready to be on their own in a big
university that promises them too
much freedom.
This conclusion turns up in a
study conducted by a university
that takes pride in its atmosphere
of unconventional freedom-the
University of Chicago.
The six-year study, financed
by the United States Office of
Education, concludes that most
college students cannot handle
and do not want too much free-
dom. Even the highly individu-
alistic student who shops for a

broadminded college environment
later bemoans his freedom. He
talks about the need "for some-
body to be firm."
The freedom makes a student
feel no one cares, especially at
a large university where the in-
difference is compounded by size.
Mary Alice Newman, who con-
ducted the study, says that sig-
nificant numbers of students arel

not mature,
but instead
with uneven

independent adults
are "young people
skills on their way

those who are not themselves
ready for it."
She referred to the University of
California student disturbances,
pointing out that they began as
a protest against "administrative
restriction and interference. Now
the riots are considered "protests
against the lack of concern for
individuals, impersonality, and the
anonymity of the mass university."
She continued, "Students' needs
are not always synonymous with
what they ask for."
Her study shows, she said, that
many students do not consider
college a "community" but an
'experience in isolation." The stu-
dent feels he is on his own to sink
or swim, without familiar or
even unfamiliar guidelines. He
feels "alone in an impersonal
world where no one cares."

Her project began as a study
of college dropouts and turned
into more when she found out
that even the students who did
not leave school had many of the
same complaints.
She took the freshman class of
1959 and followed it for six years.
There were 309 students and al-
most 40 per cent of them dropped
In general, they could not take
the mystique of the University
of Chicago environment. The
dropouts were less self-directed
and had a strong need for ad-
vice. At least 74 per cent of them
were mismatches in the Chicago
cultural environment.
There were no family, social,
or circumstantial factors that
made any significant difference
between those who stayed and

those who left. Academic ability,
did not play a major part either.
Those who dropped out were
generally as intellectually bright
as those who stayed.
Religion seemed to make a dif-
ference, though, Catholics dropped
out of Chicago in proportionately
greater numbers. In the freshman
class of 1959, almost twice as many
Catholics dropped out as stayed.
Fewer than half of the Protestants
stayed. On the other hand, Jewish
students stuck. About one third
of the freshman class was Jewish,
By graduation time, they repre-
sented 43 per cent of the class.
Even though there were dif-
ferences between the dropouts
and the "persisters," there were
similarities that led Prof. New-
man to the conclusion that stu-
dents, in general, cannot take

and do not want too much free-
A good percentage of the per-
sisters, she found, were also im-
mature, wanted more advice, ex-
pected more contact with the fac-
ulty, were uncertain about their
interests, and expressed some in-
tolerance for "differentness."
About 52 per cent of the per-
sisters found the ethos of the
University of Chicago "diffuse
or cold and impersonal." So did
all the dropouts. Both the drop-
outs and 77 per cent of the per-
sisters thought the faculty was
In a university she described
as open, mature and diverse,
Prof. Newman pointed out there
were significant numbers of stu-
dents who experienced difficulty.
She concluded, "If students have

not yet learned to accept differ-
entness, to appreciate diverse
ideas, attitudes, and people, our
present melting pot approval
would seem to require some care-.
ful thought and appraisal. The
evidence suggests that it may
actually breed intolerance or in-
difference in some instances."
She also concluded, "If students
have not learned to order their
lives in all aspects and are bewil-
dered by the absence of guidelines,
this need should be recognized as
well as the demand for freedom."
And if the students want more
personal understanding from the
faculty, they should get it. This
demand, she said, was a "cry" for'
substitute parents or "a valid re-
flection of adult indifference in
today's academic market-place."
The university is looked upon as

"they," instead of "we", she said.
Through some "unholy alchemy, it
projects impersonality, anonymity
and bureaucracy."
Students want "something to
catch hold of - an experience,
philosophy, a model, a goal, an
idea. Something around which
one's experience can be organized
and made meaningful."
"In effect," she said, "though.
we are more fortunate than many
institutions, our dilemma is' that
we participate in the national ed-
ucation disease of fragmentation.
Students. Faculty. Administration.
Fragmented, talking and learning
together all too little."
She called for a new "commun-
ity" at the University of Chicago
-one that inspires inquiry, pur-
pose and spirit.
Reprinted by permission of the
Chicago Daily News

to becoming adults."
The evidence is so strong, she
says, that the University of Chi-,
cago should change its ways.
"It is our task," she says, "to
listen not simply to what students
say but to what they mean. The
treating of students as adults may
be perceived as indifference by

_.__ _. --



Of Teachers
Under Study

Late World News
By The Associated Press
SAIGON-Prime Minister Nguyen Cao Ky said early today
the free world must be ready to help his nation for 10 years or
more or face the prospect of invading North Viet Nam now.
He said peace would never be restored so long as interna-
tional communism with its worldwide aim of enslavement en-
joyed a sanctuary north of the 17th Parallel.
Ultimately, he said, the people of the North would over-
throw the Communist regime there. But he posed the question:
Does the free world have the patience to aid and build South
Viet Nam for the necessary period of waiting?
ALEXANDRIA-President Gamal Abdel Nasser said yester-
day revolutionary Arab nations can mount an army of four
million men for "liberation of Palestine" but that Arab reac-
tionaries conspire to sabotage the Arab struggle against Israel.
Nasser singled out Saudi Arabia as a prime example, in his
view, of a reactionary Arab state.
"Let Saudi Arabia liberate itself of United States and Brit-
ish bases and then we can talk with its leaders about the libera-
tion of Palestine," Nasser declared.
"We can pount an army of four million for the liberation
of Palestine. America and Britain can give Israel planes but they
cannot put four million men into the field to back Israel."
WASHINGTON-Sen. Robert F. Kennedy <D-NYE said yes-
terday there was "a distinct possibility" he would not endorse
anyone for the Democratic gubernatorial nomination in New
York prior to the party nominating convention.
At a news conference, Kennedy said that he could endorse
any of the four candidates in the race for the nomination but
added, "some more enthusiastically than the others."
Democrats already in the race for the nomination are:
City Council President Frank O'Connor; Nassau County Execu-
tive Eugene Nickerson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., son of the
late President, and Howard Samuels, a business executive,
LITTLE ROCK-Jim Johnson, the only outspoken segrega-
tionist among seven candidates, held a slim lead last night in
Arkansas' Democratic gubernatorial primary.
Hot on his heels was Frank Holt who was tabbed by John-
son and his other opponents as a machine candidate.
With about 25 per cent of the boxes reported, the count in
695 of 2,693 precincts showed: Johnson 15,062, Holt 12,475, Hays
7,635, Alford 5,868, Boyce 5,051 Rebsamen 3,144 and Sulcer 2,098.
PROF. KENNETH BOULDING of the economics department
was one of 72 American clerics and laymen attending the World
Council of Churches Social Conference last week who wired
President Lyndon Johnson urging that the President take no
acts of reprisal against North Viet Nam if Hanoi tries United
States airmen as war criminals.
"We deplore any suggestion that we lay waste the cities of
North Viet Nam," the message said.
The more than 400 delegates-including most Americans-at
the conference said United States action in Viet Nam "cannot
be justified" and condemned "the massive and growing American
military presence in Viet Nam." The vote on the resolution was
nearly unanimous.

Draft Boards Now
Reviewing Status
Of All Registrants
LANSING (P,'-Michigan draft
boards are tightening up their pol-
icies on exemptions for teachers
and college students, Col. Arthur
Holmes, State Selective Service
director,esaid yesterday.
Holmes said the state draft
headquarters asked local boards}
last month to tighten up on oc-
cupational deferments, including,
those for teachers.
Local school boards now will be
required to show that drafting ax
teacher would disrupt classes, be-
fore the teacher can be deferred,;
he said.
Serious Consideration
Holmes said local draft boards
should give most serious considera-
tion to deferring teachers of criti-
cal skills. But, he said, considera-
tion also will be given to any
teacher whom a local school says
definitely is needed.
H£ added that local boards,
which used to review college stu-
dent files each October, now are
opening the files in July to find
graduates and dropouts sooner.
The directive to open the files
sooner. and review them more,
stringently, went out last May
and now is being re-emphasized,
Holmes said.
Besides finding graduates and
dropouts to help fill the higher
draft quotas for the Viet Nam war,
the local boards also look for
students who are not advancing at
a pace that would allow them to
complete school in a normal
amount of time, he said.
July Reviewr
Michigan changed from a July
review to an October review of
student files about six years ago.
when there was an abundance of;
manpower, Holmes said. Ann Arbor's famous four-day sur
"But now we can't have that' year's fair is bigger than ever, a
luxury," he said. the corner onto East University
The new system means extra
work for the boards, he said, be-
cause the files may have to be PRIMARY BATTL
changed in the fall if a young
man enrolls in college,
High school graduates, said
Holmes, are processed toward in-
duction. If they are in college at
induction time, they are given a
deferment, he added.
Meanwhile, he said, the boards
have begun inducting childless v e r
married men.
In the Korean War, he noted,
school boards were asked to delay By DANIEL OKRENT
retirements of teachers, but in- special To The Daily
creased draft calls for the Viet DETROIT-Continuing to lam-
Nam war "haven't reached that bast his opponent with charges of
stage yet." "issue-evasion", Detroit Mayor

Conflict Seen
In Financing
Of Building
Controversy Involves
Legislative Approval
Of Bonded Funds
The new administration build-
ing now in the process of' con-.
struction on Jefferson St. may
create a new University-Legisla-
ture furor.
The center of controversy rests
on the manner in which the build-
ing is being funded. A Lansinlg
source said the Legislature is un-
der the impression that the Un!-
versity is attempting to skirt the
regulations of Public Act 124.
Wilbur K. Pierpont, vice-presi-
lent for business and finance, said
that the building is being financ-
ed by a bank, either through
bank loan or through bonds.
Private Funds
The p r e s e n t administration
building was built with state-funds
but the new building will be bu tt
with private funds and Pierpont
said "the Legislature doesn't fit
into the picture at all."
However, Sen. Garland Lane (D-
Flint), chairman of the Senate
Appropriations Committee, said he
doubted whether the University
could bond the building without
legislative backing. He indicated
that the bonding company, usual-
ly a group of brokers, would not
support the building without legis-
lative approval. In this instance,
however, the bank has already
pledged its support, Pierpont said.
Lane's contention that the Uni-
versity is required to seek legis-
lative approval before bonding the
construction of any building raises
a question of constitutionality.
Can a state-supported institution
bond a building without legisla-
tive approval?
Constitutional Question
An official in the attorney gen-
eral's office said that "we have
been aware of this constitutional
question before, but not specifical-
ly in regard to the financing of
the new administration building.
If' we were asked for an opinion
as to whether the University would
have to get legislative permission
for floating bonds we would have
to study this particular issue fur.
PA 124
The state law in question is PA
124. Under this act, the Legisla-
ture appropriates all planning
money. All building plans must
be submitted to the Legislature for
approval before the proposed
building is constructed.
Although many Michigan col-
leges and universities build a ma-
jority of their buildings through
self-liquidating bonds without leg-
islative approval, the University
has never done this until now.
The Legislature knows of the
University's dislike of PA 124 and
sources say that this new attempt
to bond a building is merely a
means of avoiding the issue.
Lane indicated that it would be
difficult for the University to ob-
tain legislative approval for the
bonding of the new building. He
added that the Legislature is will-
ing to allow the University to is-
sue self-liquidating bonds for
housing facilities but that it is not
particularly eager to allow it to
finance service buildings in that
Funds from Drive

-Daily-Thomas R. Copi
mmer art fair takes to the streets once again today. Art Fair Chairman Fred Beaver notes that this
and he has high hopes for its success. The fair, traditionally held on South University, has crept around
in recent years because of its increased size.
igh Sees Himself Victor
: N
itim fo N - --ing l'

Meader, Esch Vie for Seat in Congress

Jerome P. Cavanagh is now pre- A proponent of Secretary of
dicting he will be the August 2 Defense McNamara's universal!
primary victormin the race for the service draft proposals, Cavanagh
United States Senate. claimed that even before McNa-
mara outlined his views on the
He asserts that the "voters of draft, he himself had voiced simi-
Michigan "want to know" the lar ideas.
feelings of the candidates "on
Vietnam, on civil rights, on in- "Although the universal service
flation." system would not solve all the
problems in the draft, it would
Riding the crest of a successful serve as something profitable for
jaunt into outstate regions aboard both the nation and the nation's
a special one day "whistle stop" youth, providing a motivation for
train campaign, Cavanagh used college students to serve their
his opponent, former Governor G. 'country in a meaningful fashion
Mennen Williams, as the source without having to entirely disrupt
for much of his optimism: "While their educational progress."
two weeks ago the ex-governor Cavanagh mentioned that such
predicted a victory by a consid- aenave ensiospita Peace
erale argn',toay e mntinsalternatives as hospital, Peace
erable margin', today he mentions 'Corps, or VISTA service might be
that he now has "an edge'."
The Mayor also criticized Wi- the student and to soceficialto
liams for the way in which hea
4-, 1,- . .2_ . -- . ,. ,t.....A 'The Mavor alsn reiterated his

role" of dissent, but criticizing
them for misdirected opposition.
WCO is protesting the Mayor's
role in urban redevelopment in
Detroit, claiming that he has ren-
dered homeless many displaced
inner city residents. Cavanagh
countered by blaming the tie-ups
in housing solutions on an apathe-
tic community that refuses to low-
er racial barriers, rather than on
the efforts of his office.
Cavanagh also met with critics
in Grand Rapids and Owosso re-
presenting the Citizens for Educa-
tional Freedom, a group calling for
"a fair share of tax money to pri-
vate and parochial students."
A CEF spokesman criticized the
Mayor's stand on direct parochial
school aid, which Cavanagh later
elaborated as being one in favor
of subsidiary benefits, such as
hmna -nh.-e~qaend1textbook nrice

Second of Four-Part Series
One of the most important lo-
cal races in the coming primary
election is the contest between
George Meader and Marvin Esch
for the Republican nomination for:
United States congressman from
the 2nd District.
The winner of the Republican
t t n'n n+ifrnn will mpt nAmanrn a fi.

only recently, has been a member
of the state House of Represen-
tatives since 1964. He calls him-
self "a Romney Republican," and
has been endorsed by the city Re-
publican Committee and the De-
troit Free Press.
Meader, a graduate of the Uni-
versity Law School who served
seven terms in Congress as a rep-
resentative of this tradritionallyv

describes himself as "moderate," that he did vote for the rights
and members of his camp claim act of 1957, and that he was in
that Meader is "quite far to the favor of civil rights legislation, as
right." long as it did not exceed consti-
Rejects Label tutional limits.
Meader, however, said yesterday Critical
that he rejects this label and Both candidates are very criti-
termed himself an "independent cal of the Johnson administration
progressive Republican," which he for its handling of the poverty
explained as meaning that most program, saying that the federal
nf the time he votes along narty government has bvassed state

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