THE MICHIGAN DAILY
)thers Refuse Jail Bonds
Rebels Promise Equality
For European Minority
EVIAN-LES-BAIN, France ()-
The Algerian rebel regime prom-
ised yesterday that the European
minority in Algeria will be able
to live in "liberty and equality"
when the territory becomes inde-
pendent from France.
A spokesman for the Algerian
delegation at peace talks here
added that the rebel government
is seeking "the most objective,
most just and most reasonable"
solution for the question of. the
million Europeans in Algeria.
But he warned that they could
not expect to continue their priv-
ileged position "reminiscent of the
WASHINGTON OP) - President
John F. Kennedy conferred for 45
minutes yesterday with the Joint
Chiefs of Staff and seemingly ex-
pressed confidence in them by ar-
ranging for group pictures.
The Joint Chiefs made an un-
announced visit to the White
House one day after Secretary of
Defense Robert S McNamara ex-
pressed' complete confidence in the
nation's top military commanders.
Until then, McNamara had not
replied to critics of the Pentagon's
role in considering plans for the
The Joint Chiefs had been un-
der fire, particularly from Sen. Al-
bert Gore (D-Tenn) who had
called for their removal.
White House Press Secretary
Pierre Salinger declined to com-
ment on the visit, but the circum-
stances, including the posing for
pictures, seemed to point it up as
Kennedy's answer to their critics.
Those on hand included Gen.
Lyman L. Lemnitzer, chairman of
the Joint Chiefs; Adm. Arleigh A.
Burke, Navy; Gen. George H.
Decker, Army; Gen. Curtis LeMay,
Air Force and Gen. David M.
Shoup, Marines. Shoup,nwhile not
Sa member of the Joint Chiefs,
meets with them.
LeMay, deputy chief of the Air
Force, will become its chief in
July when Gen. Thomas D. White
retires. Gen. White is out of the
country and could not attend yes-
At a news conference, McNa-
mara took full responsibility for
any errors the Pentagon might
have made in connection with the
abortive invasion of Cuba by anti-
Castro rebels. He said any errors
were not to be charged to others.
The spokesman, Abdelmajid
Ridha Malek, was replying to a
statement yesterday by Louis
Joxe, head of the French delega-
tion, expressing concern about the
future of the Europeans, Who are
outnumbered about. 10 to 1 by Al-
Joxe warned that if a satisfac-
tory solution to the minority ques-
tion could not be worked out with
the rebels, France would consider
partitioning the country. The Eu-
ropeans would be regrouped in the
partitioned area and protected by
Malek did not go into further
detail about guarantees for the
Europeans. However, he reiterated
the rebel position that the Euro-
peans would be able to choose be-
tween Algerian citizenship or liv-
ing under a special statute gov-
He said it would be difficult to
work out an arrangement for Eu-
ropeans to have dual French and
Joxe proposed yesterday that
French citizenship could be re-
tained by all Moslems and Euro-
peans in Algeria.
OKLAHOMA CITY ()-Acade-
my, Award winning movie star
Charlton Heston led about 80
demonstrators in downtown Ok-
lahoma City yesterday in a peace-
ful march against segregated eat-
Heston, carrying a cardboard
sign, was greeted when he arrived
downtown by a crowd chanting
"freedom." Then came applause
and shouts of welcome. He smiled,
shook hands and chatted with
He said he was prepared for
some hostility at the start of the
march but none developed.
The 80 demonstrators who
marched with him included about
50 Negroes. Three 18-year-olds
marched as anti-demonstrators,
one carrying, a sign that read,
"is Beverly Hills integrated?"
The protest march against seg-
regated lunch counters met with
antagonism only once when a man
told Heston, "go back to Holly-
LONDON (R)P - More than 200
people were reported arrested in
Spain following discovery of a plot
to assassinate Gen. Francisco
Franco last night.
There was no immediate offi-
cial confirmation of the report in
But Spanish security police, pre-
paring for Franco's trip through
Madrid next mid-week to open a
new session of Parliament, have
ordered building owners along the
route to give names, addresses and
political affiliation of persons who
would be in the buildings when
Franco passed by.
The London Sunday Dispatch
said the arrests were made in the
mountain province of Andalusia
after a "propaganda visit" there by
the Spanish chief of state. It said
Franco's return route to Madrid
was suddenly switched on advice
The paper said Spanish officials
have denied any arrests have been
made, "but on presidential orders
counter moves to the plot havej
been kept secret."
State Asks Control
Of TV Programs
Senate urged President John F.
Kennedy and Congress to take
immediate and conscientious steps
to improve television yesterday.
A resolution adopted unani-.
mously says network programs in
recent years represent a low level
of morals and taste.
KEY WEST (P)--Cuban Pre-
mier Fidel Castro's firing squads
will execute three members of the
small army that landed in Cuba
last month, a Cuban radio sta-
tion said yesterday.
The three men were condemned
to death for having killed an old
Castro supporter, Juan Manuel
Marquez, who fought with the
premier during the Sierra Maestra
days of the Cuban revolution, the
The three were not identified
but the broadcast said they had
been members of the army of ex-
dictator Fulgencio Batista, whom
By The Associated Press
MOSCOW-The Soviet Union
and Brazil yesterday agreed to-set
up trade missions in each other's
This could be the first step to-
ward establishment of diplomatic
relations, a development for which
the Soviet Union has been press-
ANKARA-Turkey got a new
constitution yesterday-first an-
niversary of the army coup which
toppled the government of former
Prime Minister Adnan Menderes.
T h e Constituent Assembly,
which acts as an interim parlia-
ment until free elections can be
held this fall, approved the new
constitution 261-0, with 2 absten-
tions and 31 absentees.
* * *:
TULSA-The capsule in which
Capt. Alan D. Shepard was launch-
ed into space has been flown to
Paris for display in the United
States exhibit at the 24th interna-
tional air show, Edward R. Mur-
The air show opens in Paris
To Give Speeches
WASHINGTON (A) - President
John F., Kennedy and former
President Dwight D. Eisenhower
will address opening day sessions
of the World Conference of Lo-
cal Governments here June .15-20.
314 S. State St. Ph. 3-2481
fountain pens repaired
Cubans To Execute Rebels
The death sentences were the
first to be imposed on any mem-
bers of the invasion force, so far
as is known.
Castro has offered to exchange
for tractors 1,200 of the men cap-
tured since the April 17 attack,
but he and his spokesmen have
said many times that "criminals
of the Batista days" will not be
prosecuted by revolutionary tri-
A committee of 10 prisoners who
spent the week in the United
States negotiating Castro's pro-
posal returned to Cuba yesterday.
They landed at the Rancho Boy-
eros airport south of Havana but
declined to make any statement
before leaving for the Havana
Navy Hospital to rejoin their fel-
Before their arrival, however,
Havana Radio reported that the
prisoners had met with "some suc-
cess" in their negotiations.
Meanwhile, anti-Castro violence
continued in Havana.
A fire in a warehouse destroyed
1,000 bales of tobacco worth $120,-
000, the radio reported.
The fire last night was attrib-
uted to "criminal sabotage." The
radio said seven persons had been
injured and many hundreds of
bales of tobacco damaged by wa-
OKLAHOMA CITY (P) - It is
morally wrong and unwise for the
United States to trade 500 trac-
tors for 1,200 prisoners of the
Cuban invasion, Richard M. Nix-
on declared here yesterday. He
urged President John F. Kennedy
to at least hold the export licenses
of the tractors until Premier Fi-
del Castro agrees to free elections.
MAIN at LIBERTY
CORE ORIGINATES MOVE:
Snowstorm Leads to 'Freedom Ride'
. . Have you ?
By ARTHUR EVERETT
Associated Press Feature Writer
NEW YORK - One stormy day
last December an interstate bus
stalled on the New Jersey Turn-
pike and was snowbound for 15
Indirectly, this wintery ordeal
spawned the "Freedom Rides" and
the hot springtime blast of racial
violence now searing the South.
Aboard the marooned bus was
James Farmer, Negro founder and
leader of the Congress of Racial
Equality. With him on his inter-
rupted trip he carried a biography
of Mahatma Gandhi, India's great
exponent of passive resistance.
He also carried the burden of
a Supreme Court decision a few
days earlier outlawing segregation
in interstate bus terminals.
In his 15 hours of forced im-
prisonment, Farmer read and
mused and came. up with a blue-
print for the freedom rides, a
passive, integrated effort to crack
another of Dixie's racial barriers.
1954 Supreme Court decision out-
lawing school segregation.
"All this was planned without
any knowledge that President
John F. Kennedy and Soviet Prime
Minister Nikita S. Khrushchev
were going to meet," says CORE's.
slim, white dark-haired commun-
ity relations director, Marvin Rich.
Thus CORE seeks to refute the
charge by Sen. James O. Eastland
(D-Miss) that the rides were de-
signed to embarrass Kennedy at
his forthcoming Vienna talks with
CORE was founded in 1942 by
Farner, formerly of the staff of
the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People.
He got his idea from a sit-in
demonstration staged by a group
of Negroes against an all-white
CORE claims 25,000 contribut-
ing members, most of them white,
who send in money from time to
time, but take no active part in
In addition, there are 2,500 ac-
tive members-about half of them
white - in 50 locals across the
country. The latter, the spearhead
in testing segregation, make such
Unancial contributions as they
are able, occasionally paying spe-
cific dues on a local level.
For the fiscal year ending May
31, CORE's budget is $233,000 and
Rich says it just about will be met.
This pays staff salaries, ball bonds,
legal fees and other expenses.
The freedom rides have not
been expensive. The riders have
not chartered any buses, but paid
regular fares on scheduled lines.
Rich calls CORE the "cutting
edge" of the move for racial in-
tegration. It may loosely be de-
scribed as the action arm of those
fighting for racial equality, while
the NAACP is the legal arm.
The 31-year-old Rich speaks of
warm cooperation occasionally ex-
tended by and to the NAACP. But
"They handle their problems, we
handle ours. We are two indepen-
Egstland and other Southern
critics have charged that CORE
harbors, if it is not actually led
by, persons with records as Com-
munists or fellow-travelers, to
which CORE has replied formally:
"The accusation is ridiculous
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date for the arrival of
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