Brownell Proposes Plan
Fo Save Tropical Wheat
By' PHILIP SUTIN
To prevent the loss of millions
of dollars worth of wheat in trop-
ical areas through insect infesta-
tion, Prof. Lloyd Brownell of the
chemical and metallurgical engi-
neering department proposed the
irradiating of the food with the
aid of old "Liberty" ships.
" The World War II vessels, now
in moth balls or being scrapped,
could transport a heavily shielded.
cobalt-60 radiation source to a
tropical port where wheat was be-
Once at the port, the ship would
be partially flooded to provide
greater shielding for the cobalt-
60. Grain carrying vessels would
moor alongside the ship and the
wheat would be irradiated by pas-
sage above the cobalt-60. This
would ktill all insects and larvae
in the grain. The wheat would
then be packaged in insect proof
bags, Prof. Brownell explained.
Important in Tropics
THe noted the importance of
such a plan to tropical areas where
insect spoilage is a severe prob-
lem. "Enough food is lost each
year to feed 400 million people,"
Conventional insecticides have
many disadvantages. They are
dangerous to use, difficult to han-
dle, and may leave a' poisonous.
residue, he explained.
Moreover, these insecticides
only kill. the adult stage, but are
not as effective against the egg
or pupal stage.of the insect-,
Short Life Cycle
"The life cycle in the tropics
may only last a few weeks. A
wheat bin in two weeks may be-
Ferguson To Give
Charles W. Ferguson, senior edi-
tor of the Readers' Digest and
author of "Say It With Words,"
will speak on "Journalism's Next
Step-Reporting Ideas" at 3 p.m.
today in Rackham Amph. This
will be .the sixth in a series of
lectures sponsored by the journal-
PROF. LLOYD BROWNELL
n. . grain preservation
come a crawling mass of insects,"
he said. "Irradiation breaks the
cycle. There is no more effective
way to get the eggs."
However, the irradiated wheat-
must be stored in insect proof
containers, since the radiation
leaves no residual effect.
Prof. Brownell also noted the
low cost of his, proposals. He esti-
mated that conversion of an old
"Liberty" ship would cost between
$200,000 and $300,00b.
There would be no danger of'
radiation contaminatin t h e1
wheat, Prof. Brownell noted. In
experiments on rats and other
animals, no nutrient loss from
chemical changes in the wheat was
observed,: nor did the animals have
any ill effects from eating the ir-
Prof. Brownell first proposed
this idea,, developed with the aid
of two graduate students in nu-
clear engineering, at the "Con-
ference on the Uses of Radiation
and Radioisotopes for Insect Con-
trol" last December. Sponsored by
the International Atomic Energy'
Agency, a unit of the United Na-
tions, the conference was held in
Prof. Brownell's work on ir-
radiating food has been sponsored
by the Memorial Phoenix Proj-
ect, the Atomic Energy Commis-
sion, the United States Army
Quartermaster Corps and by pri-
Columbia University will offer
a new program to prepare special-
ists in the political, social and
economic problems of Africa next
The "Program of Studies on Af-
rica," planned to emphasize the
forces at work in the new African
nations of the sub-Sahara region,
will become part of the regular
curriculum of the school of in-
It is a graduate course designed
to provide a broad background in
current African problems.
The course will normally take
two years to complete.
Prof. L. Gray Cowan, a politi-
cal scientist who has .spent many
years studying in Africa, has been
appointed director of the project.
A portion of a $5.5 million Ford
Foundation grant, received by Co-
lumbia last July, has been set
aside for the support of the pro-
Prof. Cowan will be assisted by
a group of six professors in the
fields of anthropology, art his-
tory, 'economic geography, music,
sociology and law who are also ex-
perts on African affairs.
'It is imperative that we under-
stand how African politics work,
and that our undertaking is based
on knowledge of customs, culture,
geography, racial history and
other pertinent background," Prof.
"It would be a mistake to be-
lieve that the people in such areas
as Kenya, Uganda. or the Congo
are ignorant or even naive in
politics. In most areas they have
parties and they know what they
are voting for," he added.
Candidates for Panhellenic Sec-
retariat chairman are: Sandra
Halverson, '62, of Delta Gamma
and Sandra Johnstone, '62, of
Delta Delta Delta.'
Seeking the position of scholar-
ship' chairman are: Sharon Mc-
Ctle, '63, of-Delta Delta Delta and
Sandra .Swift, '63, of Alpha Chi
(Continued from Page 4)
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ENGINEERING PLACEMENT INTER-
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area plus other cities-BS: AE, ChE, CE,
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Protection Engrg.-Providing field con-
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Mrs. Esther Kiviat interviewing Thurs.
MARCH 23, 24-
H. J. Heintz Co., Holland, Mich.-A.
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For further information, visit the
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Open every afternoon from 1:00 to 5:00
p.m. and all day Friday.
Federal Trade Commission, Wash.,
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ants, & Textile Investigators. 1961 de-
gree candidates in pertinent field. Spe-
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U.S. Civil Service, VII Region-Latest
listing of current openings now post-
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Oregon Civil Service-Plant Patholo-
gist-BA in Botany with concentration
in plant pathology & 2-3 yrs. specialized
Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass Co., Toledo
-BS, MS. or PhD in Physics with con-
centration in optics field for optical
design & dev. assignments related to
glass mfg., in' Tech. Center. Optical
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Great Lakes Carbon. Corp., Morton
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Dept. BS Chem.E. or Chemistry. Ability
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
to read German & French desirable but
Rapids-Standard Co., Inc., Grand
Rapids, Mch.-BS in ME, CE, BE as
Sales Engineer Trainees. Possible in-
terview on campus in near' future.
Please contact Bureau of Appts., 4021
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The following part - time jobs are
available. Applications for these jobs
can be made in the Non-Academic
Personnel Office Room 1020 Administra-
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hours: Monday through Friday, 8:00
a.m. to 12:30 p.m.
Employers desirous of hiring part-
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Students desiring miscellaneous jobs
should consult the bulletin board ini
Bm. 1020 daily.
2-Experienced electronics technicians,
20 hours per week.
15--Psychological subjects, to be on
1--Gas station attendant, 1 evening
per week, and every other weekend.
Will go through summer.
1-Experienced car salesman, 20-30
hours per week.
1-General housework, 3 hours a day
2-Social photographers, mostly week-
1-Room and board in exchange for
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Alpha Phi Omega, Active Meeting,
Mar. 22; 7:30 p.m., Union, Bm. 3D.
Democratic Socialist Club, 3rd Lec-
ture on "Modern Marxism," Mar, 22,
7:30 p.m., Union, Rm. 3R.
* * *j
Gamma Delta, Lenten Vespers, Mar.
22, 7:30 & 9:15 p.m., 1511 Washtenaw.
Sermon, The Cross--Empty in Vic-
tory." * *
Lutheran Student Assoc., Lenten
Service, Mar. 22,. 7:15 p.m., Hill St. at
-. Forest Ave. Guest Preacher Rev.
* . *
Sailing Club, Meeting, Movies &
Slides, Mar. 23, 7:45 p.m., Union Ball-
German Club, Coffee Hour, Mar. 22,
3-5 p.m., 4072 FB.
SALAMI ON RYE
" " * S
1201 South University