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May 12, 1963 - Image 11

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At U of Pennsylvania


Growing Number of Student 1

Fights Farc

JAPAN TODAY, by James Cary, Freder-
ick A. Praeger, Inc., 207 pages, $4.95.
"JAPAN, without knowing why, had rip-.
ped aside the surface of its social fab-
ric and left a portion of its psyche naked
in the public glare." This is James Cary's
abstraction of the student riots which
plagued Japan in the spring of 1960.
He views them as a product of the many
forces which have shaped modern Japan
into a "mosaic of paradoxes." The con-
flicts of past and present, the East and
West, and the unique history and geog-
raphy of the Asian country came to a
head in the demonstrations. Students,
political extremists, the labor movement,
the intellectuals and the military joined
forces in protesting the newly signed Se-
curity Treaty between the United States
and Japan.
Cary, in a knowledgeable analysis of the
ancient and modern forces which formed
the basis for the explosions of 1960, re-
flects his experience as news editor of the
Associated Press Bureau in Tokyo at that
time. His writing, however, is more de-
scriptive and imaginative than the usual
brisk journalistic style. For example, in
describing modern Tokyo he says, "Skele-
tons of new buildings, rearing against
the sky, huge glassfronted stores, beer
halls, bars, glittering cabarets and lusty
night clubs . . . all are part of the new
In setting the stage for his presenta-
tion of the riots, Cary discusses the many
conflicting forces which tear at Japanase
political life. He places the Socialist Par-
ty of Japan as the leader of the Left.
This group stands for a strong concern
for Marxist ideology and class warfare, a
belief that Japan should be neutral in the
Cold War, opposition to the alliance with
the United States and advocation of
closer ties with Communist China. Be-
sides the Socialist Party, the Liberal-
Democrats and Democratic Socialists are
major contenders for positions in the 467-
seat House of Representatives.
On the other side is the leader of the
Greater Japan Patriotic Party-the coun-
try's fascist group. Bin Akao is a fanatic
with a small following, which is generally
discounted by most Japanase. But Hitler
was in the same position before his rise to
power in Germany, and Akao has said
"God has destined me to be the Hitler of
Japan." He is passionately devoted to rid-
ding Japan of all Communists. He has
built a semi-altar with giant pictures of
Jesus Christ, Buddha, Emperor Meiji, and
Nationalist China's President Chiang Kai-
The rightists entered the political arena
and "took their place opposite the Com-
munists, Socialists, Democratic Socialists"
for the final battle over the Security
The Japanese intellectuals, Cary be-
lieves, were one of the major powers in
the demonstrations, as well as being the
most difficult for the Westerner to un-
derstand. In an intelligent and lucid pres-
entation Cary covers the deeply based
and highly organized opposition of "The
Intellectuals," who some scholars believe
"reason differently from Westerners,"
which partially accounts for the vast dis-
crepancy in oriental and occidental logic.
Cary offers no simple answer for the
ideological explosion. It is intrinsically
elusive because "the normal causes of rev-
olution simply did not exist at that time."
Cary feels that the demonstrations go far
deeper than ordinary unrest or opposition
to a political decision. They were a
psychological revolt "against too many
things that were new, ,unfamiliar, and
foreign." They were a reaction against the
rapid Westernization of a centuries-old
Eastern culture.
Cary's book is an inclusive presentation
of a situation, which startled and shocked
the world which is comprehensively and
interestingly written.
-Malinda Berry

by Sir Bernard Lovell, Harper and
Row, 84 pages, $3.00.
SIR BERNARD LOVELL has often ap-
peared in the New York Times to ex-
pound his thoughts on astronomy, outer
space and the contemporary problems
these two fields raise. He is not the most
eloquent or precise scientific writer
around, but he is in a unique position to
examine and elucidate vast amounts of
information for the interested layman as
director of the Jodrell Bank Experimental
Station in England, where the world's
largest fully steerable radio telescope is
In October, 1961, the month of the
fourth anniversary of the beginning of the
space age, Lovell gave four lectures to the
undergraduates of the Universityof Wales
under the title of "The Exploration of
Outer Space." The lectures were subse-
quently published under the same title.
Since radio telescopy is his forte, Lovell
concentrates on it throughout the book
showing how it has increased our knowl-
edge of the universe beyond the limits
imposed by optical telescopes and how the
two branches work with each other. Sev-
eral astronomers recently have criticized
the importance radio astronomy has tak-
en in the public mind as well as many
scientific minds, to the detriment of opti-
cal astronomy. Lovell doesn't dwell on this
problem, maybe because as a radio-orient-
ed astronomer he isn't aware of it. But his
clarification of the many exciting and im-
portant projects in radio astronomy gives
one a perspective from which to view one
side of the dispute.
It is only since World War II that radio
astronomy has grown to the gigantic pro-
portions it possesses today. This fantastic
rate of growth has a momentum that has
not been achieved by optical astronomy
in recent times. Without the radio tele-
scope, long range space probes, such as
the recent United States reach toward
Venus, would be impossible without the
sensitive radio telescope to send and re-
ceive the probes' signals.
The mapping of our galaxy, learning
the processes of star formation and inves
tigating the origin and evolution of the
universe are just a few examples of what
radio astronomy can do. Working in con-
junction with optical astronomers, radio
astronomers have helped to increase the
ultimate range of the 200-inch optical
telescope on Palomar by a factor of three
-to some five billion light years.
Lovell limits his discussions to the most
interesting and important events in to-
day's exploration of outer space. Natural-
ly, he had to be selective in his choice of
subject matter for such a short book (84
pages) based on only four lectures. It is
fascinatingly readable for the interested
layman. It has just the right balance be-
tween figures to impress and theories to
clarify. Other scientific authors know how
to give the reader a more vivid presenta-
tion of the subject matter without the
slight sprinkling of unanswered questions
Lovell leaves us with, but in his own
field of contemporary advances in radio
astronomy there isn't a better expert to
--Michael Juliar
HONEY AND SALT, by Carl Sandburg,
Harcourt, Brace & World, 111 pages,
IN HIS NEWEST collection of poems,
"Honey and Salt," Carl Sandburg at 85
asks one of the oldest questions about
life, love, and death: ". .. is being born,
being loved, being dead, nothing but
His answer comes in 77 carefully con-
ceived and carefully executed poems,
sanctuaries of honey and salt. It is not
a new one, but, like the name of the
collection, it is sweet and well-seasoned.
It comes In understatement and juxtapo-
sition, underscored by numberless birds,

flowers and trees; blue-hazed moonlight,
fog and rainbows; eternal land, sea and
sky. Timeless, yet itself encompassed by
time, it spans. man's existence from his
evolutionary beginnings to his speculated
end by nuclear warfare.
Outstanding answers to the old riddle
are the title poem, "Honey and Salt" and
the last entree, "Timesweep." Herein
Sandburg culminates his career as poet
which began with the publication of
"Chicago Poems" in 1915. "Timesweep" in
particular, reads as the peaceful benedic-
tion of an old poet, untired, undulled, al-
most untouched by time. It sounds the
final statement of the collection with a
clarity, a humility, an optimism that is
Sandburg - a Sandburg who acknowl-
edges that he is not the 'Head One .
first over all," since:
"There is only one man in the world
and his name is All Men."
But not all of the collected poems overt-
ly probe the riddle of life, love and death.
Some, such as "Lief the Lucky" and "God
Is No Gentleman," are doubtlessly in-
cluded for the whimsical humor of the
poet who wrote -that:
"Lief Ericson crossed the sea
to get away from a woman-"
and that:
"God is no gentleman for God
puts on overalls and gets
dirty running the universe we know
about and several other universes
nobody knows about but Him."
Others, like "Impasse" and "Impossible
Iambics," appear as curiosities shaking
a little salt into the "Honey and Salt"
All told, "Honey and Salt" asks the
old question queried by poets for cen-
turies and gives the old answer known to
every man. But the answering is, itself, so
fresh, so optimistic that everyman can-
rot help but gain new light by it.
-Louise Lind

delio, he thinks immediately of Beetho-
Another possible reason why "Fidelio"
should have been Beethoven's one and
only opera is the poor reception it was
accorded at its premiere performance in
1805. The fact that Vienna had just been
occupied by French troops didn't help
matters any. It meant that the first audi-
ence to whom Beethoven entrusted the,
results of his labors was made up mainly
of French soldiers, a group of persons for
whom Beethoven felt no great fondness
and who were in turn cool towards
Beethoven's opera.
When this first performance of "Leon-
ore," as the opera was then called, left
the boards after three performances, it
took with it the overture now known as
Leonore No. 2. (The overture Leonore
No. 1, bearing a later opus number, is
considered by some authorities to have
been intended for this same perform-
ance but discarded before the premiere,
while other musicologists claim it was
composed for a production in Prague two
years later which never came off.)
In 1807, Beethoven tried again, due
mainly to persistent-urging from his
friends, and even composed a new over-
ture for the occasion. But the consensus
of opinion was that this work, Leonore
No. 3, stole the drama from the actors
on stage, so powerful was its effect, and
this new production of Leonore failed.
It was not until Beethoven's fourth try,
in 1814, that the opera finally attained
any measure of success. Beethoven had
changed the title from "Leonore" to "Fi-
delio" and composed an overture which
contained none of the themes included in
the opera. Unfortunately, Beethoven did
not finish the work in time for "Fidelio's"
first performance under its new design,
so that his little-known "Ruins of Ath-
ens" overture had to be substituted in its
Every now and then a complete re-
cording of "Fidelio" comes along but the
Leonore Overture No. 3 is heard over
and over again, with the Fidelio Overture
second in popularity and the other two
overtures farther behind. For years, one
of the finest available versions was a re-
cording by Charles Munch (LM-2015),
which also contained the Coriolanus
Overture. Now that this recording has
been withdrawn, the monaural field was
divided between the Scherchen (West.
18273) and Klemperer (Angel 35258) ver-
sions. Of these two, the former is typi-
cal Scherchen, with strident strings, over-
bearing brass, and lacklustre perform-
ances. The latter features performances
which are surprisingly brisk for Klemper-
er, yet with good solidity.
For his part, Maazel seems to be emu-
lating Munch (or Toscanini) in these per-
formances, but they remain Maazel per-
formances, and good ones. The three
Leonore Overtures show good contrast
between the slow introductions and the
brisk allegros which follow. Maazel rare-
ly lets the tempos get too fast, nor do
the slower passages lag. The same judi-
cious reading holds true in the Fidelio
Overture. Surely these versions compare
quite favorably with any and all compe-
tition, at least where single-disk collec-
tions of these four overtures are con-
The only flaw is the fact that London's
sound, which usually is among the best
to be had, sometimes causes details of
strings or brass to become blurred. Thus
such details as the trumpet calls in the
second and third Leonore Overtures could
register with more bite; in the second
Leonore overture especially, the last note
of each call fades off into obscurity be-
fore it can be heard. But these are purely
minor quibbles, and they do not compel
me to withhold recommendation from the
recording as a whole. For anyone wish-
ing to add top-notch stereo performances
of these four overtures to his library, here
is the record to buy.
-Steven Haler

By Richard Keller Simon
and Samuel Bobrow
AT THE UNIVERSITY of Pennsylvania
campus in Philadelphia, along with,
the ivy and the busts of founder Ben-
jamin Franklin; there is an active group
protesting the farcical Men's Student
Government (MSG). Penn women have
their own government, even more useless
than its male counterpart.
In two short years of existence MSG
has met with more resistance at Penn
than Student Government Council has
encountered here in its eight year his-
tory. Although most students on each
campus are extremely apathetic, there
is a concerned minority on both working
toward a meaningful student government.
However, each university group is using
opposite means to a similar end.
In Ann Arbor, the lone political party,
Voice, has used a slow procedural method,
attempting to elect a majority to SGC
with rather quiet, uneventful election
campaigns. Voice members of SGC are
working for reform from within and are
pushing liberal measures. When they do
succeed, however, little concrete action
follows. Voice supporters maintain that
when they overcome the strong fraternity
machine to capture a majority on Coun-
cil, responsible student government will
But Infraternity Council has interests
of its own, different from those of Voice'
and a more or less captive brotherhood
of voters. To increase the party's strength
at the polls, Voice will have to get out
the apathetic independent votes. Up to
now the party has not resorted to any
unusual methods-especially when com-
pared to the Penn reform movement.
In Philadelphia concerned students
have adopted considerably more colorful
and bizarre techniques in the fight
against stronger status quo forces. The
reformers charge that Men's Student
Government at Penn is now a complete
farce and in magnificent old-fashioned
collegiate style they are pushing for
major changes.
THE GOVERNMENT is organized on a
strong party system with thirty seats
up for campus-wide election each year.
It uses a confused system of proportional
representation by a multiplicity of polit-
ical parties. Two years ago MSG replaced
the Undergraduate Council which drew
Its membership from among leaders of
extracurricular activities. The Council
failed because its members were too busy
in their own organizations to spend
enough time on student government.
MSG operates on a cumbersome and
unenforceable 13 page constitution which
was never submitted to a popular vote.
It is kept in line by the Committee on
Student Affairs (CSA), the arm of the
administration that enjoys veto control
over it. In two years, MSG has managed
to accomplish next to nothing.
The reform protests are in good part
cultivated by the student newspaper, the
Daily Pennsylvanian, which for its
trouble was suspended last year after
calling.for the dissolution of MSG. Public
pressure promptly forced reinstatement
of the paper.

Of the 30 students serving on MSG,.
all but .eight are part of the fraternity
machine. The minority has been described
as "well meaning but inept."
With this situation, the reformers de-
cided that MSG was not worth-changing
by ordinary election processes. They ex-
plain that in a-large university the only
students able to win election are well-
known athletes and members of influ-
ential fraternities. Thus, according to
the reformers, the traditional elections
favor "the most incompetent elements of
the student body." -
rTHE REFORMERS chose to fight a
A farcical government with farce. The
attitude even permeated to the freshmen
elections, separate from the campus-wide
MSG structure.
This last fall a small group of freshmen
caught the mood and supported the non-
existent reformer Otto Schmink for class
president. Otto's campaign was based on
"free education,-free beer and free love."
His slogans were "Think Schmink" and
"Schmink in '66." Prior to voting, Otto's
friends held a "Schmink for President"
rally which attracted over 200 eager
freshmen. His spokesman explained that
"freshmen elections are ridiculous be-
cause nobody knows the candidates, and
nobody cares who wins or loses." The
same spokesman refused to comment on
statements that Schmink was running on
the strength of his name.
Otto won the election handily, polling
more than twice as many votes as his
nearest contender. MSG named the "real"
person with the highest number of votes
president despite protests from the Elect
Otto Schmink Committee.
On a campus-wide level, the battle over'
MSG resulted in the rise of anarchist
parties openly avowing the complete
liquidation of the government. The orig-
inal and still most extreme is the United
Christian Front - Student A n a r c h i s t
League, directed by Charles K. E. Horner.
Horner, currently the editorial chair-
man of the Daily Pennsylvanian, has re-
marked that "the whole concept of stu-
dent government is blatantly ridiculous."
The UCF-SAL presented the following
rather unique platform in this year's
election campaign:
1) Opposition to ALL forms of student
2) Destruction a n d removal of all
statues on campus - signs of creeping
3) A de-Franklinization program on
the grounds that his memory represents
the invasion of the cult of the person-
4) Recognition that the right of revo-
lution rests with the student body.
5) Abolition of CSA, and its replace-
ment by a student-faculty government
6) Non-compulsory dormitory residency.
7) Dissemination of birth control in-
formation and materials by the student
health service.
Another party formed this year, the
Populist party, also asked for the aboli-
tion of CSA. In addition the Populists
called for the establishment of a co-ed
government and went on public record

favoring the law of diminishing returns
and the free and unlimited coinage of
silver at a 16-1 ratio.
T HE CAMPUS wide MSG battle started
in the fall of 1961. The Red and Blue
party and the Union party, both fratern-
ity controlled and alternately referred to
as the Bread and Glue and the Onion
parties, presented next to identical slates.
Horner organized the United Christian
Front-Student Anarchist League. When
the votes were countedhUCF-SAL held
four seats with, the other two parties
claiming 12 and 14 each. In a rather un-
expected turn of events UCF-SAL hield
the balance of power.
The Daily Pennsylvanian wrote on the
"Student government at Penn nearly
had itself laughed out of existence at
that point as eachparty tried to bribe
the UCF-SAL representatives and one
party finally made a deal to'give them
the vice-presidency of the government in
return for their vote." Among the un-
accepted bribes was membership in any
campus fraternity.
As Horner became vice-president he
remarked, "One minute you''re a 'weirdo'
and the next minute everybody loves
you." The other representatives were
awarded important committee chairman-
The newly elected anarchists became
quickly disgusted with MSG political
manuvering and resigned. The next day
the Pennsylvanian called for the end of
MSG. MSG retaliated, and with the dean
of men suspended the paper on the
grounds that the publication had pub-
lished a "lewd" parody issue. The Penn-
sylvanian had - accumulated a healthy
share of enemies in attacking fratern-
ities, exposing discrimination in univer-
sity theatre groups, and in similar cam-
paigns. After publication was resumed,
the Pennsylvanian accused MSG of be-
ing the stooge of the dean of men.
HORNER handing in his resignation,
observed that "MSG is made up of
incompetent nincompoops who couldn't
do anything if they tried." The remain-
ing members of MSG literally cried in
relief that the anarchists were gone and
announced that everything would settle
down to a "good" and effective student
This did not prove to be the case. Ac-
complishing little in the coming year,
they explained it was their inability to
assemble quorums at meetings.
When election time rolled around again
this year, the Pennsylvanian once more
saluted MSG: "The present Men's Stu-
dent Government has not, will not and
can not provide the student body with
the most competent and interested rep-
resentatives. This fact and this fact alone
justifies and necessitates a complete
abandonment of the present form of
government." The paper supported for-
mation of a student-faculty-administra-
tion government.
Unable to suspend the paper again
as it had the year before, MSG set about
to loud crying. It demanded space to
answer the charges. The paper replied
that it was happy to present the "thrill-
ing saga, 'Can a Harmless Student Gov-
ernment Find Happiness with a Tryan-
nical Newspaper'?" MSG began by claim-
ing that "the Pennsylvanian has attempt-
ed to condition the student body with its
selective and biased news coverage for
the day it would seek abolition of student
government." It pointed to the "anarch-
ist-infected Pennsylvanian staff."
Several weeks before the election the
anarchists attempted to hold a referen-
dum on the continuation or suspension
of MSG. MSG refused to stage the elec-
tion, but another campus organization
organized the vote on the condition that
it would not be binding. Nearly two-thirds
of those voting asked for the end of the
government, but less than a quarter of
eligible voters cast ballots. Nothing fur-
ther came of it.
Six parties ran slates in the election:
Red and Blue, Progressive, Action, Pop-
ulist, White Elephant, and UCF-SAL. The
last three were protest parties. MSG
managed to disqualify the White Ele-


phant and
with the ch
hered to cert
tion. Other c
violated by
fearing a rec
events, decid
and overlook
MSG me
The Pennsyl
"Fists flewu
MSG meetir
identified st
Franklin eni
laration of I
he was the 1
seceding fron
to be here as
ified masque
ing a scene
who was imr
at arms. (He
bodily forced
MSG membe
the secession
"During t:
'founding fat
graphed 'D
things, the
ment of 'a
those parts o
ed them in tU
paper furthe
as 'a history
usurptions, a
the establish
students. In
sions we have
most humble
the group c
December' im
". ..(the
welfare coma
'press charg
Franklin ma
dents in the
other minor
back and I'll
another chap
in the Benja
MSG meets).
backed F
seats. Red an
eight and Pr
form victory.
Although i
archists are
Currently, wi
ing them, tli
ing discrimir
ing. They h
against the v
With all t
the Universit
playing a fas
reforming gov
color, and e
same time. F
absorbing. T
vania experin
many ways o
Penn method
certainly has

Leonore No. 1, Op. 138; Leonore No.
2, Op. 72A; Leonore No. 3, Op. 72A;
Fidelio, Op. 72B. Lorin Maazel con
ducting the Israel Philharmonic Or-
chestra, LONDON stereo CS 6328,
$5.98 (Monaural CM 9328, $4.98).
WITH THIS recording the brilliant
young conductor Lorin Maazel joins
the ranks of London Records. His decision
(or was it London's?) to start off with the
four overtures associated with Beetho-
ven's only opera, "Fidelio," is most pro-
pitious; this is the only stereo disc con-
taining these overtures as a group, al-
though all but the Leonore No. 1 may be
had elsewhere in stereo and there are
other monaural records available of the
four-overtures. Just why it should be that
Beethoven wrote only one opera is a mat-'
ter of conjecture. To be sure, Beethoven
was not one to take the task of compos-
ing an opera lightly, for he said he was
looking for "something I can take up
with sincerity and love." The libretto he
finally chose, an adaptation of "Leonore,
ou l'amour conjugale" (Leonora, or
Married Love) by Jean-Nicolas Bouilly,
had already been used as the basis for
an opera three times before. These other
versions are today largely unknown, so
that when one thinks of Leonora or i-

Men's Student Government Meets Anarchist Ben


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