THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Smith Discusses Morality, Self-Criticism
By KATHERINE MANNING
Considering the moral act with-
out regard-to the agent causes the
individual to lose his own integri-
ty and capacity for self-criticism,
, Prof. John E. Smith of Yale Uni-
versity and chairman of the phil-
osophy department said.
"We cannot get along with both
the agent and the act," he ex-
plained in a lecture sponsored by
the Office of Religious Affairs. The
agent is the locus of a moral situ-
ation, and an act without regard
to the agent cannot be criticized.
It -becomes impersonal and in the
end the agent doesn't have the re-
By MARGARET LOWE
"It is not clear which way the
Mississippi voter registration will
go," Robert Moses said on a tape
played last night at the final
spring meeting of the University
"Friendsof the Student Nonviolent
Moses, head of the Mississippi
voter registration drive, noted that
it is still too early to determine
whether Mississippi Delta Negroes
will register en masse or in small
Speaking on the recent tension
in Greenwood, Miss., he attempt-
ed to answer many current ques-
tions concerning - this troubled
'Black and Poor'
"People who have been going
down to register are primarily
those who are-very black- and very
poor," he explained. So far only
about 600 out of 13,000 potential
voters have registered.y
However, Negro illiteracy still
remains a problem. Registrants
must be able to read, write and
interpret parts of the Mississippi
Moses does not consider this a
major problem to Negro voting,
because Negroes know current lo-
cal officers and probably "their
papas and mamas" too.
They are "not voting in a
vacuum" and can make intelligent
decisions by asking others at the
polls to read the ballot to them.
In discussing the recent jailings
in Greenwood, Moses said the
marchers "did not anticipate that
police would react as they did." e
thinks the police made the wrong
move and did not give marchers a
chance to explain. The police "sim-
ply went beserk," Moses said.
One degree of freedom that has
been gained is the relaxing of
tension in places of registration.
The courthouse in Greenwood now
provides classes in how to reg-
Alpha Phi Omega, the Univer-
sity's s e r v i c e fraternity, has
launched a book-collecting drive in
the campus community to promote
educational aims in underdevelop-
ed African nations.
Books of all kinds will be ac-
cepted. Paperbacks, classics, and
old texts are especially needed.
The condition of the books is not
important, but a great many are
Collecting boxes are located in
every department's main office
and in central gathering points on
Prof. Smith :stressed the neces-
sity of bringing these two features
of morality, the agent and the act,
together. "The agent is sometimes
spirited away in the process of dis-
cussion," he said.
In discussing a moral situation,
the individual to whom an act be-
longs is frequently replaced by
the complex set of conditions
which surrounded the act or per-
haps even by the act itself, he
However, the agent is the per-
son to whom the act belongs and
must not be dissolved away. "The
individual himself must be aware
of the moral impact of what he'
does and must understand his re-
sponsibility." He must strive to
compare his performance with an
ideal one, Prof. Smith noted. j
Prof. Smith discussed three
theories concerning morality. The
Judaeo-Christian approach stress-
es the moral agent and his motive
at the instant, but tends to cut
the agent off, thinking more in
terms of character, he said.
A second method merely cata-
gorizes acts taken by themselves.
"Morality based upon acts can-
not be subject to criticism, be-
cause the acts cannot be traced to
the agent. Since there is no way
of introducing criticism, the theo-
ry becomes dogmatic and there is
no room. for discussion," Prof.
Taking an act as having a ten-
dency or tributory effect is the
third approach Prof. Smith noted.
This approach does not consider
just the act or the agent, but the
tendency of the act to promote a
goal or impede its realization, he
X. J. Kennedy will read and
sing his own poems in a program
sponsored jointly by the John
Barton Wolgamot Society and the
Wesley Foundation at 8:30 p.m.
today in the Wesley Foundation
Prof. Oscar Handlin of Harvard
University will deliver his second
speech to the Michigan School-
masters' Club. He will discuss "The
Excellent and the Others in Demo-
cratic Education" at 9:15 a.m. to-
day in Rackham Lecture Hall.
F. A. Khan, director of archae-
ology for the: Pakistan government
will speak at 4:00 p.m. today in the
Multi-purpose Room of the UGLI
on "The Harappa and Hohenjo-
Recital . .
Soprano Sandra. .Stouffer will
present a recital at 830 p.m. to-
morrow in Lane Hall Aud. She
will be accompanied on the piano
by Constance Speake and on the3
clarinet by Jack Colangeio.
Prof. Donat G. Wentzell of the
astronomy department will speak
on "The Tucson Meeting of the
American Astronomical Society"
at 4:15 p.m. today in the Observa-
Prof. Edwin E. Ghiselli of the
University of California will speak
on "Managerial Talent" at 4:15
p.m. today in Aud. A. Prof. Ghi-
JOHN E. SMITH
... discusses morality
When talking about a moral sit-
uation, several different aspects
must be focused upon, he said: the
moral agent, the circumstances
that surround the action, the act
itself, the consequences, and the
"My own feeling is that there is
a wide spread failure to under-
stand what the meaning of moral-
ity is," Prof. Smith stated. The
choice of alternatives so that one
is better than others is too broad
We must try, he added, to de-
termine specifically what situa-
tions can be identified as moral.
"One of the things to do is to look
clearly at the concrete aspects of
theories as they do arise," he con-
tinued, "and look at situations in
which we find ourselves acting as
selli was selected as Walter V.
Bingham Memorial Lecturer this
year by the American Psychologi-
cal Association, and the Univer-
sity was selected as the location for
The University's radio classroom
program, "Festival of Song," be-
gan its 13th annual tour of the
The program is being presented
in 11 Michigan cities to audiences
of children accustomed to listen-
ing to the twice-a-week "Festival"
Featured in the local shows will
be Prof. Frances Gillet of the mu-
sic school, Orien Dalley of radio
station WUOM and a quartet of
University music students.
The programs are presented
"live" by University stations,
WUOM, Ann Arbor, and WVGR,
3Grand Rapids. In addition, tape
recordings of the programs are
played by 25 other stations
throughout the state.
The local "Festivals" will con-
sist of songs and special musical
activities which the children have
learned through the broadcasts.
"Festival" has become part of
the curriculum in hundreds of
schools by helping to serve the
musical education needs of more
than 80,000 children.
By MICHAEL HYMAN
Speaking on "International;
Trade and Finance" at the School
of Business Administration, Prof.
Gottfried Haberler of Harvard
University suggested frozen wage
levels as the best solution for the
current balance of payment and
internal slack problems.
Prof. Haberler, who is president
of the American Economic Asso-
ciation, said that stable wages
with rising productivity would low-
er prices, encourage consumption
and, consequently, e c o n o m i c
Stable wages would also reduce
American consumption abroad and
discourage the European tenden-
cy to withdraw gold from Ameri-
However, Prof. Haberler noted
the virtual impossibility of volun-
tarily getting unions to freeze
wages, and the excessive controls
which would be needed to effect a
Another solution to the problem
is European inflation which would
improve the United States' finan-
cial position all around. The self-
defeating nature of this solution
Depreciating the dollar is a pos-
sible solution, Prof. Haberler said.
However, the government has al-
ready said the dollar would never
be depreciated. Such a deprecia-
tion might cause panic which
would erase any beneficial effects.
Also, depreciation is mainly a stop-
gap measure, not a financial solu-
There are two other policies the
government might take.
The restrictive one would place
strict control on foreign aid,
American spending abroad and
American investment abroad. Re-
ducing tourist allowances, for ex-
ample, might be the first step.
Such an answer to the balance of
payments question would require
strict control in an unprecedented
The other approach to the bal-
ance of payments problem is also
self defeating. Internal slack (dis-
use of industrial and manpower
potential) might be allowed to in-
crease, while high interest rates
destroy the deficit in balance of
Prof. Haberler noted that the
deficit in balance of payments last
year was contrived to appear some-
what less than it was, and this
year the deficit will be much the
The Trade Expansion Act (1962)
was "the American response to
the challenge of the Common Mar-
ket," he said. "However, it had so
much fine print attached to it
that its value as a tariff lowering
instrument was impaired.
Prof. Haberler, a free trade ad-
vocate, said that the Common
Market may eventually hurt Unit-
ed States exports in agriculture to
the extent of $.5 billion a year.
Although the Market is institut-
ing tariff-free areas inside Eu-
rope, it discriminates externally
and thus does nothing to further
However, Prof. Haberler, a grad-
uate of the London School of Eco-
nomics, minimized the actual suc-
cess of the Common Market.
The Regents accepted $569,000
in gifts, grants and bequests at
their regular meeting Friday.
The largest single gift was $300,-
400 from the estate of J. Mac-
Intyre Jaycox, '87, to establish the
J. MacIntyre Jaycox Estate Fund.
The next largest gift was $59,000
for the National Aeronautics and
Space Administration Domestic
Graduate Fellowship Fund.
From Educational Services, Inc.
of Watertown, Mass., came $23,000
for the Educational Services, Inc.,
AID India Fund.
The Automobile Manufacturers
Association, Inc. of Detroit pre-
sented $21,500 for the Automobile
Manufacturers Association Re-
The American Medical Associa-
tion Education Research Founda-
tion of Chicago gave $21,000 for
the American Medical Association
Education Research Foundation
The Ford Motor Company Fund
of Dearborn gave a total of $19,750
for two projects: $15,000 for the
Ford Motor Company Fund-
Driving Behavior Fund and $4,750
for the Catherine Smith Brown
Wayne State University of De-
troit presented $18,750 as the third
quarter allocation for the joint
Institute of Labor and Industrial
The Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
of New York City gave $15,000
for two projects: $8050 for the
Sloan Foundation Fundamental
Research-Chemistry Fund, and
$7000 for the Sloan Foundation
Fundamental Research - Astro-
From miscellaneous donors came
$9,285 for the Cyrus C. Eturgis
Hematology Library Fund.
The Drusilla Farwell Foundation
of Detroit gave $7500 for the Dru-
silla Farwell Intern - Resident-
Physician Trainee Fund.
The Ford Motor Company of
Dearborn presented $5000 to es-
tablish the Ford Motor Company
Engineering Research Fund.
Two other $5000 gifts were
from the Merck & Co., Inc of
Rahway, N.J., for the Circulation
Research Fund, and from the es-
tate of Dr. Lawrence Reynolds for
the Clements Library Special
From an anonymous donor came
$4,752 for the Neurosurgical Resi-
From the Upjohn Co. of Kala-
mazoo came $4,750 for three pro-
jects: $3000 for the Upjohn Com-
pany Bacteriology Research Fund,
$1000 for the Harry Helfman Pem-
phigus Research Fund and $750 for
the Upjohn Company Neurology
Eli Lilly and Co. of Indianapolis
GILBERT & SULLIVAN
COX & BOX
Tickets only 75c
at SAB Wed. - Fri.
at Lydia Sunday
Regents Accept Gifts, Grants, Bequests
presented $4500 for the Eli Lilly.
Fellowship for Study of Virus
The Research Lab Division of
the Bendix Corp. of Detroit gave
$4000 to establish the Bendix
Another $4000 came from the
Muchnic Foundation of Atchison,
Ka. for the Muchnic Foundation
Fellowship in Chemical and Metal-
A total of $3,864 came from the
Ellis L. Phillips Foundation of
New York City for the Ellis L.
Phillips Foundation of New York
From the National Merit Schol-
arship Corp. of Evanston came
$3,150 for the National Merit
The Stauffer Chemical Co. of
New York City presented $3000 for
the Stauffer Chemical Company
There were two $2000 gifts. One
came from the American Conser-
vation Association Research Fund,
and the other from Packard Re-
search Foundation of La Grange,
Ill., to establish the Packard Re-
search Foundation Fund.
From the Associated General
Contractors of America, Inc.,
Michigan Division of Lansing
came $1800 to establish a fellow-
ship in civil engineering.
The Parke, Davis & Co. of De-
troit gave $1500 for the Parke,
Davis & Co. Surgical Research
From miscellaneous donors came
$1,251 to establish the Francis B.
Vedder Student Loan Fund for
dental students and hygienists.
The Alcoa Foundation of Pitts-
burgh gave $1,250 for two projects:
$650 each for the Alcoa Electrical
Engineering and Metallurgical En-
Five sources each gave $1000.
The Chemstrand Co. of New
York City: $500 each for the
Chemstrand Scholarship and for
the Chemical and Metallurgical
Engineering Special Fund.
Miller To Talk
The guest lecturer at the annual
Hopwood Awards ceremony Thurs-
day, May 23, will be playwright
Arthur Miller. Figures show that
this year 78 students submitted 95
manuscripts for the competition.
Don't ship or take your
winter garments home. En-
trust them to us for safe
keeping this summer. Upon
your return in the fall
they'll be ready for you. For
details stop in or call
gold bond cleaners
515 E. William
GOOD SEATS AVAILABLE?
TONIGHT and SATURDAY
U-M Players present
"A MAGICAL MASTERPIECE."
"SINGS OUT FOR THIS
Prof. Claribel Baird
II the Lincolun Center Repertory 7 heare. - .. - /