THE MICHIGAN DAILY
TUESDAY. PEBRUARY 5
THE MICHJIAN IIAILY TTTF~flAV.. VF1~RTTA11Y 5
iL1r V Lily 1
alt, Gypsum Project
By MICHAEL HYMAN
The nature of distribution of
Michigan salt and gypsum is the
concern of Prof. Louis I. Briggs
of the geology department.
Though the project, supported
by the Institute of Science and
Technology, began in 1960, Prof.
Briggs has been studying Mich-
igan salt and gypsum for ten
Iyears. Aiding Prof. Briggs are
Frank Moser, Grad, and Warren
Two hundred million years ago
a sea covered most of Michigan.
Around the edges of the sea, at
Colleges and universities have
emerged into a new leadership
position in the world as a result
of their increasing emphasis upon
scientific research and public
services, PresidenthClaude Bissell
of the University of Toronto said
here two weeks ago.
Speaking at the University's
mid-year commencement exercises,
Bissell noted that "the modern
university is more and more a
microcosm of our society."
"Surrounding the classroom,
where the central work of instruc-
tion goes on--indeed, sometimes
obscuring and stifling it-are the
research laboratories with their
complex and intricate relationship
with every major area of the econ-
In addition to the new outward-
ly visible power of the universi-
ties which results in "the multi-
plicity and the massiveness of the
buildings," there is a not so visible
but omnipresent power'in "the ac-
tivities of research associates and
fellows," Bissell noted.'
These persons rarely "impinge
upon the ordinary life of the uni-
versity," he said. "They seem to
live a life of their own even out-
side the increasing consciousness
of the administration."
Because of the nature of the
modern university, the school "be-
comes not only a source of power
itself, but also a close ally of other
sources of power in our society,"
"I need not remind you of the
paramount role played by the uni-
versity, particularly the American
university, in the development of
atomic power," he said.
"In the military establishment
you find the ultimate embodiment
of the power that the university
has helped to create: the power re-
leased by her scientists from the
studying and ordering of human
habits and instincts."
But there is also another power
generated by modern universities,
"the power of persuasion which is
concerned about ends," Bissell
Bissell was awarded an honorary
doctor of laws degree from the.
University at the ceremonies.
narrow inlets, at places of small
rainfall and high evaporation,
this high salinity exists. When the
sea water evaporated, salt and
gypsum (calcium sulfate) deposit-
ed. As time passed, layer upon lay-
er of sediment covered the salt
and gypsum, and the latter hard-
ened into solid rock from the
pressure of upper layers, Prof.
Briggs said recently.
Because highly saline sea water
covered Michigan several times in
the last 500 million years, there
are five layers of salt and gypsum
deposits, three major and two
minor ones. By taking samples of
rock at various places throughout
the state, Prof. Briggs can map out
the salt and gypsum locations.
Scientists use several methods
to determine the presence of salt
or gypsum. Oil companies have
virtually perforated the surface
of Michigan. The many holes
drilled provide excellent means of
obtaining deep core rock for ex-
amination. Relatively recent gyp-
sum deposits are 1675 ft. deep.
while older ones may be as deep
as 9000 ft.
When oil wells are drilled,
there are two alternative ways of
obtaining samples 'for examina-
tion. Besides oil, these processes
yield either a cylindrical core of
rock, or crushed rock in mud. Prof.
Briggs gets these wastes, has them
cleaned, and identifies the pres-
ence and depth of salt and gypsum
There are other, more mathe-
matical ways of determining salt
and gypsum deposition. Gypsum
and salt are highly non-porous
materials. Hydrogen atoms in
water or hydrocarbons fill these
pores in other rocks. When gam-
ma rays penetrate the rock from
instruments lowered into t h e
ground, they are g::eatly reflected
by the hydrogen atom. The logs
of relative gamma ray reflections
of various rocks are good identi-
fiers of gypsum and salt, Prof.
Also used are logs of gamma
emission of the rocks. Theoretical-
ly, because other rocks are non-
porous, identification becomes im-
possible' in certain instances.
However, the use of other logs
makes identification more cer-
tain: sound logs (which also de-
pend on porosity), and electrical
The voltage between two elec-
trodes placed around a sample of
rock is measurable; the character-
istic electrical resistance of the
rock can also be determined.
From these specific properties,
the rock is identifiable. The con-
verted log data, fed into a com-
puter, can predict the location of
gypsum or salt.
From the drill cores brought up,
and from the logs, the scientist
will be able to formulate a map of
Michigan salt and gypsum de-
posits, Prof. Briggs , explained.
This, of course, has commercial
This map of salt deposition
would also reveal the paleogeog-
raphy of Michigan.
Prof. Harry Benford of the nav-
al architecture and marine engi-
neering department predicts that
1,000 foot ore carriers, three times
as large as any now on the Great
Lakes, may lower transportation
costs and, consequently, increase
the demand for iron ore from the
In a research paper read last
week before the Lake Carriers' As-
sociation in Cleveland, Prof. Ben-
ford proposed that an 81,000-ton
self unloading bulk carrier be used,
the design for which was develop-
ed under his direction by William
The ship is intended to carry
pelletized ore from Escanaba to
the Chicago-Gary area.
Thus the vessel would be freed
of the size restrictions imposed
by the Soo Locks, and, since it
would load and unload at offshore
terminals, it would only require a
The ship would have an ice-
break box and would maintain
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GOOD NEIGHBORS-Students from the University of Notre Dame spent seven weeks in Peru last
summer, living and working with the natives. A similar program is being planned for next summer.
'Good Neighbors' Help
Latin 'American States
By JUDITH BLEIER
Associate City Editor
"Operation Good Neighbor," a
summer service program in Latin
America, got its start in the sum-
mer of 1961 when fourteen Catho-
lic students from Yale University
built a combination school and
community center in a Mexico
The idea of a "student peace
corps" spread and developed into
a non-sectarian project for aid-
ing Latin America. Students from
the United States work through
Latin contacts, living with families
and working with them.
The summer program is directed
by John C. McAward, Jr. Father
Felix McGowan serves as a con-
Although the idea was originally
a Catholic project, it should no
longer be restricted to Catholic
students or thought of as a sec-
tarian program, Father McGowan
noted recently in an interview
with Pamela Smith, '66.
Last summer, following Yale's
lead, 300 students worked on sim-
ilar projects in Mexico. The men
constructed schools, chapels and
clinics, while the women worked
in clinics, distributing food pack-
ages and teaching catechism, sew-
ing, arts and crafts.
At the same time, the original
Yale group was invited by the
Bishop of Tulancingo to build a
parochial school in a tiny moun-
tain village in his diocese. The
men raised enough money during
the school year to pay for the
construction materials and the
salary of a skilled local laborer
who served as their foreman.
While the Yale students were
in Mexico, eight men from the
University of Notre Dame spent
seven weeks in Ciudad do Dios, a
flat sandy area about 15 miles
from Lima, Peru.
As representatives of the Coun-
cil for the International Lay
Apostolate, a campus organization
which began as a lecture and dis-
cussion group concerned with the
universal nature of the Church,
they lived among nearly 10,000
Before going to South Amedica,
the men studied Spanish and the
culture of Peru so that they would
be able to talk intelligently with
students of that South American
During their initial week in Ciu-
dad do Dios, their work was very
simple, and they worked hardest
at getting acquainted with the
people. Distributing milk and
bread in the poor section was a
typical task of the group.
In addition they taught boys at
the local school to play basketball
and other sports, aided a doctor
in a parish clinic, gave instruction'
in English, met and talked with
university students, and played
soccer with the young men of
Ciudad do Dios.
A summer program in Peru is
being comtemplated again for
1963. Groups may be departing for
Lima in late May or June. All
interested should contact John J.
McAward, Jr., at World Campus
Overseas Office, 121 East 39th
Street, New York 16.
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