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January 10, 1962 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1962-01-10

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Seventy-Second Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints."

"Gun Bearers!"

U.S. TRADE POLICY:
Will Congress Lower
Economic Walls?

V i
' L7~n(*

DAY, JANUARY 10, 1952

NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL HARRAH

Federal Aid to Education:
Necessary, But Dangerous

CAN THE DIVERSITY of thought and prac-
tice that makes a democracy strong be
maintained if federal aid .is extended to the
nations schools? Can democracy. reliant on
an educated constituancy, survive if federal
aid is not extended to the schools? These are
the two questions that the legislators and
lobbyists have been wrestling with in the
field of education since the Second World War.
The Kennedy Administration has come up
-with a reasonably good compromise to the
dilemia of federal aid. The administration
offers federal aid through several different
methods, maintaining it is circumventing the
bugaboo of monolithic control of education,
while,at the same time avoiding aid to private
or parochial schools. This approach does not
adequately solve either question.
THE PRESSURE to remain ahead in the
arms, race has forced the nation to con-
sider the increased utilization of its human
resources. The amount of information required
to understand forces in this expanding world
has increased. Meeting these increasing needs,
both in defense and in information of citizens,
requires upgrading ofdeducation in both effi-
ciency of teaching and content.
Quality and efficiency costs money-more
than many communities are willing or able
to pay. If the nation as a whole will benefit,
from better use of human resources, should,
not the nation as a whole pay? Why not?
There would be no problem if there was
enough money for all the states and local
communities to do anything they wished in
education. However, there will not be enough
money since Congress, ;and the nation's people,
will not pay that much for anything. So, to
make sure that the money is spent on what
legislators consider the chief priorities of edu-
cation-those that will immediately benefit
defense or industry-the federal government
will have to earmark the money. Earmarking
leads to control, and soon the local com-
munity loses a greater and greater degree of
control over the education of its own child-
ren, eliminating diversity.
The Morrill Act does this in some degree.
For, in partitioning off certain parcels of land,

the federal government made sure that each
community 'would spend a certain amount on
education. The land grant colleges resulted.
A DILEMMA is posed. To survive, democracy
needs more money for education and yet
that aid is a threat to democracy.
The various stands in Congress last session
represented differing solutions.
The "conservatives" prefered to have an
ignorant, but theoretically free, populace fight-
ing the Cold War. They forgot that man can
only be free if he understands his environment.
Education is needed to achieve this in a
modern society.
The "liberals" are willing to place diversity
at the discretion of the federal bureaucracy's
control. Centralized power is much more ef-
ficient and this point of view places efficiency
above diversity.
rpIE ADMINISTRATION is willing to com-
promise. It plans to subsidize through the
states, the defense department, local com-
munities and through aid to individual persons
and institutes. Thus, it hopes to support diver-
sity and' education by providing funds for
education through diverse channels. This is
an adroit and feasible solution. However, by
proposing to aid all these areas and taking
a stand against aid to private or parochial
schools, the Kennedy administration is ac-
tually discriminating against religion and di-
versity in education. For what greater center
of diversity is there than varying types of
schools with differing educational philosophies?
The administration's stand is a good com-
promise in supporting education, but inconsis-
tent in its refusal to aid private and parochial
schools.
Another problem is also presented by the
administration's compromise. There exists the
possibility that federal aid through diverse
agencies may backfire. Instead of federal aid
supporting diverse education, the aid may
eliminate diversity in all units receiving aid,
making the nation more monolithic than ever.
This the administration still has to confront.
-CAROLINE DOW.

't.4..
- .'

tom , ,
'' ..

t
tt 6

By JEAN TENANDER
Daily Staff Writer
DO WE, as a nation, have the
potential, in view of our strong
protectionist past, to create a trade
policy which will answer the chal-
lenge of the Common Market as
well as the needs of the under-
developed countries?
Although we essentially support
more liberal trade agreements, we
still protect a great deal of in-
dustries with tariffs and quotas.'
Will the forces of history allow
the United States to embark upon
the journey toward lowered tar-
iffs, or will the mustiness of con-
servatism prevent us once again
from acting on an issue which
must be considered inevitable even
by its opponents?
President Kennedy has already
answered the first question in
the affirmative. It remains to be
seen how Congress will answer
the second one.
* * *
THE Reciprocal Trade Agree-
ment Act, expiring in June of
this year, must not merely be re-
newed but replaced, according to
the President. The United States
has reached a point in her history
at which she has outgrown the.
trade policies of the past. The
time for inward looking economic
nationalism has long gone by.
Since the initial Trade Agree-

-..

-

EUROPEAN DATELINE:
Image of Berlin:* Das Mauer and Das Tor

CHANCES ARE
people reading
current Journalisn
proof that editoria
Dean C. Baker of
department and J
Toledo Blade, who
that 22.3 per cent
at editorials. This
sidering that opin
most papers) witl
Abby, sex and crir
SINCE ONLY th
The Daily, it. is
ship of this page
22.3 per cent of our
When you read
fast coffee, whatt
ably the editoria
to, written matter
if you are the av
at least one item
page in the first p:
ber of people rea
While the positio:
doesn't appear to
editorial in the 1
edge over other wi
And one other t
don't read as man
There may be
"reading" only me.
the reader. But. eve
standing of ther
were not studied,
some general trenc
THE BIG SHOC
torials are read
matter how diffic
those who start o
This is pretty
which has run so
in the annals of n
not light reading,
The length and c
years I have been
last year's editor,
editorial in the
entire length of fi
a row. And to gii
reading it was, mt
a philosophy term
But the fine prin
defined a "long"
words. Fans of Th
as a dron in the'

Read

It

and React

By GLORIA BOWLES
Daily Correspondent
BERLIN - Many tourists are,
drawn to Berlin for the same
reason that others are afraid to
come here: as the center of the
"international political crisis,"
Berlin draws the curious traveler
who wants to see "The Wall," the
political science student who comes
to find out for himself if every-
thing he's been reading at home
is true, and a few who are inter;-
ested in Berlin for its ultra-
modern architecture, its theatres
and museums.
The tourist people in Berlin are
cashing in on "Das Mauer." The
newest tourist postcard here is
one with barbed wire superimposed
over the Brandenburg gate; there
are a whole series of "take home"
photos of the building of The
Wall. Tourist buses feature a ride
along the frontier, with stops at
strategic points: guides point out
the wreathed monuments to three
East Berliners who jumped from
their apartment windows and
whose attempt at escape-and
freedom-ended in death on the
sidewalks below.
* * *
ENOUGH MEN and materials
to build apartments for 1500
people went into the building of
The Wall, which is made of con-
crete slabs at some points, bricks
at others. There is enough barbed
wire now separating East from
West to go halfway around the
globe.
on the border, Das Mauer ex-
tends right up to the side of
apartment buildings and begins
again on the other side. There is
even wire running across the tops
of some buildings. A bizarre street
at the border is boarded up on
one side; on the other side of the
same street-the western side-
life goes on as before. It is a
striking contrast.
East German and Russian guards
are posted all along the frontier.
At some points, Das Mauer lies
before the guards, there is a sec-
ond wall behind them. The guards
are enclosed between the two
walls, the tourist guide reported,
so that they themselves cannot
escape.

One guard on the border is
perched high up in a tree behind
The Wall. Tourists, intrigued by
his position, pull,out their cameras.
The guard, evidently wise to the
antics of curious passersby who
always want to take his picture,
pulls out his camera and snaps
right back. ("You are crazy if you
think he has film in that camera,"
one official said.)
* * *
TOURIST BWS GUIDES often
end their repertoires with a "can-
ned" speech on the importance
of standing firm in Berlin, and
the foolishness of proposals for
West Berlin recognition of the
'East German regime.
One is sometimes sickened by
tourist commercialism and Ber-
lin propaganda and at the same
time saddened by the personal
tragedy its construction has caus-
ed. It is the personal disaster it
has brought to thousands that
makes the wall important. The
division of the city is now com-
plete. The escape hatch has been
closed, and with its closing, there
is little hope left for East Ber-
liners who wish to live in freedom.
But Das Mauer has no great
political significance. During the
ten days from August 13 to August
23, and for atimeaafter, its con-
struction caused a world crisis.
But now with the fireworks over,
Das Mauer stands only as a mon-
ument to Communist cruelty or,
to others, a memorial of Western
cowardice. Its construction has
had propaganda value for both
sides.
* * 4'
WHAT HAS BEEN Das Mauer's
effect on West Berliners? First,
most Berliners feel already in-
destructible. They have suffered
so many scares, been the object of
so many world crises, that they
have become immune to politics.
They are above all, interested in
their personal lives, their economic
well-being, in reconstructing their
damaged city and in soliciting
Western aid for that purpose. They
cannot be reproached for such an
attitude.
Like most everyone else, Ber-
liners love to talk about politics,
but like everyone else, they very

often speak from ignorance. For
all the apparent danger in which
they find themselves, most of them
are surprisingly optimistic in poli-
tical 4iscussions. There are even
some who still believe fanatically
in reunification.
Berliners are well known for
their sense of humor-it is a
quality which, at least, the tourist
people claim for the city. If it is
so, the quality serves Berliners
well, especially when one con-
siders their geographical position,
political status and recent past
history.
IMT THERE is much to see in
Berlin besides "The Wall." in the,
Western half of the divided city,
one is struck by Berlin's wide
boulevards, the neon-lit Kurfur-
stendamm, and its stark moder'
nity. The newly built stands be-
side the war destructed, bombed
out ruins. The Deutsch Oper is
new, and modern, as are several
theaters and churches. There is
the Hansa Quarter of modern
apartment buildings, where one
apartment house is only for bach-
elors; those who marry must move
out.
The Dahlem museum in West
Berlin has the largest Rembrandt
collection in the world, 2 in all,
and the statue of Nofrete. There
is the Charlottenburg Castle, the
famous Tiergarten, the Olympic
stadium, the ruins of the Reich-
stag. The brand new Kongresshalle
for conventions was designed by an
American architect and built with
American funds; Berliners have
dubbed the structure the "Preg-
nant Oyster" because of its ultra-
modern butterfly roof.
FOR FOREIGNERS and West
Germans, with the exception of
West Berliners, of course, access
to East Berlin is easy. There are
some restrictions: one cannot
bring in Western newspapers or,
take out East German marks, for
example. One must stand -in a
line for a half hour, show a pass-
port five or six times; he is then
admitted to Communist territory.
There is a contrast between the
two Berlins, between the Kurfur-
stendamm at Christmas time with

By RICHARD OSTLING, Associate Editorial Director
you are one of about 3,300 The length of our articles results, I think,
this column. A report in the from The Daily's deliberate avoidance of any
n Quarterly gives scientific editorial policy. For example, there are a lot
ls are fairly well read. Prof. of facts, opinions and underlying premises
the University's journalism which regular readers automatically read into
ames C. MacDonald of the items in The Chicago Tribune or the New
formerly taught here, found York Post because of their consistent political
of newspaper readers look lines. But in The Daily you can't do it because
is really pretty high, con-, writers range from reactionary to ultra-
ion pieces fight it out (in liberal.
Steve Canyon, astrology, And, this being an academic community, it
ae, and the sports section. is usually necessary to back up editorials with
e latter feature appears in a lot of substantiation-philosophical and fac-
safe to assume that reader- tual. A flatly stated bit of emotion or opinion,
is considerably higher than such as you see in many papers, has to be
1,s0 rensders.lygavoided here, because it doesn't impress an
this page over you break- audience used to dissecting Plato and James.
do you look at first? Prob- A final problem is a tendency toward that
l cartoon. When you get wordy gobbledygook which infests the academic
, the study indicates that world, found perhaps in purest form in sociol-
erage reader you will read ogy books. Surgery by two full-time editors
, since you turned to the still can't keep up with the challenge.
lace. And a surprising num-
d everything on the page.IN CASE you wonder about other reasons
n of articles on the pave why people read editorials besides length,
be very important, the top Messers. Baker and MacDonald tell us that
left-hand columns has the general subject matter is pretty unimportant.
ritten items. So is the area of the world being written about.
hing. If you are a girl, you However, imaginative presentation, provocative
y editorials as the men. statements and use of lively topics help. We
one hitch. In the study, probably do much worse in the first category
ant getting the attention of than in the other two.
en though things like under- t he two.
material or reactions to it If you get headaches from our long items,
the results must indicate you'll want to know that this trend may be
ds. changing. A survey shows that we fitted about
90 items on the editorial page in the first four
KER was this-longer edi- weeks of last fall, while only about 70 were
the most frequently. And no needed to fill the pages a year earlier.
ult reading an editorial is, As far as content, the future isn't as bright.
n it usually finish the job. You will probably dislike the opinions expressed
comforting to The Daily, this year about as much as those of any other
me of the longest editorials
nan. And a lot of them are year. In fact, campus anger may be growing.
eiane. An ofhWhen the staff was close to 100 per cent liberal,
eitr.othonly the conservatives chafed. Now, with some
omplexity prize for these four of us right-wing odd balls showing up to work,
Tomdng Hen, whoelst the left wing hates some of our editorials
Tom Hayden, whose last
paper covered almost the as wel
Tve columns for two days in THINK there's a lot more reaction against
ve you an idea how rough Daily editorials than the paper ever hears
uch of it was handed in as about. Even though the letters to the editor
paper. column is probably our widest-read feature,
it in the JQ shows the study most students would rather grumble in silence
eDirl would ook on ths than refute ideas they think are either stupid
hucket since the normal or dangerous.

its store windows displaying quan-
tities of brightly-packaged con-
sumer goods, and Unter dem Lin-
den, the main street of East Ber-
lin. There are not so many strik-
ingly modern buildings in the
East, but more bombed out stru-
tures still left standing from the
war.
The Communist side of the city
is different-a little grayer and
bleaker, perhaps, but at the same
time, life goes on. People accept
their fate, and there are certainly
those who don't consider it a bad
one. The picture of sharp contrast
painted by most Western newsmen
is over-exaggerated.
* 4* *
MOST STRIKING, on the other
hand, when one dismisses the
physical aspect of the two cities,
is the Russian influence in East
Berlin. Russian soldiers parade
about the East guarding the fron-
tiers. On a Sunday afternoon, a
group of them will be out seeing
the sights: stopping to observe a
street vendor in his act, taking
photograps of each other and of
tourists to the city. (Some Russian
soldier has a picture of an Ameri-
can girl from the University of
Michigan in knee socks and ten-
nis shoes.)
The state-owned stores - all
those with over two employees-''
are all marked over their doors.
In the travel agencies are colorful
posters advertising "See Moscow"
or "Take a cruise on the Black
Sea." Stalinallee has become
Frankfurterstrasse, the Russian
embassy is new and immense, th,
Russian cars on the streets are
evident, but few because they are
so costly. East German students
are taking Russian in school, and
the new generation can now read
the monuments in the Memorial
park to the Soviet war dead, writ-
ten in both Russian and German.
Communism has, of course, chang-
ed their personal lives: a young
tour guide in East Berlin said be
would soon be on his way to
work in an art gallery in Bul-
garia.
WHETHER in West Berlin or
East, the imposing Brandenburg
Gate can be seen. The gate has
become the symbol of freedom for
Germans living on both sides of
the frontier. It is not so beautiful
as some would have us believe;
"Das Tor" is gray and ruined
from the war, and its beauty
further marred by the wall, now
running along its base. One can-
not come very close to Branden-
burger Tor for there-are barricades
and guards at some distance on
either side.
Despite its new position in the
middle of a no man's land, there
are thousands of Germans who
still weara miniature gray Bran-
derburg Gate pin in their lapel,
symbolizing hope for the country's
reunification and an end to Com-
unist oppression. Two years ago
in Germany, the Brandenburger
Tor was on posters displayed all
over the country, on bulletin.
boards in shops and schools and
churches. The inscription: "Mact
Offen Das Tor" (Let's open the
door.)
Germans hold out little hoe
for that now. In the current pos-
ter, a little girl, with long blonde
hair and in a white dress, is hold-
ing a candle . . . and trying to
surmount "Das Mauer."

ment Act passed under Roosevelt
in 1934, the U.S., has made bi-
lateral trade agreements which
represent significant though lim-
ited progress toward free trade.
The renewal of the act in 1945
authorized the president to cut
by 50 per cent the tariffs already
cut and to decrease those not yet
cut to 50 per cent of the 1934
level.-In return for our tariff cuts,
which were primarily on goods
not made here, we were given con-
cessions on goods we exported.
* * *
DESPITE THE FACT that In
1959 United States exports com-
prised only 3.6 per cent of the
Gross National Product, particular
industries depend solely on exports
for their livelihood. In the same
year of 1959, we exported 77 per
cent of our fish oils, 48 per cent
of our DDT, 41 per cent. of our
tracklaying tractors, and almost
30 per cent of our grading equip-
ment.
Unfortunately, renewal of the
Trade Agreement Act has led to
some unwelcome restrictions, im-
peeding the negotiating power of
the president.
THE ESCAPE CLAUSE, a provi-
sion in the 1951 extension of the
Trade Act, states that an in-
dustry which feels it is being hurt
(or will be hurt in the future) by
a lowering of tariffs, may appeal
to the Tariff Commission for re-
lief.
The Commission, having ex-
amined the claim, may either ee-
ommend a tariff increase or an
import quota, or reject the claim.
If the President does not follow
the recommendations of the Tariff
Commission, he must validate his
reasons before Congress. Congress
can overrule the President's de-
cision by a two-thirds vote.
Another hanpering restriction
is the Peril Point, also passed in
1951. The Peril Point is the point
beyond which the Tarif Com-
mission considers reduction of
duty on an article harmful to an
industry, and thus recommends
the :President refrain from re-
ducing the tariff below this point.
The President may do so only if
he explains his reasons to Con-
gress.
*' * *'
IN 1947, reognizing the un
wieldiness of bilaterial negotia-
tions, the U.S. took the lead in
the organization of the multi
lateral Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT). At present, con-
tracting nations, increased from
eight in 1947 to 39 in 1960, ac-
count for 80 per cent of the free
world's trade.
Currently, tariff bargainings are
going on at GATT meetings in
Geneva. There is expected to be
a 20 per cent reduction in tariffs
on most items under the present
U.S. reciprocal trade laws. The
negotiating authority for the six
member states of the Common
Market, Belgium, France, Ger-
many, Italy, Luxembourg and the
Netherlands-is the Commission
of the European Economic Com-
munity.
* * *
WITHIN the Common Market
itself, the success in lowering
tariffs has been marked. Since the
Treaty of Rome in 1958, the Six
havereduced internal tariffs by
30 per cent. This presents the
United States, the world's largest
trading nation, with a potential
danger.
Should ECC decide to abandon
mutual tariffs and create i high
outside tariff wall, we would be
at a serious disadvantage. This
is not the reason the Common
Market was created, but a large
measure of their adherence to .an
"outward-looking" policy depends
ifpon whether the U.S. is willing
to maintain reasonable tariff bar-

IN AN ADDRESS before the N~a-
tional Foreign Trade Convention
in New York in November, Under
Secretary of State Ball said he
felt the essential question was not
whether lowered tariffs were eco-
nomically feasible but whether the
U.S. believed in the vitality of a
free competetive economy.
In order' for us to place our
goods on the ,European market on
a truly competetive basis, we must
persuade the Six to reduce its ex-
ternal tariffs.
There should be no question of
the logic involved. The picture of
nearly total concentration of the
free world's trade in the markets
of the European Economic Com-
munity and in the markets of the
United States is slowly emerging.
That there be a mutually satis-
factory trade policy is imperative.
Speaking at the same conven-
tion, Secretary Ball pointed out
that the need "for the United
States to adjust to the new world
trade conditions was vitally con-
nected to its need to maintain a
substantial surplus in its inter-
national payments to offset dollars
lost by American aid and military
commitments overseas."
T --4 ..,~ + - nl r ,_n i .7

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Appeasement Won't Reform Reds

" ETTER RED than dead," the
slogan explained so carefully
by Miss MacNeal, is hardly unique
to the cold war situation. Nor is
there any misunderstanding as to
what the slogan represents.
The policy of "Surrender now,
negotiate later" is no more con-
fusing or palatable than it has
ever been, although it has be-
come impolite to refer to the
common synonym, "appeasement."
EACH PREMISE omits sigifi--
cant information:
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
(Continued from Page 2)
general admission and are available at
the Trueblood box office open every
day at noon,
U- n7&.-3 .

1) Unfortunately, the values of
life not dependent on political
systems do not include such minor
items as human dignity, human
rights and human freedom. These,
as Miss MacNeal admits, are ele-
ments which "World Communism
could stifle."
2) Whereas history might in-
dicate that "even tyranny would
not be a permanent way of life,"
submission to Communism would
mean that tyranny will be "per-
manent" for this generation and
a good many generations to come.'
3) "Nuclear warfare would be
likely to annihilate all human life,
or at least all organized society."
It's fairly obvious that whereas'
the Communists might think twice
before blowing the earth to bits,
they certainly won't refuse an
engraved invitation to introduce
their form of government in a.
passive America.
4) Here, at last, is an irrefutable
statement. "The existence of any

ter Red than dead" must apply
when the choice between nuclear
war and surrender is inevitable.
Unfortunately, we can only tell
when it is inevitable when the
Communists tell us so, and this
source has yet to prove reliable.
But perhaps resisting Commun-
ism really isn't worth the effort.
The Russians are turning turning
out pretty good movies, things
have never been so good in Poland,
and any day now a rocket loaded
with sign-painters will make it
possible for us to read "WE WILL
BURY YOU" on the harvest moon.
*' * *
IF SUCH ACHIEVEMENTS are
sufficient to make Communism
acceptable to us, let's say so now
and save some time The Russian
planners probably don't figure
"Better Red than dead" will be-
come our favorite jingle for at
least five more years.
Let's sign it now and prove we
pa "fhac n-nt no 0nea ?tvf

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