EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
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Truth Will Prevai"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 13, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: JUDITH OPPENHEIM
"Mind You, I Don't Put It Exactly fliat Way"
is IFL)tL oe
tS FULL, OF
'xT'R Tvi srs!
End of the Need Factor:
Big Ten Goes Professional
'THE BIG TEN'S action Thursday in dropping
the "need" factor from the athletic aid
program sadly emphasized the fact that col-
lege football is amateur in name only. Suc-
cumbing to the pressures of "creeping pro-
fessionalism" the Big Ten admitted that it
was going along with tle crowd allowing full
rides to be given through college for any one
who shows a predicted ability to maintain a
1.7 grade point average.
The Conference in effect recognized the
professional nature of athletics, especially
football, and said it would not fight the
trend but instead go along with it. While all
athletics were affected by the action, football
is the major reason for the change, because
of its influence and powerful financial position.
College football is a big business, that's no
secret. And it's a mighty profitable one at
that. Those concessionaires, TV cameras and
program hawkers add a few more dollars to
the $5-per-head kitty and the result is a
million dollar enterprise for about two months
every fall. Huge stadiums, expensive equipment
and a highly-paid coaching staff aren't fi-
nanced with physical education fees.
THEPROMINENT and powerful position
which college football holds today, and
which reinforces its business-like structure,
comes from several factors, some very prac-
tical, some entirely emotional. From the latter
viewpoint, football admissions and subsidiary
revenues help to finance a large portion of
the other varsity sports and athletic facilities.
A good season at the stadium can mean the
difference between a balanced athletic budget
and a deficit. A football record can influence
a state legislator faced with a school appropria-
tion, or an alumnus with money to spend. A
winning football team instills alumni with
school pride and strengthens the old tie with
the alma mater.
And the general reputation of a school is
enhanced by a good football team (despite the
opinion held by Ohio State faculty). Although
this name is not based on any academic
evaluation, nevertheless publicity is obtained
for the institution and in most cases is not
With so many things contingent upon a
school's performance on the football field
for nine games, it is hard for an institution to
escape the emphasis on the sport. Certainly,
there are pressures in the opposite direction.
There are a number of persons who feel a
college is primarily concerned with the pursuit
of knowledge not the pursuit of the ball car-
rier. Many faculty members are jealous of the
prominent position which athletics holds at a
THUS THE ALTERNATIVES appear to be
strict de-emphasis or discontinuance of
football on the one hand and continual yielding
to pressures for more emphasis on the sport.
Professionalism in football is growing stronger;
emphasis on winning makes recruiting an
essential factor. And good recruiting means
making the best offer, the most important of
which is money.
This trend is apparently unstoppable. At
least that was the impression of last week's
Big Ten meetings. The Big Ten (or Western
Conference in more official parlance) has
been generally regarded as a league which
could maintain both academic and athletic
excellence, without sacrificing one for the
other. The top football conference in the na-
tion, Big Ten teams have usually demonstrated
superiority over non-league opponents (the
last two Rose Bowls notwithstanding).
Composed of nine large state institutions and
one private school (Northwestern), the con-
ference has also achieved a creditable academic
rating, as good as any group of large, state-
supported universities. Conference policy on
post-season participation and athletic eligibility
has been fairly conservative. Though the case
can always be made for raising eligibility re-
quirements, Big Ten rules are as stringent as
any big time athletic conference.
BUT THE DROPPING of the need factor in
the athletic aid program comes as a slap
in the face to those who have admired the
Big Ten's position. The reputation which has
placed it above many conferences is tarnished.
The conference has admitted it can'no longer
try to retain a semblance of amateurism.
The academic requirement for extending aid
was raised: an applicant must show a college
grade point "predictability" of 1.7, based on
high school ranking and college board examina-
tions. This was merely a concession which
tended to whitewash the action.
Two other regulations tightening academic
eligibility which were passed by the Michigan
Board in Control of Intercollegiate Athletics
and submitted to the meeting were ignored.
The Big Ten has admitted it can no longer
remain somewhat above the rest of the major
athletic conferences, that it can no longer
hold out againt the pressures of professional-
Athletic aid used to be based on some factors
similar to scholarships. Either the prospective
athlete had to demonstrate "need" for aid or
show enough academic proficiency to graduate
in the upper quarter of one's high school class.
With the need factor discarded, all any athlete
has to show is that he has the ability to obtain
less-than-passing grades in college (1.7).
"VE'VE GOT TO COMPETE with the rest,"
is the excuse. But questions remain. Is
a football tender supposed to be a salary?
Because others do it, is it right? If an athlete
does not need the financial assistance or if
he has not demonstrated sufficient academic
ability, why should he be given a free ride
The obvious answer can only be that college
football is no longer amateur in its orientation.
Students without athletic tenders can continue
to try out for teams and play, if they are good
enough. Michigan will probably attract a num-
ber of these individuals in the future as it has
in the past. But the emphasis remains on
"paying" athletes to pursue their academic
THERE IS HOPE that action will be taken to
reverse the Big Ten action. Prof. Robert
Angell's resolution passed by the Faculty Senate
shows that Michigan faculty are sufficiently
alarmed over the situation. Of course, Michigan
opposed the elimination of the need factor
at the meeting but was voted down.
Perhaps Michigan will continue to insist
upon a demonstration of need or academic
ability in order to give aid to athletes. Michi-
gan requires a higher grade point than the
Conference for athletic participation, so the
precedent exists. However, one institution in
the Western Conference cannot stand alone.
It is time that the Western Conference realized
the implication of its actions and recognized
the responsibility it has to stand above the
masses. Certainly there has not been a notice-
able decline in the quality of Big Ten athletes,
though a few athletes in the Midwest have
been lost to schools willing to pay the full
load. The loss of reputation and the principle
of "amateurism" is, however, to be more
TYRONE GUTHRIE'S "Pirates of Penzance" is a brilliantly directed,
competently acted, thoroughly professional show.
Guthrie has recharged this somewhat worn down Gilbert and
Sullivan masterpiece-changing a few inflections, adding a few gim-
micks, giving a slight twist to the familiar scenes-producing a
spectacular success of his own peculiar variety.
Frederic-played last night by understudy Robert Jeffrey-was
done with appropriate wooden-ness, although his voice kept being
drowned out by the other singers, the orchestra and the audience.
Ruth (Irene Byatt) was a great galumphing and properly sympathetic
character. She is made a funny old creature with just a touch of the
pitiful, a very effective rendition.
- - -
JACQUELYNNE MOODY played Mabel as a melodramatic Vic-
torian heroine, and did so quite wonderfully. She trilled and frilled
about, making even the duller moments fun to watch if not to listen
Eric, as Major-General Stanley, has the best part in the operetta--
and made the most of it. He played it as a slightly bewildered wooden
soilder with a mechanical voice to match, and did a marvelous job.
His patter songs, for pure speed, were incredible.
BUT THE CONSTABLES stole the show. More in the classic
tradition of Dogberry than the Keystone Cops, they waddled and
trembled and ineffectually waved their sticks about the stage.
The policemen were only one of Guthrie's gimmicks. The nine
dainty maidens, suddenly attacked by a pirate band, dive for shelter
in the middle of the stage under a single green ruffled parasol.
Major-General Stanley emerges to the chapel of his purchased ancez-
tors wearing a striped dressing gown and his plumed hat.
IF THERE WERE FLAWS in last night's performance at the
Michigan Theatre, they came from over-brillance and over-stylization.
There were, at times, too many gimmicks-stage devices which inter-
fered with the classically comic lines. Guthrie was always there. He
seemed to be hovering in the wings, using the actors almost as puppets.
There was a sense of over-direction, but over-direction of such a
clever and effective variety that the result was far more delight than
TODAY AND TOMORROW:
Economic Unity Means
Richer America, West
Y \ .
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t 1%lk r tw t1*ktiitKG-to+d post. o.
'UHURU' FOR TANGANYIKA:
N7ew Freedom, Old Problems
By RONALD WILTON
Daily Staff Writer
LAST WEEK Uhuru ("freedom"
in Swahili) came to Tanga-
nyika. There was no anxiety in the
world, for the former United Na-
tions trust territory has been mak-
ing a gradual Constitutional ad-
vance towards independence since
This advance has been unaccom-
panied by the racism and violence
which have marked similar ad-
vances in other parts of Africa. A
country rarely emerges from col-
onialism enjoying such a large
measure of confidence from the
world and such great expectations
from its own people.
Unfortunately, the world expects
this pattern of political stability
to carry over into independence.
It will be surprising if it does, for
this stability is a facade hiding
one of the most backward econo-
mic and social structures of any
underdeveloped nation receiving
* * *
FROM 1885 to 1919, Tanganyika
was ruled by Germany under the
name of German East Africa. In
1919, the League of Nations award-
ed the country to Great Britain as
a mandate. This was reaffirmed by
the United Nations when it gave
Britain an International Trustee-
ship for the territory.
Unlike some other British Afri-
can territoriies, there was no large-
scale immigration into the terri-
tory.- At present there are 20,000
Europeans and 72,000 Asians out
of a total population of 9.25 mil-
In 1954, Julius Nyerere, the pres-
ent Prime Minister of the country,
formed the Tanganyika African
National Union. The party's aim
was independence and its thesis
was that tribalism must be re-
placed with a feeling of national
identity if Tanganyika was to be-
come a rea lnation.
Tanu kept pushing the country
towards independence at w steady
rate and in 1960 it could point to
its control of 71 out of 72 seats in
the Legislative Couneil as a meas-
ure of its popularity.
* * *
NYERERE is perhaps Tangan-
yika's strongest asset. He is an
anti-racist and believes in keeping
European expatriates as adminis-
trators and civil servants until
Tanganyikans can be trained for
the jobs. He has named Europeans
and Asians to his cabinet.
He comes from a smallatribe in
a country of small tribes and thus
has been able to get the people be-
hind him without having the op-
position of one large influential
tribe, as has happened in some
* *- *
BECAUSE the struggle for in-
dependence was non-violent, Tan-
ganyika has emerged from 1olon-
ialism with a reputation for politi-
cal stability rare for an African
Unfortunately, this stability is
not as firm as it looks, for the eco-
nomic and social foundation un-
derneath it is very shaky.
Before independence Britain,
on a subsistence level and there is
a very low standard of productivity
per individual farmer. According
to "Aftica Report," the magazine
of the African American Institute,
the country's three principal ex-
ports-sisal, coffee, and cotton-
are unable to bring in development
capital because their prices on the
world market fluctuate greatly.
The tsetse fly, carrier of sleep-
ing sickness, infests over 60 per
cent of the land. Traditional farm-
ing methods are causing soil de-
terioration and only one-third of
the country has decent rainfall
from year to year.
A recent mission from the World
Bank found that present programs,
which are making very slow prog-
ress, are incapable of rapid devel-
opment. Nyerere, at a recent press
conference, noted that one out of
six children born during this year
would die before the age of six, due
mainly to a lack of medical care
and a proper diet.
THE FACTS concerning Pduca-
tion are just as bad. Fewer than
half of the country's children re-
ceive any real schooling at all.
Only one out of twelve has more
than the basic four year education.
In its report, the World Bank mis-
sion noted that:
"The number of African child-
ren receiving more than the be-
ginnings of formal education is
clearly inadequate, especially in
view of Tanganyika's progress to-
wards political independence."
This will increase the difficulty
of Nyerere's announced intention
of replacing the expatriate mem-
bers of the civil service with citi-
zens as rapidly as possible. The
government, which has recognized
the desparate need for primary
education can not even institute a
crash program because the coun-
try lacks the buildings and teach-
ers necessary for such a program's
There is also the problem of low
enrollment. The magazine "Africa
South in Exile" reports that 76
primary schools in Southern Pro-
vince face the withdrawal of
grants-in-aid due to low attend-
ence, as nearly one quarter of the
places in the primary schools are
* *. *
PERHAPS the strongest opposi-
tion to the government will come
from labor unions. There are two
labor federations which African
unions can join. They are the All-
Africa Trade Union Federation,
which is backed by Ghana and
Guinea, and the International
Confederation of Free Trade Un-
Recently the AATUF demanded,
that all unions affiliated with it
should cut their bonds with the
ICFI'U. This move was supported
by the Tanganyika Federation of
Labour, which is the industrial
wing of TANU. Opposing this, five
of Tanganyika's leading unions
revolted against the 'T.F.L. lead-
ership, and if an actual split takes
place Nyerere will find himself
faced by a strong, well-organized
* ** * '
THESE DIFFICULTIES tend to
be disregarded by the world, which
prefers to focus on Tanganyika's
relatively peaceful emancipation
from colonial rule and the quality
of Nyerere and other leaders.
Probably the chief cause of this
are the British who, in interna-
tional circles, contrast Tangan-
yika with the Congo to show the
way to raise a colony to independ-
ence (muchto the annoyance of
Yet, short of working with Ny-
erere along the road towards in-
dependence (made easier by the
good behavior of the few Euro-
pean settlers), the British did not
do very much for the country. In
fact, they hurt the new govern-
ment by concealing the country's
shortcomings from the rest of the
world and then handing them over
to the new government.
BY ORIENTATING themselves
towards socialism at home and a
policy of neutralism abroad the
government of Tanganyika has
put itself on the right road to-
wards national development; in-
deed it is the only road they can
In spite of this, there will prob-
ably be some bad news out of
Tanganyika now that the political
struggle for independence is out
of the way and blame can be fo-
cused on Nyerere.
The world must realize this and
have the patience to accept it.
Aside from the high quality of its
leaders, Tanganyika is a very poor
country. The recognition of this
fact will be as important as ex-
ternal financial aid to the develop-
ment of the country.
By WALTER LIPPMANN
THERE IS AN IMPORTANT
connection between the talks
now going on in Paris about the
Western position on Berlin and
the speech which the President
made last week in New York to
the National Association of Man-
ufacturers. The speech in New
York prepares the way for the
great and historic business of
uniting the non-Communist world
in one free or low tariff trading
As this is achieved, problems
like that of Berlin will become
more manageable because the
over-all political and economic
power of the West will be more
than a match for the Communist
If this sounds like a big claim,
imagine what the situation would
become in Berlin if the non-
Communist world split up into
quarreling trading blocs - Com-
mon Market, the other Europeans,
the British, theAfricans, the
Latin Americans, and the United
States. No amount of beating our
breasts about defeating Commun-
ism will be worth a tinker's darn
if the West refuses to unite.
IT GOES without saying that
there are enormously complicated
and difficult problems that will
have to be solved before a suf-
ficient degree of unity is achieved.
Never before in history has a
situation existed like that which
we now face.
Today, when it has become prob-
able that Great Britain will join
the Common Market, drawing with
her in some form of association
the rest of Western Europe, the
United States must make itself
ready to live and to trade with
a free economy which will soon
be larger than our own, which is
growing much faster than our own.
This confronts us and all the
rest of the Western world with an
overriding question. Do we come
together in one great trading com-
munity which includes not only
Western Europe and North Ameri-
ca but also Japan, Australia,
Latin America and Africa - or
do we go our separate ways, frag-
menting a non-Communist world?
* * *
THIS WAS THE underlying
theme of the President's speech to
the manufactures. It is of historic
importance. Tariff debates are
mighty dull reading and they are
dull to write about, but the tariff
debate which will begin in the
next session of Congress will have
There is reason to think that
while the problem of our relations
with the enlarged Common Mar-
ket is a new one, there is already,
a remarkable awareness in this
country that the problem must be
Thus when the magazine "Busi-
ness Week" questioned 150 key
executives, more than a quarter
of them were found to be "strongly
in favor" of the President's thesis.
It is even more interesting that
only "a scant 25 per cent voiced
outright opposition." The other
half were on the fence.
This does not mean, of course,
that the President's program will
have an easy time in Congress. For
on the tarriff, as we all know, in-
dividual Congressmen listen very
carefully to those weaker local
industries which believe they will
be unable to compete successfully
with imported goods.
This array of local interests will
have to be dealt with by negotia-
tion. The Administration will have
to be prepared and able to do
enough for them to enable them
to make the adjustment without
THE ARGUMENT against the
new trade policy is likely to re-
volve around the claim that Amer-
ican costs, owing to our high
wages, are so high that we cannot
compete successfully in a wider
free market. In the course of the
debate during the next months we
shall have to take a careful look
at this thesis, which sounds so
plausible, and may, nevertheless,
not be true.
One positive indication that
higher costs have not priced the
United States out of the world
market is that as a matter of fact
our exports of merchandise are
larger by about three billion dol-
lars a year than our imports of
Moreover, there is the 'fact that
American wages tend to be highest
in those very indistries that ex-
port most successfully. They tend
to be lower in those industries that
rely on tariff to protect them
ACCORDING TO the high pro-
tectionists, this ought not to be
true. Why, then, is it true? By and
large it is true because in the
high wage industries labor is
highly productive. It is highly
productive because there is a
greater investment of capital and
there Is more working and tech-
nical and managerial skill.
What, then, about the future?
Europe with its enlarged markets
will surely become even more pro-
ductive than it is today. Not all
of this increased productivity will
go into lowering prices. A con-
siderable part of it undoubtedly
will go into increasing European
wages which, as a matter of fact,
are rising faster than our own.
Neverthesless, the increased pro-
ductivity of Europe will compel
us to make ourselves more com-
No attempt at price fixing by
the tariff mechanism could shield
22 Cents Against Cancer
IF THERE ARE four people in your family,
one of you is likely to get cancer. According
to the American. Cancer Society's tabulations
as recently as 1956, one out of four people
The United States is not working hard
enough to fight this disease. The average
American spent 22 cents through the United
States Department of Health, Education and
Welfare,'in fiscal 1961, for cancer research.
These funds, totaling about $40 million were
a significant part of the approximately $100
million given via taxes and voluntary funds
for cancer research and care. This was the
amnount spent to fight humanity's most pain-
ful, and second most deadly, killer.
$100 million sounds like a lot of money, but
aroken down individually, the average American
spent only 59 cents last year to save one fourth
of our population from cancer.
PLAYING WITH gruesome statistics seems
remote from reality, but when we realize
how many lives would be saved by speedy dis-
covery of a cure for cancer, how many hours
of suffering would be eliminated, and how
close the problem is to everybody's family,
59 cents or $100 million seems not really very
Last year we spent more on tobacco and
candy, more on alcohol, more on new auto-
mobiles or television sets, than on all of our
medical research combined.
Our government spends more money to send
a rocket to the moon than to save 25 per cent
of the nation's population from cancer.
Our stockpile of nuclear weapons is worth
far more than what we spent to fight cancer
and heart disease combined since 1950.
59 cents per year is not enough money, even
when multiplied by the population to $100
million, for there is too much to be done and
speed is important. There are scientists all
over the country begging for more laboratory
equipment, and there are probably thousands
of doctors who would be able to conduct com-
petent research if they were given adequate
THE UNITED STATES government should
tax its citizens an average of $20 per person
per year in adition to our graduated income
tax. This money totaling $3.6 billion would be
used solely for medical research, under the
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
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The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
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responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 13
semester, 1961-62, are now being accept-
ed in the office of the Graduate School.
The object of these fellowships is to
permit those individuals who are em-
ployed on sponsored research and also
doing graduate work to devote more
time to the studies. The stipend is
$1,125 plus tuition per semester. Appli-
cation forms are available from the
Graduate School. Only applicants who
have been employed at The University
of Michigan on sponsored research for
at least one year on at least a half
time basis are eligible and preference
land, again offers an exchange schol-
arship for a University of Michigan
graduate. The scholarship will provide
fees, board and lodging for the aca-
demic year 1962-63. A married student
receives 170 pounds in lieu of board
and lodging. A grant of $400 will be
made by the Graduate School to par-
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application for a Fulbright Travel Grant
is unsuccessful. Study may be carried
on in any of the academic disciplines
offered at The Queen's University. Fur-
ther information and application forms