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October 22, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-10-22

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Peace Corps and The Image

Seventy-First Year
Truth Wil Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone No 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



Moral Censorship
Impractical, Immoral

ONCE AGAIN our blue-coated guardians of
law and order have stepped in to "protect"
public morals. In Evanston, Illinois, Henry
Miller's controversial and recently-unbanned
novel Tropic of Cancer was removed from
newsstands and bookstores after a "request"
fromz Police Chief Hubert Kelsh. According
to The Daily Northwestern, Kelsh simply felt
the book should be removed. He has read
"most of it."
It is probable that the chief sensed thast
the novel might encourage sexual sadism and
erotic crimes. If this were a proven fact, per-
haps his rationale might justify the action on
a strictly practical level. Maybe the public
interest would outweigh individual ri hts, But,
unfortunately, it has never been an established
psychological fact that there is a definite
correlation between "pornography" and sex
crimes. And there is a distinct possibility that
the censorship, and not the pornography per
se, contributes to immoralities. A generally
repressive censory atmosphere . could very
likely heighten the need and desire for por-
nography and illegal outlets of sexual interests.
But a more serious threat is manifested in
the attempt to restrict' the dissemination of
knowledge and opInion. The basic, assumption
of all censorship is that physical consequences
of the uncensored idea would be harmful.
But can any value judgement be made if the
idea cannot be studied? Why should any in-
dividual- be forced to accept without any choice
or alternatives the value judgements of another
person, even though he may be an apparently
omnipotent police chief?
THE ANSWER, of course, is that there is
no right for anyone to restrict the exchange
of ideas. If it is a postulate that truth is
the ultimate objective of man's existence, and
that free dissemination is, the best way to
attain or to approach truths, it surely follows
that channels of information must be as wide
and as deep as possible, and not narrowed by
laws or irrational moralizations or even "re-'

quests." In such a context, libel and slander
laws and standards of grammar are perfectly
justifiable because they help to ensure a tan-
gibly fair, openminded and a more efficient
exercise of thought. Censorship does not make
the spread of ideas more just or efficient;
since moral values are rested in the individual,
there is no one correct or visible standard. It
is perfectly possible and just for two honest
men with the same access and digestion of
information to arrive at opposite conclusions.
Censorship does not make dissemination more
effective, because the most "correct" synthesis
may not be anticipated if certain viewpoints
are omitted from the context.
This is not to say that there should be no
moral responsibility for ideas. Libel and slander
laws force an accountability for opinions;
they ensure that ideas will not be used with
maliciousness or tangible falsity. Censorship
obviously does not impose a moral responsibility
upon an author, it eliminates it completely.
00 OFTEN attitudes and opinions regard-
ing sex have been muzzled in such a cen-
sory atmosphere. It seems that, in the United
States, at least, the prevailing Judeo-
Christian modes are arbitrarily and unthink-
ably instilled as the most correct. The ac-
tualities of American sex practices make a
mockery of these chaste ideals, and it is a
4 gross absurdity to deny in the literary sector
what occurs in the real-life portion. Henry
Miller's ideals are un-conventional to American
middle-class standards, and obviously also to
those of a police, chief. But there can be no
justification or defense of these Christian
ideals when they forcibly pre-empt alternative
ethical codes.
Book-banning is a despicable blot on 'the
academic, moralsand evenpurely religious
theories of action. The real crime in Evanston
has been committed not by Henry Miller or
book-distributors, but by Hubert Kelsh.

Daily Staff Writer
PEACE CORPS skeptics are be-
coming vocal once again. The
"post card incident" in Nigeria
has revived arguments that the
Peace Corps is a fine idea in
theory, but not in practice.
The Nigerian incident chiefly
concerns an American girl, Mar-
gery Milchelmnore~ who was one of
37 United States Peace Corps vol-
unteers in Nigeria. Miss Michel-
more had written a post card to
her parents and then had "lost"
it. The post card; which described
living conditions in Nigeria as
"primitive," was found and read
by Nigerian students who quickly
demanded the removal of all U. S.
volunteers. Both the Nigerian and
U. S. governments assured the
cooling off period which now has
followed. Miss Michelmore has
been removed from Nigeria and
Peace Corps Director R. Sargent
Shriver has spoken out mildly in
her defense.
* * *
take this incident either too ser-
iously or too lightly. We learned
from the rabid demonstrations
which forced the cancellation of
President Eisenhower's Japanese
visit 16 moths ago what students
can do. Certainly the Nigerian in-
cident has neither the depth nor
the Communist support that the
Japanese incident had, but we
know that the Communists would

like the Peace Corps out, and
we obviously cannot rule out the
possibility that they are attempt-
ing to do so now in Nigeria.
The fact still remains, as Pro-
fessor George Peek of the political
science department pointed out,
that no one in Nigeria has charged
that what Miss Michelmore said
was false. And still there are stu-
dents demanding the removal of
the Peace Corps.
THE ROOTS of the problem
can be traced back to that
strangely plastic and indefinable
thing, the American image. The
new nations such as Nigeria pic-
ture us as wealthy, soft, lazy and
adamant. One of the reasons for
having a -Peace Corps at all, in
addition to the oft-mentioned
humane objectives, is to change
this image-to show the under-
developed nations that we do care
for them and that we will make
sacrifices for them. But in the
eyes of some, we have already
The Nigerians probably picture
Miss Michelmore as the prime
example of the American image
- rich girl, superficially humane,
who cannot live at ease apart
from her soft life. Her actions
were interpreted in this light be-
cause of a preconception of Ameri-
ca - a preconception created at
least in part by relentless attacks
by our adversaries.


The Ins and Outs
Of Berlin

OUR OPPENENT'S vehicle is
propaganda, that naughty word
we righteous Americans associate
with the Russians. And this is
precisely why we have failed --
not enough American propaganda.
We need not distort our message;
we can create a favorable image
by just presenting the facts; but
we haven't done that, or at least
not enough of it.
While we listen to soap com-
mercials, Helen Trent, and Elvis
Presley over the radio, many people
in many foreign countries are lis-
tening to Soviet propaganda
broadcasts. Perhaps these broad-
casts are in Singhalese or Ben-
gali, languages which are spoken
by 100,000,000 people in the world,
languages in which this country
hasnot one qualified linguist.
* * *
OTHER FACTS are more shock-
ing. The USSR has facilities to
teach two and one-half times as
many foreign languages as the
U. S. All Soviet pupils are studying
a foreign language by the third
The highly-secret Soviet Diplo-
matic School trains hundreds of
men in foreign languages, litera-
tures and cultures each year.
The Soviets and the Red Chinese
together are the leading book
books are widely-distributed and
publishers in the world and these
read in foreign countries. Joseph
Stalin is the best-selling author
in the world, the Bible is second,
and three Communist authors fol-
The production of Soviet pro-
paganda films has quadrupled in
the last five years.
The Soviet Union spends $2 bil-
lion a year for propaganda and
probably twice that much in-
directly. The' U. S. spends less
than five per cent of that.
WHAT .DO WE do about it?
Money, often used as a panacea
or an easy way out, for once
seems to be the answer. 'ore
money is needed, especially for
the Unitedh'States Information
Agency, which almost had its
funds cut by an unawake Congress
this year - money to spread the
American image and American
ideals overseas, money to teach
foreign students what democracy
is. More teaching of foreign lan-
guages in this country is in order.
And perhaps. as Senator Stuart
Symington suggests, so also is a
foreign service academy, which
could operate much like the mili-
tary academies, its purpose being
to train foreign service officers.
But these things would be
needed even if the "post card in-
cident" had not occurred. And yet
we cannot forget what did happen.
* *
MAYBE Miss Michelmore was
rash or perhaps unwise, but never-
theless, she was free to say what
she wanted and she could well
have been perfectly correct. We
have done wrong by not defending
her clearly and openly when we
could have. We could have shown
to the Nigerians that free expres-
sion, including privacy of the mail
is not merely a meaningless thing
in this country, even with the mis-
directed efforts of Communist
speaker bans and the Daughters
of the American Revolution.
The Peace Corps still has a
purpose and still can carry it out.
The incident was a problem, but
not a crisis - and no one expected
the Peace Corps to be completely
free from problems.

Boston Symphony:
Excellence per Usual
concert last night with American Howard Hanson's contemporary,
"Elegy in memory of Serge Koussevitzky." As one learns to expect from
the Bostonians, splendid orchestral sonority and balance highlighted
this lyrical and subtly colored work. Nevertheless, in all probability, it
will not become an enduring example of American orchestral writing,
although hints of extreme originality were evident-notably in the
haunting close of the work.
In Saint-Saens popular Violincello Concerto No. 1, soloist Samuel
Mayes displayed a warm, vibrant tone but not always precise intonation.
The French "joie de Vie" which permeates much of Saint-Saens' music
was not at all times apparent, although in the darker, lyrical passages,
Mayes revealed much depth and rhapsdic flow of line. At times it is
difficult to say whether dramatic lapses in this work were the fault
of the composer or the conductor; one is inclined to say that the fault
lies with Saint-Saens. Nevertheless, the intense lyricism of this work
became immensely moving through the romantic and sensitive interpre-
tation that one expects and invariably gets from Munch.
IN THE FAMILIAR Brahms Symphony No. 1, Munch revealed an
inspired reading that was at once songful yet dramatic, sensitively
lyrical yet driving with strong, forceful energy. There was a feeling of
stature and musical proportion throughout. Perhaps the only fault
was the inevitable tendency of many conductors to flatten out the
familiar C-major melody in the last movement into something lachry-
mose and sentimental. But never did Munch let his French sensuousness
and lyricism allow the destruction of the noble, strong and sweeping
Teutonic splendor that belongs to Brahms at his greatest.
-Alan Gillmor


end of Illusion

N FARRELL, Personnel Director

THIS UNIVERSITY is slowly being squeezed
dry. To meet even its minimum critical
needs for the coming year, the University must
receive $45.9 million from the Legislature. And
the state, very simply, does not have that much:
money to allocate.
Yet all faculty salaries must be substantially
raised if the University is not to be drained
of great minds-its most precious resource.
Greatly increased student fees are the only'
significant alternative source of income. But
the University has a deep and long-standing
commitment to low-cost public education-a
commitment it has already been forced to
somewhat compromise.
AND SO THE DILEMMA: if fees aren't raised,
professors will be lured away in increasing
numbers and the quality of the faculty vitiated;.
if fees are raised enough to have a significant,
long-run effect on University operations, many
students must leave. The choice is a sharply
tragic one: to collaborate in the decay of a
great university or to abandon the function
the University was created to serve. And either
alternative is immoral.
So the Regents raise tuition a little bit (not
enough to prevent students from returning) in
order to match outside offers to professors (who

'leave anyway because they feel the University
has not future).
When tuition was raised a year and a half
-ago, the sentiments of the majority of the
Regents were voiced by Regent Eugene Power.
"We would like to keep fees as low as possible,"
he explained. "But over and above our respon-
sibility to the state and its young people, we
have the responsibility of. the preservation of
the University of ,Michigan as a first-class uni-
versity.. If we fall in this we are as derelict in
our duty as if we didn't consider the students
... we have no other alternative" than to in-
crease fees..
ND THERE WAS no other alternative. There
may be none this year ... and the next
. and the next ...
Slowly, the University is being destroyed-
destroyed by a state which, though legally
responsible for its support, has abdicated this
Low-cost, high quality education seems an
impossibility. If quality education comes only'
at high cost, then there is little choice. But if
this is true, the tragedy transcends the prob-
lems of this University. For the bright vision
of centuries of men will have been proved not
at all a vision, but only a mirage.

Daily Staff Writer
past spoken of the Ins and
the Outs in political policy-mak-
ing. The Ins are those who make
the policy, who debate, discuss and
decide on a course of action. The
Outs are those who can contri-
bute to the decision-making pro-
cess by criticism and suggestions
but who do not actually make the
In the compromise crisis over
Berlin and Germany, the Ins are
people like President Kennedy,
Premier Khrushchev, Prime Min-
ister Macmillan, Chancellor Aden-
haier, Secretary Rusk, Foreign
Minister Gromyko, the Earl of
Home, :and ambassador Llewellyn
They are the men who meet in
Washington or New York or Paris
or Bonn or London or Vienna and
who send each other telegrams
and notes and letters, some of
which they publish, some of which
they keep secret (like the letter
Kennedy sent Adenauer last
THE INS in the West have
been seeking to prepare public
opinion so the Outs will not object
to a reasonable and balanced ac-
commodation on Berlin and Ger-
many with Khrushchev. But the
Outs have often reacted nega-
tively to this, particularily in West
Germany,, where there is fear of
a sell-out to Khrushchev.
"The situation," an influential
"... N ORDER to maintain his
status and his privileges,
the student is supposed to keep
out of trouble. His politics, like
his other extracurricular activi-
ties, must be conducted in approv-
ed ways. And the way most ap-,
proved is a mock version of adult
national party politics called "stu-
dent government." This is en-
couraged, not to give the students
an opportunity to govern them-
selves, but as a way of rendering
genuine political interest innoc-
uous. "Student government is most
acceptable when it mimics-indeed
parodies-adult politics: the fur-
ious campus election campaigns,
complete with posters, speeches,
parties, factions, jockeying for
office. All the political trimmings
are there except the real issues
and the real relation between ac-
tion and power which are the very
substance of politics ..,
"Anything approaching serious
and controversial politics runs the
danger of being considered "off-
campus" and not sterile enough
for student participation."
-Philip Rieff
in Harper's

West German newspaper, The
Frankfurter Allgemeine wrote last
week, "has become 'so difficult
partly because of the talkativeness
of some influential Americans,
talkativeness that has caused so
much confusion as to give rise
to the spreading of the dreadful
view that the Americans are about
to 'sell out' Germany."
The talkativeness referred to
included General Clay's casual re-
marks during a party in West
Berlin. Later denied, the remarks
were reported to'have indicated
that the United States is con-
sidering de facto recognition of
East Germany.
* * *
THAT THE INS are considering
some sort of recognition of East
Germany is really no secret, just
as the possibility of a practical
reunion of East and West Ger-
many, although often said by both
West and East to be their goal,
is nearly zero. But on both of
these matters there is a strong
negative emotional response among
the Outs of West Germany.
De facto, partial recognition of
East Germany is a card held by
the Ins of the West, a card the
Ins might be willing to toss on
the table if the Ins of 'the Soviet
Union! toss out a card of equal
Value, perhaps a card containing
a written guarantee of the West-
ern rights of access to West Ber-
Taking into account that the
Soviet Ins are not sincere and that
they do violate written and spo-
ken agreements at will, according
to the expediency of the momenta
we must realize that same exped-
iency' also causes them to adhere
to agreements, at least for a
limited period of time after they
have made them. For the Soviet
Ins are world propagandists as
well as national imperialists, and
realize that to violate an agree-
ment too shortly after making it
is to incur an unnecessary nega-
tive world reaction.
Berlin and Germany would have
temporary meaning and effect.
But such a compromise is neces-
sary to prevent war.
To state the obvious, the basic
crisis stems from the refusal of
both sides to yield on basic points.
The points that clash are the
vital economic and political ties
of West Berlin with West Germany
and of West Germany with the
North Atlantic Alliance. The So-
viet Ins want these ties cut and
the Western Ins, backed by the
spirit of the Western Outs, want
them maintained. The Ins of the
West stress that they 'will not let
these ties be' broken; and they
hope that the Ins of the East
realize this and will stop jeopar-
dizing the peace. On this hope
rests the success of a satisfactory,
temporary resolution of a crisis
that will not end in Berlin.

Munch ... last local concerts

rPit, Pendulum,'
Horrible, Horror

IF HOME1COMING seemed a little tame this year or if you've got a
rich uncle with a weak heart, examine the fu'nctional merits of "The
Pit and the Pendulum." Bearing no resemblance to the short story of
the same name by Edgar Allen Poe, the film combines in living (and
ghoulish) color the suspense and shock that made Poe the master of
The opening scene leads the viewer to anticipate another third-
class Vincent Price horror flick: a young man is driven to the edge of
a seaside manor, complete with foreboding castle enshrouded in mist;
the driver of the carriage refuses to go any further; said young' man
walks up and raps on the door and is refused admittance by a hostile
* * * *
THE UNWELCOME VISITOR is John Kerr seeking to view the
grave of his sister (Price's wife) who died of rather mysterious causes.
Price's manor manner gives him no reason to allay his suspicions. But
from this point on, the plot picks up and the, result is genuine, imag-
inative horror-medieval tortures, ghosts and insanity.
Viewers who have read Poe's masterpiece will be waiting for its
plot to be injected into the, film, but it never is. Instead Vincent Price,
his mind completely snapped, chains Kerr to a stone table and starts
his razor-sharp pendulum moving toward Kerr's solar plexus (not his
heart, as the ads say). Of course, the blade only nicks him and Kerr is
saved by Luana Anders, who plays Price's sister. She walks away from
the torture chamber in horrified disbelief. Kerr just holds his stomach.
-Michael Burns

Dual-Front Southern Campaign,

Slums Need More Than Schools

James B. Conant stated the danger to
democracy of the slum areas and called for a
complete overhaul of public education as a
remedy for these areas in his book "Slums and,
Suburbs" released Monday.
His remedy of an adapted curriculum and
vocational training in the schools is extremely
naive considering the scope of the problem.
Schools alone cannot hope to remedy the sit-
uation because the slums are growing faster
than the power of the schools in the commu-
nity. A child is .nfluenced by his environment;
he spends only seven or eight hours in the.
school' atmosphere. The remainder of his life is
spent in noisy tenements or even more sordid
places. If the school hopes to influence a child
it must first reach into his environment. ,In
other words, extensive adult education and
control must take place before any curriculum
can really reach the children.
DULTS IN THE SLUMS must be educated
to see and learn the consequences of their
Adult education money for teams of social
.r ... A ar.l nv ..4,,,p, +4rw n.1 + aini ngm i

funds recognize the need will the money be
OWEVER, the problem of controlling the
growth of slums while re-education takes
place is a more knotty problem. The existence
of slums and their products is dangerous to
our democratic system, for as Conant says,
"what can words, like 'freedom,' 'liberty' and
'equality of opportunity' mean to the unem-
ployed of the slums?" Slums must be cleaned
up to save democracy but can democratic
methods be employed?
To control 'slums: (1) Children that are un-
manageable due to a home situation should
be taken away from their parents. (2) Aid to
Dependent Children should stop at the second
illegitimate child and the alternative of ster-
ilization or discontinuance of all ADC should
be offered to the mother. The first two chil-
dren may be accidents but society should not
have to support three "mistakes." These andt
other measures, such as putting the unem-
ployed to work on welfare projects, should be
taken and even enforced by the state.
THE PROCESS of re-education without con-
trol of the present situation will be useless

To the Editor:
I THINK that John Roberts and
Faith Weinstein have an inade-
quate understanding of the mak-
ings of social revolution in Mis-
There is no conflict between
voter registration and direct ac-
tion that organized and resource-
ful people cannot solve. Even more
important, itis in the dual thrust
of voter registration and direct
action 'that maximum effective-
ness may be achieved,
* * *
IF MR. 'ROBERTS and Miss
Weinstein think that revolution
-a basic change in the relations
between men - will ever come
about by voter registration, they
have not been keen to their North-
ern environment. Basic relations
between Negro and white are still
marked by status distinction
based upon color. The Negro popu-
lation can vote, and does, in the
North, but still is faced with si-
lent segregation.
What the combination of direct
action and voter registration does
is to assist with direct action the
dignity, the refusal to be fright-
ened of these young people, while
voter registration is a device which
may allow, their people to begin
to assert power within the legal
structure. But do not think that
one replaces the other. If the gov-
ernment of Mississippi can be
cpi1,ar , by rnnn4rtA NP~r-n h no

happened this month, but to
realize that excitement for vot-,
ing and for direct action is gen-
erated by the same conditions and
seeks the same goal: in Don Gad-
son's words, FREEDOM NOW.
SNCC MAY WELL indeed have
to develop a more adequate rev-
olutionary strategy to deal with
both these weapons as coordinate,'
not mutually exclusive tactics.
Legal structures and social in-
stitutions of bigotry have a definite
relationship; maybe a more so-,
phisiticated understanding of the
dynamics of this relationship is
needed in the Atlanta and Mc-
Comb offices of SNCC. But let us
not bring our own reformist men-
talities to revolutionary causes,
and then make confused judge-
Mr. Roberts and Miss Wein-
stein are to be commended for.
their attempt to analyze a situa-
tion with which I know they
identify. For this. attempt alone,
their article is an example of the
kind of thinking that needs to
be done on our part in the North.
This time, though, they seemed
to have brought the North with
them, and misunderstood Southern
-Robert Ross, '63
Loud Voice ..
To the Editor:
T HTAVE NO.TED nf Tlte the reg-

articles on the front page dealt
with the candidates of Voice Po-
litical Party. No other space was
alloted to any other candidate.
Now I am sure that the. Michi-
gan Daily finds it hard to rec-
ognize that any thing else but
Voice Political Party and the
Michigan Daily exist on this cam-
pus and perhaps in the world. But
such an open avowal of this policy
seems in conflict with the usual
slant of the Michigan Daily. Per-
haps we may expect some merger'
between Voice Political Party and
the Michigan Daily in the coming
days. Perhaps we can expect the
Daily election editorial to be no-
thing more than a restatement of
the Voice Political Party platform.
Perhaps we can expect the Daily
motto: "Where Opinions are Free,
Truth Will Prevail," to be changed
,to "Where Opinions are :Free,
Truth ,Will Prevail According to
Party Line."
I would hope that some re-
examination of the Michigan
Daily's role as a campus news-
paper would be forth coming.
-Per K. Hanson,'62
To the Editor:
WE WERE very interested in
your front-page article on
the change in Stockwell's dress
regulations. Congratulations to
them! I must admit it was of
special interest 'to Jordan Hall.


The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding

ginning Oct. 25. All departments and
offices received, early in September,
a notice indicating the number of di-
rectories assigned to them (one for
each telephone). Additional copies for
departmental use may be ordered at
$1.00 each. Please send requisitions to
University Publications, 3564 Adminis-
tration Bldg. Copies for home use by

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