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September 24, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-09-24

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Seventy-First Year -
Truth Will Prevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

"Just Give Me A Hand With This First One, Son'



Move UN
To West .Berlin


Associated Press News Analyst
PREMIER KHRUSHCHEV'S remark that West Berlin might make an
appropriate home for the United Nations hints at Soviet groping
for means of backing away from a crisis which has given the rest of
the world an attack of war jitters.
It is doubtful Khrushchev was serious about the proposal as such,
or that he had any expectation it would be welcome in the form it:was
made. The way he advanced the idea, it seemed loaded in his own favor.
Among UN delegates, U.S. leaders, West Germans or West Berliners



Underdeveloped Nations
Key to UN Future

rHE MICHIGAN SENATE may not be very
representative of population, but it has
nothing on the United Nations General As-
embly, with its one-vote-per-nation represen-
ation. While the so-called "big" powers are
ickering about the fnture of the UN, the
World is waiting and watching to see how the
mall nations will use their 80 votes, which
epresent only one fourth of the UN's con-
tituency and a tiny fraction of the world's
conomic power.
It has always seemed that these countries
ire quick to concede to the Reds. For instance,
he United States has always been afraid to
lebate the question of admitting Red China
o the UN because it would be allowed mem-
iership due to appeasement by neutrals.
But the whole China question has been
clipsed by the biggest crisis in UN history'
concerning the future executive leadership
f the world organization. While the Red



SINGLE BILL is holding up the adjourn-
ment of Congress.
One would expect, in- this time of crisis, that
his measure deals with foreign policy. Or,
erhaps, it is some great program to improve
he economy and reduce unemployment. May-
e it is a measure extending civil rights?
Actually, the bill in question is a relief
easure for duPolt stockholders who must
all their, General Motors holdings.
Conservative senators are refusing to expedite
he consideration of an important supplemental
ppropriations bill. By delaying this measure
he required three days, they are forcing Con-
ress to consider this bill now rather than next
anuary as originally planned.
N THIS ERA when the underdeveloped na-
tions of the world have acutely perceived
heir poverty and yearn for economic advance-
ent, and when technoloyg is impoverishing
nd unemploying millions of workers at home,
is ridiculous for the work of Congress to be
eld' up to enrich a few stockholders of the
orld's biggest and most profitable companies.
It is the height, of hypocrisy for the con-
ervative senators who oppose any measure
aid people at home and abroad to insist
hat Congress stay in session to aid a few in-
ividuals who probably do not need the money
Congress should reconsider this situation
st it makes a fool of itself before the world.

China question was (and is) basically one of
moral judgment and emotion, the executive
crisis is one of completely practical politics.
And the very life of the small nations may
depend on their willingness to stand firm
against Communist intimidation.
THE SOVIET UNION has the political power
to stall the operations of the UN. until it
gets the Secretary-General repaced by a three-
man executive council. As Khrushchev well
knows if he has ever driven a "troika," only
one of the three horses pulling the cart need
go astray to end the ride in chaos.
Concession to the Russian proposal will
mean stagnation and death for the UN. Un-
fortunate as it is, power and force are the
only means to maintain peace in this world.
The small nations' only hope for security
rests in international military strength which
can protect them from being digested, whether
under the banner of "colonialism" or "libera-
It is conceivable the Russians will agree
to another Secretary-General, but if they do,
the man they endorse will be one they can
count on not to get in the way if, some in-
cipient nation looks ready for admission to the
Great Communist Brotherhood.
And Russia is holding all the high cards
this time-it can stall and stall until one of
these alternatives is selected by the UN.
("Would you prefer the gas chamber or the
electric chair?")
THE ONLY POSSIBLE way out is for the
neutral nations to farm such a vigorous and
uncompromising opposition to Soviet schem-
ing that the Reds are forced to cooperate.
Even this is taking a real chance. When
Russia resumed atomic tests during the Bel-
grade conference of neutralists, it said, in ef-
fect, that world opinion no longer is a con-
sideration in Soviet planning.
And the neutrals, in failing to rise in in-
dignation against the Russian affront, in-
dicated that they may well concede to one.
of the deadly alternatives facing the UN at
the moment.
IT HAS ALWAYS turned out before that if
the Communists are met with determination
they will eventually concede for the moment
and wait patiently for the next chance to
intimidate their opponents. Perhaps they are
beyond this now. Perhaps if the neutralists
give them any trouble this time they will
leave the UN entirely.
But it is worth the risk, because a UN stag-
nated to the level of a debating society would
have little meaning in the present world
Associate Editorial Director

Punishment by Draft?

graduate Charles S. Kamen, 21
years of age, incurred the wrath
of his draft board (or the Miami
Rotary Club, which are all but
the same thing) by mocking and
otherwise creating disturbance at
a Rotary Club showing of the
controversial film, "Operation
In June Kamen received pre-
liminary Peace Corps acceptance.
When Kamen, supported by a
letter from the Peace Corps, ap-
plied for the customary draft de-
ferment granted by Peace Corps
candidates, he was turned down.
It seems that his actions had so
enraged the local patriots that
they' decided he was unfit for
Peace Corps service. In fact the
president of the draft board said
at the time, "Young Kamen would
be better placed in the service

where he would be taught Amer-
icanism, than in the Peace Corps
where he would teach it."
is almost incidental that these
worthies take it upon themselves
to assume that the function of
the Peace Corps is to teach
"Americanism." It is not. They
are teaching skills that, hope-
fully, will help underdeveloped
nations to improve their lot. Of
course it is expected that their
work will result in increased un-
derstanding and good will between
the participating countries, but
this is a by-product.
It would be interesting to hear
a definition of this nebulous
"Americanism" that the local
draft board feels Kamen lacks,
but would acquire in the service,
where high-ranking officers have
been dismissed for showing the


The Rationale
For Dissent


IT IS REALLY sickening to find a "citizen"
with so little feeling for his country and
what it stands for that he hands a tremendous
propaganda victory to the Soviet Union at a
ime when its public relations is at such a low
Yet such a man is William Clark, a Negro
n Newark, New Jersey, who sent his 14-year-
)d daughter Huldah to school in Moscow
Huldah was enrolled in the Essex County
Vocational School for Girls, which Clark calls
"Jim Crow type school within the Negro
There are a lot of ways to improve local
chool systems, but Clark and his fellow mem-
ers of the Committee for the Promotion of
he Education of Negroes in Russia have pre-
erred to reach for the grand scale. When
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was in the
Uhited States last fall, Clark's group got him
o promise an education for Huldah.. Good
>ld Uncle Nikita, always willing to don the
father image when it yields political profit,
aid 'yes' and dreamed of headlines in Pravda.

THIS IS NOT to criticize educational ex-
changes with Russia. As long as they are
intellectual excursions and not political foot-
balls, they can prove very useful. Not only
does Clark's action tend to discredit such ex-
changes, but he has put his daughter in a
difficult position by his antics while she really
is not in a position to choose what is best
for herself.
The American Negro's willingness to work
patiently for improvement of his status is an
example to all peoples and all races. Clark's
move can only act to discredit legitimate Ne-
gro action groups in the minds of the public.'
"I'd rather send my daughter to Moscow
than to Mississippi," the activist inanely told
reporters. Well, we might too, .if put in this
position, except for these other considerations.
When the furor dies down and Huldah is
attending classes in Russia, we can only hope
she finds less racial prejudice than some Afri-
can college students have discovered in the
same situation. It would be too ironic.

(EDITOR'S ,NOTE: Following is
Bertrand Russell's statement to the
court on being sentenced to prison
September 12 in an effort to. pre-
vent earcivil disobedience rally
against nuclear war called for Sep-
tember 17.)
should like to make a short
statement as to the reasons for
my presentcourse. This is. my
personal statement, but I hope
that those who are accused of the
same so-called crime will be in
sympathy with what I have to say.
"It was only step by step and
with great reluctance that we
were driven to non-violent civil
"Ever since the bomb was drop-
ped on Hiroshima on August 6,
1945, I have been profoundly
troubled by the danger of nuclear
war. I'began my attempts to warn
people by entirely orthodox meth-
ods. I expressed my fears in a
speech in the House of Lords three
months after the bombs were
dropped on Japan. I called to-
gether scientists of the highest
eminence from all parts of the
world and am now Chairman of,.
their periodic meetings. They issue
wise and reasoned reports con-
cerning nuclear warfare, its prob-
able disastrous results, and ways
of preventing its occurrence. No
newspaper notices these reports
and they have no effect either on
Government or on public opinion.
The popular press minimizes and
ridicules the efforts of those work-
ing against nuclear warfare, and
television with rare exceptions is
closed to us. In recent months one
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility., Notices should be

television company, and only one,
offered me two minutes for gen-
eral platitudes, but when I said
I should wish to speak on Berlin
the offer was withdrawn.
"IT HAS SEEMED to some of us
that, in a country supposed to be
a democracy, the public should
know the probable consequences
of present Great Power politics in
East and West. Patriotism and
humanity alike urged us to seek
some way of saving our country
and the world. No one can desire
the slaughter of our families, our
friends, our compatriots, and a
majority of the human race, in a
contest in which there will be only
vanquished and no victors. We feel
it a profound and inescapable duty
to do everything in our power to
make the facts known and thereby
save at least a thousand million
lives. We cannot escape' this duty
by submitting to orders which, we
are convinced, would not be issued
if the likelihood and the horror
of nuclear war were more gener-
ally understood....
"Non-violent disobedience was
forced upon us by the fact that it
was more fully reported than any
other method of making the facts
known, andthat it caused people
to ask what had induced us to
adopt such a course of action. We
who are here accused are prepared
to suffer imprisonment because we
believe that this is the most effec-
tive way of working for the salva-
tion of our country and the world.
If you condemn us you will be
helping our cause, and therefore
serving humanity.
"While life remains to us, we
will not cease to do what lies in
our power to avert the greatest
calamity that has ever threatened
-Bertrand Russell

very movie that is the cause of
the present controversy. The defi-
nition evidently does not include
freedom of speech.
Kamen's original action is no
longer the issue. Heckling may or
may not have been the proper
avenue for voicing an objection.
In certain cases it is the only
way. While Kamen's action may
or may not be defensible, there
can be no justification for that of
the draft board.
THE PEACE CORPS has a very
extensive program for selecting
candidates. There is a preliminary
acceptance based on transcripts,
references, and other information
submitted by the applicant. This
is basically a negative choice.
Those who are obviously not qual-
ified are eliminated. Final selec-
tion is made near the end of the
training period. It is based on per-
formance during training and in-
terviews with psychologists, ex-
perts on the designated foreign
country and Peace Corps admin-
istrators. Roughly two-thirds of
those given preliminary accept-
ance go overseas.
It would appear obvious that it
is the Peace Corps and not local
draft board 46 which is'qualified'
to choose its members. Out of 500
cases, Kamen's is the only one
where a deferment was not grant-
ed. It seems safe to assume that
the Miami board has no greater
insight than any of the others.
Without a deferment Kamen is
of no use to the Peace Corps. He
cannot even leave the country. If,
at the time of final selection, Ka-
men is a borderline case, the se-
lection committee will be in an
almost untenable position. If
they accept him, there is a good
chance they will not be able to
use him. If they do not accept
him, it will look as though they
succumbed to outside pressure.
* * *
BUT THERE IS still a more
basic issue. It directly concerns
every male, eligible for the draft,
but indirectly every American.
The selective service system is, at
best, a necessary evil. Military
service, admittedly, can be a good
thing for some. A majority of
these individuals find their way
into the service sooner or later.
Others, who normally would have
no need of it, are forced to serve
in the interests of national de-
fense-all well and good.
However, even in times of na-
tional crises-such as these-all
eligible males are not needed, and
the administration of the selec-
tion of those who are needed must
be handled with the utmost in-
tegrity and impartiality.
When, as was the case in Miami,
the draft can be used as a weap-
on to punish those who, in the
eyes of self-appointed judges,
have committed some wrong, then
the entire system is in grave dan-
ger. There are well-established
criteria on which to base selec-
tion. Political views should never
be one of them-nor should any
other standard that fails to ad-
here strictly to an established sys-
Kamen's appeal of his classifi-

there appears little disposition to
anything more than a probing
thrust. Few see any practical pur-
pose in the idea of moving the UN
to Berlin.
But students of Soviet strategy
note that the Russians now, sud-
denly, are professing to see signs
of change in Western attitudes. A
good guess is that in the Soviet
timetable it is expedient to ease off
a bit, permitting the Kremlin to
concentrate on the 20-year inter-
nal program it is about to propa-
gandize at the October congress.
IN MOSCOW eyes the Berlin
tension probably served its pur-
poses. It was an excuse for re-
newed Soviet nuclear testing and
military buildup. It created an at-
mosphere in which Soviet people
could be told they were forced
to wait indefinitely for any
marked increase in light industry
production for consumers. It pro-
vided an excuse for postponing
promises, such as the shorter work
week. It supplied a pretext for
dragooning satellite economies un-
der over-all Moscow planning and
Seeming to feel his way cau-
tiously, Khrushchev casually re-
marked, in a talk with a British
leftist Aug. 31 that it would be all
right with him if the UN moved to
West Berlin.
And early this week, the Soviet
government newspaper Izvestia
said the idea deserved attention
and "shows again the favorable
opportunities for West Berlin that
will be created by its conversion
into a demilitarized city."
That clearly showed how the
proposal was weighted. West Berlin
first would be abandoned by West-
ern occupation forces - a key
Khrushchev demand-even before
there was any talk about moving.
the UN there.
In the unlikely event this gam-
bit was taken seriously, the West
would surrender its Berlin rights.
West Berlin would be isolated in a
Communist sea. The Russians
could talk forever about the next
step, without permitting the idea
to get anywhere.
KHRtJSHCHEV in any case ad-
vances his own propaganda. A
year ago in New York he insisted
the UN should be moved out of
the United States. The Berlin
headquarters idea keeps the prop-1
aganda alive. And in some quar-
ters, it has its effect.
Queried on the idea, Ali Sas-
troamidjojo of neutralist Indo-
nesia, which has some influence
in Africa and Asia, said it seemed
to be the "general consensus that
we move from New York."
The Indonesian added, however,
that if the UN had to move it
should be to a "more pleasant, a
more quiet place." He suggested
Ambassador Luis Padilla Nervo
of Mexico, disarmament commis-
sion chairman and a former as-
sembly president, said the UN
should remain in New York. He
added that if the assembly so
elects, it can meet whenever it
wants in Berlin without changing
the headquarters.
The West would hardly look
favorably upon a UN headquarters
deep inside Red territory and thus
possibly subject to Soviet-Com-
munist influences. West Berlin as
it is constitutes a symbol of resist-
ance to Communism. In any other
circumstances it would be likely to
lose that symbolism.
national movements that have
emerged in modern Africa is their
unembarrassed eclecticism-their
readiness to draw intelligently at
the same time on the Western
democratic (including within this
the Marxist) tradition and on
their own indigenous resources:
their efforts to assert the moral

wealth and Ydignity of individuals
against the racialists; to push for-
ward the frontiers of liberty
against the representatives of au-
thority and legitimacy; to develop
the idea of common African needs
and interests against the particu-
larists; to insist on peaceful co-
existence against the advocates of
power blocs and nuclear deter-
rents; to remind the world of the
possibilities of human happiness
in the face of the prophets of
In doing this they have follow-
ed in the tracks of earlier revolu-
tionary movements, no doubt; but
they have given old principles a
new application and meaning.
Americans, in particular, are in-
clined to argue that Africans must
be democrats in their sense of
the term - meaning "Western
values," anticommunism, two-
party systems, free enterprise,

regard Khrushchev's remarks as
Red China
To the Editor:
peace in the world might re-
ceive vital aid soon from a humili-
ating U. S. defeat in the United
Nations. The lack of cooperation
from our allies, the Chinese Na-
tionalist, may' have upset our
government's plan to stall UN
seating of Communist China.
If it is the primary purpose of
the UN to promote peace by re-
conciling international conflicts
without war, this is an event long
overdue. The U.S.'s humiliation
would be a much-deserved pun-
ishment for the reactionary nature
of our opposition which seems to
place national pride and revenge
ahead of peace.
THOSE WHO oppose the ad-
mission of Communist China be-
cause of her acts of aggression do
not take account of the axiom of
psychology which states that one
of the major causes of aggression
is frustration. With a proud dic-
tator as with any person, being
denied recognition is an obvious
form of frustration. Further denial
of recognition will inevitably cause
further aggressive feelings and
further aggressive actions on the
part of Red China.
THIS TAKES an enormous sig-
nificance when we consider that
China presents the greatest threat
of nuclear war. Whereas the Rus-
sian "overnment and the Russian
people fear nuclear war, the Chi-
nese may be less alarmed at the
prospect of a nuclear war than at
the prospect of a conventional
The Chinese will soon have nu-
clear weapons. The U.S. and Rus-
sia would be crippled by war and
China might well emerge the most
powerful nation on earth. With
tens of millions of her civilian
population starving, great loss of
life is not of vital importance, but
sending millions of her most able-
bodied Workers to fight in a for-
eign battlefield would be a crush-
ing burden to her economy.
Travelers report that the Rus-
sian people are friendly to the
U.S., but that the soaring Chinese
population hates the U.S. We are
blamed for their heavy arms ex-
penditures which they can so ill
The UN cannot alleviate the bad
feeling between the U.S. and
China if China is refused access
to the arena of conciliation.
We might well remember that
Russia sees us as rivals, whereas
the Chinese see us as bitter ene-
--J. L. Allen, Jr., Grad.
To the Editor:
IN REGARD to your news article
and editorial about the Michi-
gan House Plan in today's Daily,
I would readily admit that the
Inter-Quadrangle Council has in
the past had its differences with
the Assistant Dean of Men John
M. Hale, but I hardly think that
the impression of "total war" that
was given in your article gives an
accurate view of the size of these
There have been many items in
the past that have shown that a
true spirit of cooperation has ex-
isted, and in result produced many
fine improvements in our residence
halls system. I am also sure that

tinue in the future and that a new
and feasible Michigan House Plan
as well as uncountable other pro-
jects will arise from it.
--Thomas Moch, President
Inter-Quadrangle Council
Retreat .. .
To the Editor:
SOME DAYS AGO, on a Sunday,
I happened to be passing
through the Galveston area of
southern Texas. The center of the
hurricane "Carla" was only about
thirty miles distant and all local
radio stations were giving infor-
mation about various local events
which had been cancelled because
of the storm. I was most surprised
to hear announcements that sev-
eral churches in the area would
not be holding the usual evening
services.'This struck me as an
interesting observation on modern
afif*a t nnna-nnn jrinanfncq,



Pacifists Say 'Red and Dead'

best known for its thousands of tame
'eons, wheeling in sudden circles about the
intains as they zero in for crumbs from
rist's hands.
3ut Sunday, these pigeons were not in the
adlines. Instead, fun-loving Bertrand Russell
I several hundred of his satellite pacifists
tinguished themselves by getting .carted off
jail for "civil disobedience"-a sit-down
nonstration in Trafalgar Square for uni-
eral disarmament.
jAg jtjjjn Rally

Now, we have little against unilateral dis-
armament. It is a fine, round-sounding term
that flows off liberal tongues like honey. But-
and perhaps here we're old fashioned-we hold
the notion that perhaps it would be safest to
let the Russians unilaterally disarm FIRST.
SINCE KHRUSHCHEV seems rather opposed
to this course, we cannot help asking why
the pacifists don't demonstrate in the Soviet
Union-at least to give the Soviets a chance of
hearing the world peace gospel, anyway.
Those who insist on juvenile pranks and
headline-snatching stunts such as Russell's
seem almost on the level of infants throwing
temper tantrums. The article on pacifist dem-
onstrations written by Champaign's Gene Keyes

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