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September 21, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-09-21

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Seventy-First Year

New Solution
For Old Problem

Opinions Are Free
Lth Will Prevail"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



Rep. Marshall: Make Us
Safe for Democracy

SOMEOW, it seems, we must develop "in-
telligent and aggressive opposition" to the
Communist menace permeating and adulterat-
ing the once pure strains of American life.
While the most basic issue facing our society
today may not be the threat posed by Soviet
military and political power, this is the one
that is clearest and most imminent to most
of us. Any loyal American, particulary if he
is an elected political representative, must
show an unyielding opposition to Moscow's
?or' those representatives not directly con-
cerned with the formulation and approval
of American foreign policy, it is a little dif-
ficult to find a relevant issue connected with
the Communist threat. This is particularly
true of state representatives whose purview
does not include international crises.
UTA SOLUTION has been found. It con-
sists simply In expanding Communism. We
are not locked in a struggle with the Soviet
'Union, but with an alien and atheistic philos-
ophy whose agents are everywhere. The ten-
tacles of the Marxist octopus extend into
Ktanga, Viet Nam and the city hall at San
Now, the greater these representatives can
make the threat of internal subversion look,
the more popular will they be. Thus, on the
national level, we have the colorful House
Cominttee on Un-American Activities whose
curious belief that the American Communist
party gets stronger as it loses members is tied
in with its "investigations" of subversive ac-
tivity among students, professors and dock
Workers. Aided by the propaganda of FBI
Chief J. Edgar Hoover, HUAC attempts to
perpetrate the fear that domestic Communist
and fellow travelers are making deep inroads
into American life and are particularly effec-
tive among our college youth.
WEHAVE SEEN similar tactics in our own
state over the past year. The campaign
protesting the lifting of a ban against Coin-
munist, speakers at Wayne State University
centered around the thesis that such a liberal-
ization of policy would be open invitation for
Communist to turn the college generation
away from Americanism. The campaign drew
support from several Michigan legislators who
wanted to create the image of anti-Communist
or wield more power over the "independent"
This week we have learned of a new attempt
to "make :us safe for democracy." Representa-
tive Frederick Marshall (R-Allen)announced
that he is drafting legislatipn to bar persons
affiliated with "subversive" groups from work-
ing in tax-supported universities and colleges.
Marshall hopes to present to the Legislature
a whole package of bills to "strengthen. our
method of instruction for our youth in the
tenets of Americanism and to develop intelli-
gent and aggressive opposition to Communism."
The employment of questionable persons
would serve to defeat the purpose of this
package legislation and "to help destroy the
system of our government," Marshall believes.
His ban would be against those affiliated or
identified with groups appearing on the At-
torney General's list of subversive organiza-
list became defunct long ago, in the Thir-
ties and early Forties Many professors, re-
HEN THE ISRAELI court returns its verdict
sometime soon, Adolph Eichmann doubtless
will be condemned and so, once again, will be
Hitler's Reich and what it stood for. Those
events will duly take their place upon the con-
science of mankind, alongside the depredations
of Timur and Ghengis Khan; the Spanish Fury
and the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day;
the killing of Armenians and Haymarket anar-
chists; the Congo, 1860.,
But until each and every man, whether in
NewYork or Moscow, Bonn, Tel Aviv or New
Delhi, realizes that he himself shares in the
guilt for every such sin that is committed, the
barbarism will go on. It will end only when
every man realizes that if himself and a billion

others like him had only done things a little
bit differently, then the world might have been
Because self-condemnation is the habit of
only the very best of men, humankind will
continue in its sinful ways, as inexorably as the
rivers flow into a sea which is never full.
Editorial Staff
City Editor' Editorial Director

knowned for their competence and teaching
ability today, were fleeting members of these
organizations or became "identified" with them
by speaking before them. Many did not know
that these groups were Communist-oriented,
if in fact they really were. The attorney
general's list has no legal significence. An ac-
cused man can not be convicted under the
Internal Securities Act or Smith Act merely
because he has been or is associated with one
or more of these groups.
Marshall has failed to distinguish between
past and present membership in these groups
or knowledge and ignorance of their real
This is not a central issue in discussing the
wisdom of Marshall's plan, but it is ,far from
a minor one. If the legislation is adopted, one
can be sure from past patterns, these distinc-
tions will be blurred and many professors who
are decidedly not pro-Communist will lose
their jobs and any chance, of finding other
ones. It is not to a university's financial
advantage to hire a man who has apeared
before subversive activities boards, particularly
if he chooses to invoke some of the rights
guaranteed to him by the constitution.
For a man to hold a teaching position in the
University or any of the other eight tax-
supported institutions of higher learning in
Michgan, he has to sign an oath of loyalty
to the state and the United States constitu-
tion. To this infringement on freedom of be-
lief, Marshall would like to add prohibitions
on freedom of action.
THE "AMERICANISM" Marshall and his ilk
seek to inculcate in youth is based his-
torically on the preservation and protection
of certain individual rights asserted in the
Ieclaration of Independence (itself, a most
subversive document) and Bill of Rights, and
interpreted by the. Supreme Court.
This "'Americanism," moreover, has always
included the assertion that any issue is open
for discussion at any time, that any action or
policy is open to criticism and analysis. This
concept is not limited to America alone, for
it provides the only way knowledge can be
gained and made vital, the sole means of
insuring the best possible implementation of
the best ideas.
A university is one of the few places left
where ipeople are allowed to dissent and are
encouraged to question., What a professor
asserts is often not dogma, but is supposed
to be as a stimulus to further thought by the
student. A professor is hired because of his
competence and knowledge of a particular
discipline. His students do not have to accept
his stated beliefs about his fields, and often
do not hear the ones related to other fields.
mented, by some sort of investigation com-
mittee, which seems inevitable, there is no
reason to believe that the committee would
avoid the "witch hunting" techniques of sim-
ilar groups which have stepped on civil rights
and used guilt-by-associatipn exposure to ruin
the careers of talented professors.
If the committee is able to conduct its
proceedings in a fair and judicial manner, it
will only discover that the number of sub-
versive professors (those actively working for
the violent overthrow of our government)
discovered will demonstrate the lack of any
real internal threat of Communism. These men
could be discovered by . presently existing
agencies and tried in the federal courts.
Marshall's proposals, then, are unnecessary
and against the Americanism he says he seeks
to protect. Since they will probably fail to
become law, they could be treated humorously,
except for the fact that they display an ir-
rationality about the foundations of our gov-
ernment and a penchant for political oppor-
tunism which are sad characteristics of a man
who/ is trusted with the future of the state.
Nelson at Stanford
Relations (PR) Lyle M. Nelson, adminis-
trating at Stanford University since late last
summer, has become a part of what Time mag-
azine calls in its latest issue "the hottest stock

on the academic market." The article points
out that Stanford is presently skimming the
top scholars from almost every prestige univer-
sity in the country (the University of Michigan.
not included), and top dollars from the nation's
wealthiest foundations and millionaires. Pres-
ently waging a campaign to raise $100 million,
'the Nelson group has already collected $20.5
million in four months.
The Nelson-Stanford honeymoon should be
long and productive. It matches a dynamic in-
dividual with a dynamic institution. His depar-
ture from the University of. Michigan should
cause his former colleagues in the Administra-
tion Building to reappraise the oft-repeated
claims that this University is decaying, that
men with new ideas must waintnnly beat their

Daily Staff Writer
University, either by choice or
by chance, tend to agglomerate in
groups of their own or a culturally
similar nationality. The issue was
brought into the forefront when
a survey research class report
was recently made public. It found
that 43 per cent of the approxi-
mately B25 foreign students who'
replied to the comprehensive
questionnaire tended to have most
of their friends with countrymen
rather than with Americans.
This is nothing new, but it is
something disturbing, because'
many of the foreign students
come here imbued by the concept
of an American as a gregarious,:
extroverted fellow. More often, the
foreign student finds American
students to be self-oriented and
somewhat impassive, and he be-
comes disappointed and a little
It is. obvious that in the inter-
national context of life and the
urgency of the world situation,
the need for inter-country com-,
munication is crucial and im-
mense. Yet, upon examination of
the role of the foreign student in
a large university, there arises the
question of just how much "friend-
liness" one can logically expect
to be shown to a foreign student.
In a sense, an American stu-
dent is in much the same position
as a foreign student when both
enter the University. The campus
is large and frightening, and each
student is confronted with the
problem of discovering friends
with a common denominator in
personality. The sifting-through
process is activated, analysis of
compatriots in the classroom be-
gins, and sooner or later every
student, foreign or American,
finds a niche among people of
mutual traits and desires. If he
doesn't, he usually leaves the cam-
THUS, IT SEEMS that every,
student must face the dilemma.
of securing "friends" in the ever-
awing and extremely cosmopolitan
morass, called the University. So
the particular problem of the for-
eign student becomes one o, de-
grees, not of uniqueness. In the
final analysis, do American stu-
dents really ignore foreign stu-
dents any more than they quietly
remove themselves from otlher dis-'
similar American students? Prob-.
ably a little, but the reasons and
factors are inherent.
Except for language (foreign
students speak reparkably good
English), the few common 'de-
nominators, such as food or dating
customs, which are available to
the large mass of American stu-
dents are unknown to the foreign
students and thus tend to make

them even more unlike American
.students. Also, most foreign stu-
dents are much older than the na-
. tives with whom he is most likely
to make contact.
Therefore, it would appear that
the withdrawal of the foreign stu-
dent into groups of his own na-
tionality, while still an unfortunate
circumstance, is inevitable to some
extent. In reacting to tie survey's
documentation of the foreign stu-
dent fragmentation, Dr. James M.
Davis, head of the Center, pleads
for the American student to "take
the initiative" in order to mend
the breach. Since student organ-
izations working with foreign stu-
dents are doing a good job, he
says, the responsibility must be
with the individual American stu-
dent to "go more than halfway."
THE STATEMENT sounds rea-
sonable, but it is largely un-
satisfactory, because it seems to
assume a special "role" of the
foreign student, i.e., one of a
guest-host relationship with Amer-
icans. .This is not good because
1) foreign students have the same
academic admission requirements
as anybody else and 2) they should
be judged as individuals on per-
sonal merit, not on the mere fact
that they come from another
Davis' praise of the student or-
ganizations is not entirely in line,
either, although one can readily
understand :his position. The most
important group, International
Students' Association, is not known
as a dynamic, :idea-originating
,club, nor is it entirely effective
in providing an arena for foreign
student-American student person-
al contact.
On the other hand,.other stu-
dent groups are improving. The
International Committee of the
Union, with its international bro-
ther program, is finally doing
something worthwhile.
But if the problem of alleviat-
ing the foreign students' disap-
pointment 'is one that has ,a
chance of non-organizational im-
provement, then it might seem
better to concentrate efforts on
communicating with the foreign
students rather, than chiding
Perhaps the wisest course for
the International' Center would be
to explain to foreign students that
the American student is a strange
creature, who deep down inside
is not ploof or impassive to for-
eign cultures, but one who is more
concerned with his own personal
problems and daily crises.
This in itself, might soothe the
genuine and understandable dis-
illusionments of the foreign stu-
dents and at the same time give
them some inkling that different
nations and cultures may not be
so different after all.'


After the German Election

mer that after the German
elections, which took place on
Sunday, the Bonn government
would have to make some very
difficult decisions. They arise
from the fact that since the foun
dation of the Federal Republic
with Dr. Adenauer as Chancellor,
Western and West German pol-
icy has rested on two incompat-
able promises. One has been that
West Germany would become in-
tegrated in NATO and the Com-
mon Market and even in the poli-
tical institutions of Western Eur-
ope. The other promise has been
that West Germany can absorb
and reunite with East Germany.
It has been known for some
years that both promises could
not be fulfilled now or in any
foreseeable future. None know this
better than the leaders of the
French government. It has been
assumed in London, it has been
reluctantly taken for granted in
Bonn, and among serious stu-
dents of the German problem in
America it has long been accepted
as a fact. But it would have been
political poison in West Germany
for the Allies to speak out loud
about this choice between joining
Western Europe and rejoining
East Germany.
In order to avoid any taint of
interference in German domestic
politics, there has been no serious
open discussion of the German-
question during this past summer.
Incredible as it will seem to the
historian, we have teetered on the
brink of nuclear war without one
paragraph, without one'ssentence,
from any Allied leader seriously
discussing the German problem.
* * *
TET A CHOICE between two
Adenauer promises is now un-
avoidable and all the responsible
and informed Germans know it

quite well. No one at this distance
can say 'how large a part was
played in the elections by the
realization that new decisions of
policy would become necessary,
and that they should be made by
younger men than Dr. Adenauer.
But if, as the returns indicate,
the outcome makes necessary a
coalition government, the German
voters will have done well. The
decisions whichthe next govern-
ment, must take should rest on
broad national support, and no
party should be in a position to
exploit the disappointment caused
by the break-up of the old. wish-
f il stereotypes and slogans.
* * .'
avoidable and they are most
necessary because the physical
partition of Germany has become
a fully accomplished fact and this
fact has been acquiesced in by
the whole NATO alliance.
There is no use saying that in
acquiescing the West has surren-
dered to Khrushchev. For this
overlooks the essential explana-
tion for European acquiencence
in the partition. The fact is that
for ten years or more the Western
powers have built their whole
German policy on the partion of
Germany. NATO is based on the
partition of Germany. The Com-
mon Market is based on the par-
tition of Germany. The embar-
rassment in the West' today, par-
ticularly in Paris and in Washing-
ton, does not arise from the fact
that Germany is now fully par-
titioned. The embarrassment
arises from being asked to recog-
nize the fact of partition which
has so long been hidden and, al-
though all Western Europe be-
lieves in it, has never been avowed.
The decision which the West
Germans face is whether they will
commit themselves wholly and
wholeheartedly to the West-to

NATO, the Common Market, the
United Nations, and to the web
of political and cultural associa-
tions which constitute Western
society. Or whether they will re-
main with the *est, but remain
with mental reservations, as for
example that they might pur-
chase reunification from the So-
viets. We shall need some assur-
ances from Bonn. For there are
already voices saying that we have
betrayed them, that if we call a
spade o spade, we will have sur-
* * *
I DO NOT myself believe that
the Germans can or should re-
nounce re-unification. But they
will have to wait a long time for
it and a ,lot will have to be done
first in order to make it possible
in the end. Now, in the emotional
crisis out of dire realization that
partition has come, the mission
of the West Germans -is to use
their great gifts andtheir great
power to make work and to build
up non-Communist Europe and
the Atlantic Community. That is
the only present answer to
Khrushchev's action of August 13
which sealed the partition of Ger-
many, and indeed the partition of
Europe: create in the West a
great, powerful, rich, and free
community which must be reck-
oned with in all the calculations
of world power.
* * *
up their minds to recognize the
fact of partition, the effect in
Poland and elsewhere in Eastern
Europe will be far-reaching. The
fear of a revived and re-armed
Germany seeking its lost terri-
tories is, next to the Red Army,
the most powerful fact which
binds the satellite empire to Mos-
cow. Remove'or even reduce that
fear, and the tension in Eastern
Europe will decline. There is little
doubt that then the spirit of in-
dependence will arise. For it rises
and falls inversely with the fear
of German revival and of world
If the Germans, having recog-
nized the fact of partition, change
their present policy and seek bet-
ter relations in Eastern Europe,
they will do a great service to the
world. For the day would then not
be too far off when the Eastern
European countries, like Finland
today, would begin to draw closer
to the world economy.
* * *'
IF IT BECOMES possible to ne-
gotiate a wide central European
arrangement with Khrushchev, it
should open the door to a gradu-
ally closer association of the two
German states. Under present cir-
cumstances they cannot be fused
into one state. But they might
look forward to becoming some
day a Dual State, not unlike the
Austro-Hungarian monarchy be-
fore the first World War.
THE QUESTION is often asked
these days: what is there to nego-
tiate with Khrushchev?
The answer, I would say, is that
we can and should negotiate the
follnwing. A rnffirmatinn of the


Michigan Bell:ame
The Numbers Game
t Daily Staff Writer
UPON RETURNING to Ann Arbor, the average student will be cha-
grined to note that the Michigan Bell Telephone Company has
joined the ranks of those doing their best to confuse the American
And disappointing it is too, for the 'phone company, in times
gone past, has been a bastion of independence and' simplicity. Now
it's getting so difficult to place a phone call that one thinks twice
before reaching for the receiver.
So what's the problem now, you ask? As if you didn't know. It's,
those confounded phone numbers, that's what it is. They've grown
longer than a fat cat's tail and ;there's no end in sight. Observe
what I mean.
* * * *
IT USED TO BE that, The Daily was reached by dialing
NOrmandy 2-3241. Easy number to remember. Only five digits and
a catchy exchange. Everything' was nice.
Now they've gone and loused it up. 'No longer can you reach The
Daily by dialing NOrmandy 2-3241. (Actually you can, but you're not
supposed to know that.) Now the numbei' is 662-3241 See if you
can make any rhyme or reason out of that one. NOrmandy 2-3241 was
pretty easy to remember. 662-3241 is nigh onto impossible.
AND THAT'S NOT ALL. The easy miracle of direct dialing has
come to Ann Arbor since you left in June. But it's not really direct
and not very easy either.
Say you want to call Tecumseh. First you must dial 1, then the
number. So if you are calling TEmple 1-2345 in Tecumseh, you must
dial this mess: 18312345. Try aid remember that.
But don't stop yet. There's' more. Say you want to call someplace
that's OUTSIDE the Ann Arbor area. Here's where the fun begins.
Suppose you want to call Chicago. The number you want is FIre-
hammer 7-3869. Chicago's area code is 312. And don't forget you
have to dial 1. So'the number you've got toremember is-hold your
NOT SO BAD you say? Well, here's the gasser. When you finally
get all that done, the operator--the local Ann Arbor operator, mind
you-the 'one who used to make all those complicated manuevers for
you-cuts in and says: "From what number are you calling?" Just
try and convince her that you're calling from NOrmandy 2-3241 and
not 662-3241. You'll have a heck of a time.
How much simpler the Exchange System used to be.
One word and five digits weren't too hard to 'remember. Seven
digits, with no word to help you remember them, is quite hard. And
why did the phone company resort to this confusion? Well, it seems
they don't have anyone bright enough in their employ to figure
exchange words for all the number combinations.

Hammarskjor Death:
No Cause for Hysteria

To the Editor:
AS SINCERE and long-standing
admirers of The Daily we were
shocked and disturbed that you
permitted Mr. Harrah's editorial
on the death of Dag Hamnar-
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of. Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding

skjold to be printed. Divergence
of opinion has a legitimate and
necessary place in The Daily's edi-
torial policies. But unsubstanti-
ated rumors cited as fact display
contempt for the finest standards
of journalism.
The assumptions Mr. Harrah
has made, the emotion-laden lan-
guage he has presented them in;
and the politically bigoted reason-
ing reduce the quality of the
Daily's editorial page to the basest
of propaganda. Today's display
reminds one of the Hearst news-
papers on the eve of the Spanish-
American War.
Boldness need not degenerate
into arrogance; imagination need
not be fantasy; Mr. Harrah dis-
plays what may be admirable out-
spokenness but his judgment un-
wontedl transfers susnininn from

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