EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
"What Are You, Some Kind Of A Fresh Air Nut?"
SATURDAY, APRIL 28, 1962
NIGHT EDITOR: CYNTHIA NEU
_. __ ,_.
Iowan Decision Destroys
Freedom of the Press
RECENT REPORT made by a study com-
mittee on the Daily Iowan shows the
hypocrisy often uttered in affirmation of
"freedom of the press."
The report states "Our view of the educa-
tional process leads us to the conclusion that
a maximum of freedom and responsibility
should rest with students in production of the
However, further recommendations of the
report nullify this "maximum of freedom and
The committee recommends that a board in
control of the Iowan be set up directly under
the president of the university and charged
by him With the responsibility for the policy
and operation of the paper, including editorial
policies and the selection of student editors.
FURTHER LIMITATIONS include agreements
with the journalism school concerning "ar-
rangements for the use of position on the staff
of the Daily Iowan for supervised experience
for students of journalism in conjunction with
their professional course work" and the require-
ment that a faculty representative be present
in the news room when the paper goes to
Thus, the responsibility and freedom for
running the paper lies with the board and
journalism school and ultimately with the
president of the university. The policy and
operation of the paper is decided by these three
Further, the report cites the right of the
faculty to express "their, individual concerns
regarding articles, editorials, reviews and other
features . . . in full confidence that corrective
action will be taken if warranted."
HAT TYPE OF freedom can be held with
fear of "corrective action" hanging over
the newspaper's head. How free is any student
going to feel to express his true beliefs?
Under this-framework, the paper is a group
of articles "representative of the total univer-
sity, reflecting the interests and outlook of the
whole university," as the report stated.
This is not freedom of the press. There is
no place for the individual student to express
his beliefs if they happen to be critical. There
is only room for editorials expressing ideas
favorable to the "university image."
IT IS NATURAL for the university to be con-
cerned with its image. But, how can a uni-
versity keep a good image if it refuses to
progress? How can it change and progress
if it refuses criticism?
On the Iowan that the committee desires, the
individual loses his instrument of communica-
tion. The paper itself is no longer a means
of expression but is really gust a place for
The most appalling aspect of the situation is
that the managing editor of the Iowan com-
menting on the report said the recommenda-
tions were good or bad depending on the people
chosen for the board and as advisers, and
whether they advised rather than supervised.
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS cannot be
based on the hope that advisers will be
lenient and understanding, when the students
themselves are afraid to affirm it.
The paper, to be free, must rest firmly on
its right to be free, not on personalities.
The students can not expect a free press
when they do not even understand what free-
dom and responsibility are. It is up to them to
affirm their rights to have, indeed the neces-
sity of having a free campus newspaper.
If students on campuses cannot understand
the principle of freedom and democracy, what
hope have we for a sound democracy in the
future? It is essential to the democratic process
that each individual be aware of his rights. A
university has a responsibility to foster this
awareness in the individual, not to suppress it.
Mandate Trans gresses
A me rican Libertarianism
THE OPERA DEPARTMENT of the School of Music opened at Lydia
Mendelssohn Theatre Thursday night with their re-creation of
Otto Nicolai's "The Merry Wives of Windsor."
Conductor and Musical Director Josef Blatt's English translation
of the 1848 opera was crystal-clear and well realized by the company
of singers. Although Lydia Mendelssohn is an easy place in which
to have soloists and chorus covered by a pit orchestra, Conductor
Blatt very seldom allows this to occur. His orchestra maintains a
delicate ensemble throughout the performance. To those of us at all
aware of the conductor at a concert, Blatt is a joy to watch. His
absolute control over the exciting elements of an operatic situation
leaves one breathless.
THE VERY PLEASANT soprano voice of Jane Peiper was heard
in the role of Mistress Ford. She can be seen again Saturday and next
Tuesday nights. Miss Peiper, a relatively young singer, executes her role
with conviction and authority. Mistress Page, with whom Mistress Ford
works hand in hand throughout the opera sings well.
Mr. Page and Slender, sung by Jerry Stafford and Harry Moon
are very effective in their roles. Dr. Caius, Richard Kretchmar,
possesses an adequate voice but has difficulty carrying his words
across to the audience. David Smalley plays Mr. Ford, and, aside from
his richly colored voice, shows immeasurable improvement as an
The outstanding voices in the opera are those of Willis Patterson,
Karen Klepec and James Miller, seen in the roles of Sir John Falstaff,
Ann Page and Fenton, respectively. One can only say that It is a
marvelous experience to hear Willis Patterson sing. The role of Sir
John Falstaff suits him so well that he rises above and beyond all
normal expectations both as a bass and an actor.
Karen Klepec's power as a dramatic soprano is overshadowed
solely by her impeccable musicianship. She simply excited the audience.
James Miller possesses a smoth lyric-tenor voice and uses it well
throughout its dynamic trajectory.
THE CHORUS is very much alive, but for the most par unintel-
The plot of the opera is banal and at its point of unwinding is
very much parallel to the comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan.
The ballet of the "Elves and Forest'Creatures" is very well done,
as are the sets and lighting.
Miss Penelope Lint is to be congratulated on her fine job as a
"The Merry Wives of Windsor" will prove to be a delightful
operatic experience to those who avail themselves of the opportunity
to see it.
-Felix A. Pappalardi, Jr.
400 Years of Song
A SPECIAL COLLEGIUM MUSICUM concert of music for voices and
instruments written between the 14th and 18th centuries will
be presented tonight at 8:30 p.m. in Rackham Lecture Hall.
The program is presented in honor of the Midwest Chapter of the
American Musicological Society, under the direction of Prof. Robert
The first half of the program will feature a consort -of several
instruments with Richard Miller, tenor, and Robert Courte, viola
Quite a large number of extremely lovely and interesting works
will be presented, and no attempt to enumerate them will be made
here. It would seem wisest in a preview of this nature to discuss the
works which seem of principal interest from a musicological stand-
GUILLAUME DE MACHAUT, probably the outstanding represen-
tative of 14tl. century music, is well represented with several songs;
John Dunstable, an English composer of great significance who had
a profound influence on the development of English music is repre-
sented by his Missa Rex Seculorum, a cantus-firmus mass sometimes
attributed to Lionel Power.
Carlo Gesualdo, whose works are gaining widespread appreciation
now, is represented by two works for voices and viols; Antonio
Vivaldi's Concerto in d minor for viola d'amore and string orchestra
will be played by Robert Courte.
Other composers and compositions include music for voices and
viols by Richard Deering; music for chest of viols by Alfonso Fer-
rabosco and John Jenkins; Francesco Provenzale's "L'asciatemi morir"
performed by Richard Miller and a string orchestra; and a Concerto
for Seven Trumpets and Tympani by J. E. Altenbury.
* * * *
THE COMPOSITIONS performed represent four hundred years
of musical development, and contain some of the most exquisite
music ever written. Certain of the composers whose works are to be
heard here are virtually unknown to the average music lover, and
several (such as Dunstable, Machaut, and Gesualdo) represented turn-
ing points in musical development.
The works of Dunstable and Machaut are marked by an extreme
clarity and purity of form which had not existed before their time,
and which has eventually, unfortunately, been lost through excessive
limitations placed on musical form and gesture. Experiencially the
rich, almost organic qualities of the music for viols can be an exciting
event for the lover of ancient music.
Presentations of early music are extremely difficult to produce
effectively, since many questions in regard to performance technique
often arise; and during the times in which the music was written,
much was left to the performer to decide in manners of performance.
This difficulty may well be overcome by a fine group of performers
including Karen Lovejoy, soprano; Gary Glaze, tenor; and Walker
Wyatt, baritone; and a body of period instruments featuring recorders,
krummhorn, portative organ, viols, cornetto, trombone 'and bells; all
appearing under the direction of Robert A. Warner.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Limits Always Exist
Papers Shun Res-ponsibility
DETROIT AND THE STATE have passed.
new taxes. The United States has resumed
nuclear testing. The Geneva disarmament con-
ference is staggering. The Tigers are having a
so-so start. But the Detroit area has only
vague knowledge of these and other important
events. The two Detroit papers have shut down.
The presses are silent and much is hap-
pening under semi-private circumstances. The
small, tabloid Detroit World and the area radio
stations cannot hope to give depth coverage
and interpretive analysis provided by the De-
troit papers. They have neither the staff, the
facilities nor the inclination to do so.
T HE FREE PRESS was justified in its shut
down. It was struck by its employes. The
Teamster truck drivers walked out when con-
tract demands were not met and no settle-
ment could be reached. Like any other business,
the paper had no choice; it had to cease pub-
However, the News abdicated its public and
journalistic responsibility when it heeded the
"strike against one is a strike against all"
pact of the Detroit Newspaper Publishers
Association (i.e. the News and Free Press when
dealing with their employes). A newspaper is,
as much a public service as it is a business.
Few newspapers realize this, and the Detroit
News is not one of them. As a public service
it had the responsibility to maintain the flow
of news and analysis while its competitor is
strike-bound. As business it acceded to the
temptation of union fighting and shut down.
Then through the mediation of Police Com-
missioner George Edwards the Teamster strike
was settled. The other News union members,
understandably upset about their layoff, con-
tinued their "lock-out" protest. This time the
Free Press remained shut in sympathy with the
News. So through the papers putting business
interests ahead of public interest, Detroit has
been without a paper for three weeks.
FORTUNATELY, this may be the last time
both Detroit papers are shut down con-
icurrently. A National Labor Relations Board
official has ruled that a similar "strike against
one is a strike against all" pact of 10 New
York newspapers is an invalid agreement. By
extention, the NLRB may accept the contention
of the press unions' suit against the Detroit
News and void the pact. Then the Detroit
papers will, be prevented from ever turning
their backs on the public again.
Religion and Public Schools
By ROBERT SELWA
Daily Staff Writer
(Editor's note: This is the second
of two articles analyzing the man-
date of the House Committee con
Un-American Activities to investi-
"THE COMMITTEE on Un-
American Activities . . . is
authorized to make from time to
time investigations of the extent,,
character and objects of un-Amer-
ican propaganda activities in the
United States (and) the diffusion
within the United States of sub-
versive and un-American propa-
This mandate would have been
odious to Thomas Jefferson and
John Stuart Mill, as it is odious
to today's libertarians such as Jus-
tice William 0. Douglas.
As long as the idea of investi-
gating all propaganda is accepted.
the Committee will not be abol-
ished. If Americans recognize the
danger presented by the mandate's
rationale, the pressure for the
abolition ofthe Committee will
To document its threat to this
libertarian society, the philoso-
phies of Jefferson, Mill and Doug-,
las will provide reference.
* * *
ACCORDING TO Jefferson, the
core of Democracy is the idea of
liberty. "I have sworn upon the
altar of God eternal hostility
against every form of tyranny over
the mind of man," he wrote. He
regarded it as a self-evident prop-
osition that the best government
was one under which the citizens
have the most freedom, even to
the point of reducing that govern-
ment to semi-impotence.
Those who argue that abolish-
ing the Committee will make
America impotent in its struggle
with Communism would have lit-
tle sympathy from Jefferson. "The
sheep are happier of themselves,
than under the care of the wolves,"
Most Americans regard Com-
munism as invalid and false. Jef-
ferson said the false should be
argued and refuted, not suppressed
as is an intent or Investigation.
"For God's sake, let us freely hear
both sides," he declared.
He noted that "the majority,
oppressing an individual, is guilty
of a crime, abuses its strength,
and by acting on the law of the
strongest breaks up the founda-
tion of society . . ." He declared
himself "against all violations of
the Constitution to silence by
force and not by reason the com-
plaints or criticism, just or un-
just, of our citizens . . ." The key
phrase here is "by force and not
* * *
INVESTIGATION of the advo-
cate of an idea, even if this idea is
the overthrow of the government,
is a form of coercion and prosecu-
+in -r+is n of ,+m-+an n of nrrin_-
zens of the United States, are sure
pledges of internal tranquility;
and the elective franchise, ' if
guarded as the act of our safety,
will peaceably dissipate all com-
binations to subvert a Constitu-
ton dictated by the wisdom, and
resting on the will of the people."
* . .
IT IS APPARENT that this is
even more valid today, since the
great majority of Americans con-
tinue to possess "that love of or-
der and obedience 'to the laws"
necessary for the maintenance of
One may judge that the philoso-
phy of subversion presented by
Communists today is dissipated by
"the wisdom" and "the will of
A mandate to investigate "sub-
versive propaganda" denies "the
wisdom" and "the will of the peo-
ple," denies the strength of "that
love of order and obedience to the
laws" held by the vast majority
and denies the virility of democ-
racy's civil order.
Denying these, it replaces them
with a potential for hysteria and
with subversion of the individual's
right to hold, express and attempt
to propagate whatever opinions he
* * *
LIKE JEFFERSON, Mill point-
ed out the necessity for the fullest
expression of opinion, arguing that
if a silenced opinion is wholly true,
its suppression is wholly unjusti-
fied. If a silenced opinion is partly
true and partly false, "it is only
by the collision of adverse opin-
ions that the remainder of the
truth has any chance of being
And even if the silenced opinion
is wholly erroneous. its very chal-
lenge of truth prcvpnts the latter
from degenerating into dogma and
prejudice, Mill continued. "Both
teachers and learners go to sleep
at their posts, as s,on as there is
no enemy in the field."
Few Americans would deny that
there is some semblance of an
"enemy in the field," (although
that enemy is weak.) One out of
every 18,000 Americans are Com-
munist party members. The vet y
existence of a philosophy that
challenges ours makes American
democracy strong, for Americans
are more prompted to debate, ex-
amine and appreciate the merits
The Committee's thrust into
"subversive and un-Amexican
propaganda" tends to dissipate
the virility of all propaganda be-
cause the free marketplace is put
out of commission.
* * *
"THOSE WHO doubt the thesis
that man needs full freedom of
expression to realize his utmost
capacities and become a cultured
citizen of the world need only vis-
it the totalitarian states and see
hmi mat h- mripmp1-ndpmr the
cans are allowed the diet of only
one creed. And this is the tenden-
cy that results from the Commit-
tee's investigation of "propagan-
Communists are not only rare
in America, but they also are
spurned. As Justice Douglas points
out in "The Right of the People,"
"Then in the early 1950s) as now,
Communists in the United States
were the peddlers of unwanted
"They were the most unpopular
people in the land, incapable of
commanding enough votes to get
elected to any office, no matter
* *. *
THERE IS little indication that,
it Communists were given freer
expression, their ideas would be-
come more popular. Probably the
apposite would happen. The rea-
sens are psychological:
When you are called upon by a
Communist to argue your idea or
opinion, you defend it even more
firmly. On the other hand, if you
see a group of people persecuted
for their ideas, you tend to be
more sympathetic. For example,
the Christian ideology became
more virile, and attracted more
converts, when Christians were
Justice Douglas calls for a lit-
eral interpretation of the First
Amendment, "Congress shall make
no law . . . abridging the freedom
of speech . . ." He points out that
the First Amendment made no ex-
ceptions. And this is true, for the
words are explicit.
* * * ,
IT IS this explicit libertarianism
of the First Amendment, of Thom-
as Jefferson, of John Stuart Mill,
of William O. Douglas, that re-
veals the immorality of the man-
date of the committee to investi-
The day may yet come when
Congressmen, who perform the
most intimate functions of the
democratic process and who have
absolute freedom of speech in
their chamber, will widen the
scope of their vision, or gain the
courage of conviction, to vote the
Committee out of existence.
The day may yet come when
they rescind the mandate for a
committee to investigate propa-
Libertarians may hope that that
day will come soon.
Somewhere on campus tonight
an Ichabod Crane may be roam-
ing the shadows.
But don't be alarmed; the Ann
Arbor Police are aware of this
Ichabod' (not his real name) is
a partially finished statue--sans
THE FIRST AMENDMENT to the Constitu-
tion specifically directs that "Congress shall
make no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or abridging the free exercise thereof."
This clause in the interpretation which the
Supreme Court has given it, is being con-
sistently broken in many public school systems
The most widely practiced violations of this
clause include Bible readings, non-sectarian
prayers, and celebrations of religious holidays.
The first amendment as it is stated con-
cerns only action by Congress, and makes no
restrictions upon actions of state legislatures.
But a series of Supreme Court decisions has
interpreted the "due processes clause" of the
fourteenth amendment, which states that "no
state . . . shall deprive any person of life,
liberty, or property, without due process of
law," as extending the first amendment to the
(One of these decisions stated that this
clause removed all religion from all legislation;
thus it not not only prohibits legislation from
favoring any particular sect, but also from
promoting the general religious sentiment as
THIS PROHIBITION is clearly violated when
a school board, which is a creature of the
state legislature and therefore cannot have
any power which is prohibited to the state, in-
stitutes religious observances in public schools.
These observances are quite widely practiced
at the present time and are arousing con-
siderable controversy in many towns and some
in the supreme deities espoused by any religion,
and in most cases these people wish to pass
their beliefs on to their children. There is no
more excuse for the public school system to
interfere with the parent's teachings in these
cases than there is for interference in cases
where parents attempt to teach more con-
ventional religious beliefs.
AN ARGUMENT may be brought up at this
point that a fundamental belief in religion
is one of the traditions upon which the United
States is based. But freedom of religion, though
it does contradict at times this other tradition
is itself a tradition-a tradition which is
specifically enunciated in the constitution
which is a much more important one than
that of belief in a supreme deity. True, the
fundamental American principles of limited
government and inalienable rights were,in their
original statement by early English philoso-
phers, supposed to come from God. But these
concepts no longer need such justification.
They are accepted in themselves by nearly
every American and can now stand alone with-
out the rather questionable support originally
afforded them by religion.
ONE SPECIAL POINT arises, however, over
the question of adjourning school on re-
ligious holidays. To force either a student or
a teacher to attend school on a day which
his religion designates as a day when non-
religious activities should be suspended as far
as possible is actually discriminating against
religion. Ideally we should be able to keep
school going for those who wish to come, while
To the Editor:
ROBERT SELWA has woven a
beautiful straw man in his
editorial on the University of De-
He begins by taking issue with
the statement that the university
"refuses to allow 'academic free-
dom' to be used as a pretext for
teaching doctrines which destroy
all freedom." Since academic free-
dom is "an essential liberty of
American democracy," U of D is
duly executed for being un-
WHAT MR. SELWA fails to
mention is that U of D is simply
committing to writing what other
universities follow in nractice-a
does this restriction as well as
other unwritten constraints found
here and elsewhere, tie into the
principle of academic freedom?
Whether or not one supports
these almost universal restrictions
one should not castigate a univer-
sity for being forthright in setting
forth its expectations for faculty
members. This policy may in fact
save potential embarrassment to
staff members who become aware
of unwritten expectations only
after they have signed a contract.
IF "ACADEMIC freedom" is
viewed as a concept rather than
a slogan, it becomes quite clear
that such freedom is not an either-