THE MICKIGAN DAILY
Discusses Common Market
Evaluates Use of Laws.
For Psychological Tests
BE L GI
- .L } 8 }URA
COMMON MARKET COUNTRIES--The common market agree-
ment may eventually result in political unity, according to Prof.
40 per cent, and some of the tariff
reduction have been made avail-
able to te outside world as well.
Prof. Claude said he believes the
common market's parliamentary
assembly could almost be the be-
ginning of a European political
party growing. This assembly is in
marked contrast to the United
Nations General Assembly because
it allows more representation to
the larger member countries.
He noted that parliamentary
members have been voting as mdi-
viduals, not in blocs by countries.
They are even seated alphabeti-
cally by party. "'this suggests that
the states are acknowledging that
they are not monolithic entites,"
Prof. Claude added.
He said there is a "real momen-
tum and a promise of further poli-
tical development" in the common+
market but it is certainly too soon
to say that a United States of
Europe is near.
By ELLEN SILVERMAN
"In order to formulate theories
of measurement we must offer a
picture of the world at any par-
ticular moment taking into ac-
count all relevant material in any
setup," Prof. Lee J. Cronbach of
the University of Illinois said yes-
Speaking on "A Synthesis of
Measurement Theory," Prof. Cron-
bach discussed a theory of formu-
lation of scientific laws appropri-
ate to psychological testing.
"In the physical sciences there
are absolutes. But in the science of
psychology there are not. There-
fore we must be able to move to-
ward theories with successive ap-
proximations," he said.
The hypothesis first formulated
will, of course, be sweeping and
contain contradictions. "But if we
move in an evolutionary process,
like primitive man, we can move
from a vague impression to highly
refined law," he added.
Prof. Cronbach noted that the
two criteria of a theory are signi-
ficance and economy. Significance
he defines as the power to enter
into relationships. This refers to
the number of relations in which
one can use the theory or hypothe-
sis, the accuracy and importance
of predictions which can be made
Economy is looked at in refer-
ence to the scope of the theory or
in how many areas it can be used
and the ease of manipulation.
Often, Prof. Cronbach remarked,
the significance and the economy
of a theory are at odds. This is
due to the fact that the coarser
the theory, the greater its scope
and consequently the greater its
But the significance becomes
greater if the theory is refined
more. "There is no rule as to how
ress To Play
refined a theory must be. It is
process of adaptation," he said.
Network of Laws
"What we need is a network
of laws connecting general class-
es," he added. Ideally one would
want to know the universal
measurement but instead only the
observable score is available. From
the observed the psychologist must
work to the universal score. "This
is the essence of what measure-
ment is to do" Prof. Cronbach
Previously, measurements were
assumed to be equal when various
raters were used. However, he
noted, psychologists should now
begin to use mathematical formu-
lae to get greater accuracy. Even
with the formula, however, only
approximations can be made, he
Park To Talk
On India, Goa
Prof. Richard L. Park of the
political science department and
director of the Center for South-
ern Asian Studies, will speak at
2:30 p.m. today in the Michigan
Union Conference Room.
His talk, "Recent Political De-
velopments in India-Goa and the
Third General Election," will be
sponsored by the Indian Students
Association and the Southern
Caplan To Speak
On Oratory Skills
On 'U' Past,'
By ROBERT SELWA
Former University presidents
Henry Philip Tappan (1852-1863)
and James Burrill Angell (1881-
1910) were praised at the 66th
annual meeting of the Michigan
Academy of Arts, Science and Let-
ters this past weekend.
Prof. Willis F. Dunbar, head of
the history department at Western
Michigan University, praised the
two men for providing the strong
leadership that enabled the Uni-
versity to achieve its "rapid pro-
gress" in the second half of the
He said President Tappan's de-
votion to high scholarship and
early recognition of the important
role science was to play in higher
education were "vital ingredients"
in the growth of the University.
Attracts Able Men
He also cited Tappan's success
in attracting able men to the fac-
ulty and "his signal contributions"
to the building up of library and
Prof. Dunbar went on to note
the "able executive leadership" of
Angell in continuing the Univer-
He said that the rise of Michi-
gan State University is likewise
related to the work of strong pres-
idents. He singled out Jonathan
Lemoyne Snyder (who served from
1896 to 1915) and the present pres-
ident, John Hannah.
The enrollment quadrupled dur-
ing Snyder's administration, he
said. And MSU's subsequent
growth has been due in part to
Hannah's "extraordinarily able"
administration and leadership.
Prof. Dunbar commented that
strong executive leadership at the
University and at MSU was facili-
tated by the policy set forth in the
state constitution of 1850.
- Coming -"Majority of One"
1,3,5 7,9 o'clock
Feature 8 min. later
University of Michigan
GILBERT & SULLIVAN SOCIETY
ran, it's the
.April 3, 4, 5,
Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre
Tickets Available at SAB
And at the Box Office April 2-6
Tues., $1.25; Wed., Thurs., $1.50; Fri., $1.75
Dame Judtih. Anderson will ap-
pear at 8:30 p.m. Thursday in Hill American Musicale
Aud. playing "Medea '62" together A concert, "American M
with scenes from her performance will be presented by Alphf
as "Lady Macbeth." ter, Sigma Alpha Iota at 8
Contemporary Music today in Lane Hall Aud. V
The second annual Festival of Paul Creston, Roy HarrI
Contemporary Music will be pre- Carpenter, Samuel Barbe
sented March 30-April 3 under the Lee Finney, Vincent Per
auspices of the school of music. Peter Mennin, George G
At, 8:30 p.m. on Friday Josef Walter Hendl, and Eastho:
Blatt will direct the University tin will be played.
Symphony Orchestra and Choral Lecture..
Ensemble. At 8:30 p.m. Saturday Prof. Henry J. Cowan
in Rackham Lecture Hall, guest University of Sydney, A!
composer-lecturer Vladimir Ussa- will speak at 4 p.m. Mon(
chevsky will speak on "Electronic Thursday in the Architects
Music: Prospects and Retrospects." on "History and Philose
Events will continue in the Festival Structures."
until April 3.
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