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March 18, 1962 - Image 17

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-03-18
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-. _ _ . {
- .. .

A

Class
Of 1982

(4esiekt' and "eiews

A DAILY
SPECIAL i
SECTION...
'U'Girds for

Enrollment Boom

By NEIL COSSMAN
By EVOLUTION, not design, the Uni-
versity may escape the mass mediocri-
ty which faces higher education in the
next 20 years. As the student avalanche
gathers momentum each year, to meet it
there will be important changes in admis-
sion procedures, the composition of the
student body and the quality of education.
It's unfortunate that the changes will
be brought by evolution, but it's difficult
for a university-especially this Univer-
sity-to plan very far ahead. Four years
ago University administrators expected
an enrollment of 40,000 by 1970, but to-
day there are no reliable estimates. Roger
W. Heyns, vice-president for academic af-
fairs and dean of the literary college, says
the University will grow but that there is
no target estimated.
One reason for the uncertainty of the
University's growth is that the plans of
the Legislature are unknown from year to
year. The University will not know until
at least next month, for example, what it
will receive from the state for next year's
expenses. And the state's plans for pros-
pective new colleges and universities in
1965, 1975 and 1980 are equally vague.
How many students a university wants
to enroll 10 years from now and what
quality of teachers, classrooms and lab-
oratories it wants the student to have
should govern preparation for the future,
not the reverse. But the University is
sometimes uncertain what it can pay its
teachers the next year-let alone in 10
years; and how many more students it
can accept; and how much new equip-
ment it can buy.
When planning for the next 12 months
is so uncertain, any attempt to view the
next 10 or 20 years is only speculation.
There is another, lesser variable im-
portant in estimating future enrollment.
It's quite hard to predict how many stu-
dents of the total high school class of
1970 will want to attend college. But as
automation cuts into the ranks of clerical
and assembly line workers, as the quality
of high school education goes up, as
families earn and save more money,- and
as people find more time for leisure and
recreation, - the proportion of students
seeking a college education will increase
considerably.
With more need, more ability, more
money and more desire for college edu-
cation, 45 students in a graduating class
of 100 may be expected to apply to col-
leges in 1970, compared to the present 33
out of 100. Yet, in practice, the social and
economic conditions which determine how
many people do what are somewhat
variable.
THREE FACTORS, therefore, determine
college enrollment for two decades
hence. One is, of course, the birth rate

how many people will be of college age
in the next 20 years.
The second factor-the number of col-
lege-age people that will want to attend
college-is quite uncertain, although
there isn't much doubt that the number
will go up. Prof. David Goldberg of the
sociology department has said that pre-
vious predictions of college enrollment
have been too low. The reason isn't that
they underestimated the population, but
that they failed to anticipate the tremen-
dous change in the proportion which
sought to enter college.
The third consideration-the chance
that there will be a teacher and a class-
room when a qualified boy or girl is ready
to come tothe university-is still more of
a variable. Yet this last factor is the one-
over which men have the most control,
and the one which must stay ahead of
the others. How this third situation is
handled today will affect the number
of "We are sorry to inform you . . ." let-
ters which reach students in the years
ahead.
Heyns' optimism regarding the future
welfare of the University results from
his belief that a state income tax will be
enacted which will provide more money
for teachers and classrooms. Yet growth
of which Heyns speaks will not be con-
trolled until the Legislature provides
money in advance for long-range plan-
ning, instead of on a year-to-year basis.
Until then, growth will be by evolution,
with policies tailored to the needs of the
moment.
WHETHER THE UNIVERSITY moves
forward by evolution or by careful,
long-range planning, there are certain
to be considerable changes in admissions,
the student body and the quality of edu-

cation. In this readjustment, chances are
good that the University will stay on top
of the mass of schools. But it's doubtful
that evolution alone will keep the Uni-
versity high within its own class-with
such universities as Harvard, California
and Stanford.
Every 19 years since 1893 University
enrollment has doubled. It is unlikely
that this pace can continue, even in the
20 years immediately ahead, for there
would seem to be a definite physical limit
to the size of any institution. As the Uni-
versity's declining capacity for enrollment
growth creates more and more pressure,
admission standards may boil over.-
College Board test scores became one
of the criteria for the admission of but-
of-state students three years ago. This
fall, the University began a two-year
study in which College Board scores are
one of the requirements for the enroll-
ment of Michigan students. Heyns antici-
pates new devices for selecting students,
such as-motivation tests, as well as an
upgrading of the present standards. But
he doesn't expect the University to be-
come overly selective in its future admis-
sions policies.
With more students applying to the
University and capacity for only a small-
er and smaller proportion of them, the
quality of students should rise steadily
while the quality of the University might
remain nearer to its present level. The
student who cannot meet the rigorous
standards which many existing universi-
ties will adopt, will turn to the new uni-
versities and community colleges.
Because of th~e larger proportions of
the population which will be involved
in higher education, the average ability
of students, teachers and colleges will
probably decline. Colleges will be built,
students will attend them and teachers
will teach at them, not because of par-
ticular ability or interest but because
people in the next 20 years will need
them.
THE UNIVERSITY, however, should
escape the mediocrity which comes
with mass production because of its size,
tradition and the quality of its students.
The student body will be different in its
composition as well as its quality. she
next 20 years should bring some chang-
ing ratios in the University's student
body-more' graduates, more upperclass-
men, probably more students from with-
in the state and possibly more under-
graduates preparing for specific occu-
pations.
The University's own space squeeze and
the construction of community colleges
both will affect the make-up of the stu-
dent body, and not always for the better.
For some years, liberal, undergraduate
education has been losing prominence as
universities include more research, public.
service and vocational training in their
curriculums.This trend will probably con-

have begun to rely heavily on coopera-
tion with universities. Evidence of this
is the tendency to locate laboratories and
plants near the nation's "biain centers"-
Los Angeles, Boston and sometimes Ann
Arbor.
Junior colleges are expected to ease
the pressure by taking a greater propor-
tion of undergraduates, leaving the Uni-
versity able to serve other interests. Al-
ready comprising 40 per cent of the stu-
dent body, graduates probably will even-
tually account for five of every ten stu-
dents, according to Heyns.'With junior
colleges taking the freshmen and sopho-
mores of many communities, the Univer-
sity should expect many more upperclass-
men, ready to specialize as soon as they
arrive at Ann Arbor.
It's probable that the proportion of
out-of-state students at the University
may drop in the coming years. So far,
the University has been able to take
nearly every qualified Michigan student.
Yet members of the Legislature are al-
ready seeking to limit out-of-state en-
rollment. When the University must face
a choice between two equally qualified
students-one from New Jersey and the
other from Michigan-the out-of-state
student will probably go to another
college.
There is some truth in the argument
that limiting out-of-state enrollment
would hurt the University's cosmopolitan
atmosphere, even though most non-
Michigan students come from the Mid-
west. At least 10 per cent of the Univer-
sity's students emigrate from New York,
New Jersey, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania,
Florida, Texas and ' California. Another
10 per cent come from Wisconsin, Illinois,,
Indiana and Ohio.
While there is some dispute over the
effects of a low out-of-state enrollment,
there is hardly- any doubt that the pro-
portion of non-Michigan students at the
University will drop. The only way out is
for the highly qualified resident, who
would be accepted at the University, to
choose another college himself. .
These are some of the changes which
the next 20 years will bring to the Uni-
versity-changes which will come without
an invitation. The growing size of the
college-age population and the growing
proportion of the population expecting to
attend college are the real problems for
which higher education must prepare-
and these, too, need no invitation. These
changes can be met on a first come, first
served basis-but they can only be fully
coped with by thoughtful, long-range
planning.
NEIL COSSMAN, who reports
on University affairs for The
Daily, is a sophomore majoring
in history.

BOOKS
The Philosophy of John Stuart
Mill: Ethical, Political and Religious,
edited and with an introduction by
Marshall Cohen, Random House,
1961, 530 pages, $1.95.
MARSHALL COHEN'S anthology of Mill
will not be a best-seller. It is much
too deep for that.
It covers the subjects of Bentham, Col-
eridge, De Tocqueville, liberty, individu-
ality, the limits to the authority of society
over the individual, utilitarianism, rep-
resentative government, William Hamil-
ton, nature and religion. It covers them in
an intricate and involved manner.
MillJs a critical and incisive writer who
worked at perfecting the expression of
his thoughts. Aided by his wife, he would
rewrite his works over and over again so
as to assure their precision and meaning.
Commenting about his essay On Liberty,
Mill once said, "There was not a sentence
of it which was not several times gone
through by us together."
Cohen terms Mill the ablest English
philosopher of the 19th century and de-
scribes him as the last philosopher of any
nationality to cover the whole range of
philosophical problems with comparable
distinction.
"He addressed himself to the . . . issues
of the day with a combined grasp of fact
and control of principle which displayed
his moral seriousness and intellectual
distinction in-their most unmistakable
form," Cohen writes.
Mill described human nature as a tree
which grows and develops itself on all
sides. Mill in actuality was describing
himself. He began the study of Greek
at the age of three, Latin and arithmetic
at eight, logic at twelve and political
economy at thirteen.
He studied intensely and developed and
extended his philosophy of utility so
that it was able to cover a whole range of
issues and problems. He applied the prin-
ciple that actions are right in proportion
as they tend to produce happiness and
wrong as they tend to produce unhappi-
ness.
Mill moved from this general principle
to specific conclusions, finding, for ex-
ample, that representative government is
"the ideally best policy" because it exer-
cises and enhances the mental and moral
qualities of those who practice it.
Cohen defends some of Mill's arguments
against his critics, finding consistency
where others have found inconsistency.
He points out, for instance, that the
phrase "self-government' is - deceptive,
for the "people" who exercise the power
of government are not the same as those
over whom it is exercised.
He adds that the "self-government"
spoken of is not the government of each
by himself, but of each by all the rest.
Mill's idea is that the will of the people
means the will of the most numerous or
most active part of the people-and that
consequently democratic government can
result in tyranny of the majority.
Other more complex discussions require
a good background in philosophy by the
reader. Cohen's anthology of Mill is a
challenging book for astute thinkers.
--Robert Selwa
The Case for the South, by William D.
Workman, Jr. Devin-Adair, 1960, 302
pages, $3.98
THE CASE FOR THE SOUTH is an at-
tempt to explain why Southerners
feel the way they do about segregation.
It is a shot at making the Southern
position seem human, while at the same
time not denying the possible validity
of the integrationist point of view.
At the first two attempts the book
succeeds; at the third it falters. Work-

*picture of the South, and this he does.
But all too often, he is as extreme as
the integrationists he belabors. The dif-
ference. is that Workman recognizes that
segregation and integration ate irrecon-
cilable-at least by conscious effort.
Workman bases his writings on one
theme: that integration will never be
successful as long as it is forced. It must
be allowed to evolve, if indeed it will,
no matter how long that may take.
He blames the Supreme Court in 1954
for upsetting the slow but sure trend
toward better race relations, with their
precedent-smashing decision in the case
of Brown vs. The Board of Education of
Topeka:
"The shock of .the abrupt reordering
of a traditional way of life was not one
to wear off quickly, nor was it one which
gave promise of becoming tolerable
through exposure. Rather, it brought to
a head the long-smouldering Southern
resentment aaginst continuing inroads of
the federal government into affairs of
local government."
He presents the Southerners as a proud
people who have disciplined their own
society on the basis of honor for cen-
turies. "In the eyes of the Southerner,
no honor attaches to that decision, and
no dishonor to those who scorn it. The
decision is widely regarded in the South
as a mark of oppression . . ."
He shows that Southerners were mak-
ing honest attempts toward racial better-
ment even in the days of the Civil War.
He says that the "continual abuse heaped -
upon the South and its institutions . .
drove the moderates of that day into ...
the Southern camp.' Then as now they
sat quietly for fear of having their views
misrepresented "by persons more in-
terested in the problem than in the solu-
tion." -
WORKMAN ALSO takes the law to
task-if indeed it is law. He ques-
tions,, as indeed he should, the right of
the Supreme Court to ignore precedent,
which itself is law, simply to indulge in
sociological decisions, concerning an
area in which they are not empowered to
act. What their actions amounted to was
legislation, and they are clearly pro-
hibited from doing that. Yet, it has
happened, all the reasonfs against it not-
withstanding.
But the decision itself is not the heart
of the problem. Workman sees a clash,
not between the people and the law,
but between two opposing sets of laws:
those of the central government and
those of the local government. Integra-
tion develops as a problem of states'
rights.
And so the fact is that the, rest of the
nation does not even understand why
race relations are a problem in the South.
Novelist William Faulkner, himself a
Southerner in spite of his portrayals of
Southern decadence, has said: "The rest
of the United States assumes that this
condition (segregation) in the South is
so simple and so uncomplex that it can
be changed tomorrow by the simple will
of the national majority backed by legal
edict." It cannot be done that way.
THE PROBLEM has been reduced to
a moral question. Are the Negroes, as
a whole, ready for integration? The an-
swer is clearly no. Workman regards
Negroes as a decadent, amoral, dirty
group. Integration at this juncture, he
says, would mean that Southerners would
have to lower their standards to that of
the Negro, because the Negro will not
be brought up to those of the white.
Undoubtedly former Gov. James F.
Byrnes of South Carolina spoke for the
South when he said in 1951: "If the court
changes the law of the land, we will,
if It is possible, live within the law, pre-

the same time maintain segregation. If
that is not possible, reluctantly we will
abandon the public school system."
This end is-coming-soon. If that is
what integrationists want, they will get
it. If Workman's book is any sampling
of Southern opinion he makes that clear.
In short, we are drifting toward the
same irretrieveable situation that precip-'
itated the Civil War, and there is no
need for it.
The solution is to let the South alone.
Call home the extremists now harassing
McComb, Mississippi, and other places.
Put a stop to the Ku Klux Klan. Let the
South work out the problem as Workman
shows they are willing and able to do. It
may take a long time, but the desire
among white Southerners to do it is
there.
-Michael Harrah
RECORDS

Teresa Berganza: Arias of the 18th
Century, Orchestra of the Royal Opera
House, Covent Garden under Alexander
Gibson-London Stereo OS 25225, $5.98
jT IS A PLEASURE to see the London
Record Company utilizing the vocal
music of the Eignteenth Century for the
purpose of showcasing one of its artists.
The music of that particular era is
especially suitable for recital use because
of its concern for display of the vocal
endowments of singers rather than at-
tracting undue attention to itself. This
is not to say that the music produced
was second-rate (though such an ac-
cusation is often levelled at it). Rather
the purpose was more one of ingenious
support to a great vocal artistry than
the creation of music that was in and
by itself "great." Such a partnership-
for this was truly a partnership-was
successful for as long as the vocalists
existed to perform it.
However, with the coming of the
Romantic Era, with its seeming dis-
interest in training singers in the fun-
damentals of technique (such as the even
scale, the trill, the effortless roulade,
etc.) the partnership broke up or, if you
will, broke down. The music that was
written down was only a bare indication
of the composers' intentions as to per-
formance. It was, you see, up to the
singer (and instrumentalist) to take the
material provided and personally orna-
ment and elaborate it, within the de-
mands of the style. Such freedom which
was a part of the Classical Style and a
great deal more than a part of the
Baroque Style was lost in the onslaught
of the Nineteenth Century.
It has recently been the project of
music logists to return or affect a return,
to the performance practices of former
times when'doing music of this age. The
art of ornamentation, once the common
knowledge of every singer, is now being
codified, catalogued and published for
the conscientious singer to study and
emulate. The only problem that remains

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