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April 10, 1964 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-04-10

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Seventy-Third Year
+ here Opinionla Are 'e STUDENT PUUCATIONS BiDG., AwN ARBoR, Mrcm., PHONE No 2-3241
Trutb Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in a!; reprints.

Tension:*No Freedom in No-Man's-Land

Race Communications:
Civil Rights' Crucial Link

these days about civil rights for the
Negro, but precious little of this verbosity
is running in the right channels-be-
tween Negro and white leaders.
Intermediates are used all too often,
and the communication breaks down in
this process of multiple transfer: The Ne-
gro leaders talk at their Negro meetings,
and the meetings produce everything from
marches to court action. The white lead-
ers respond with speeches to white meet-
ings which produce measures to counter-
act but not resolve the Negro protests.
The effect is that white meets Negro
on the streets or in the courts. These are
singularly poor places for the amicable
solution of differences that are of cru-
cial importance to both groups. There
are a few, very few, exceptions in either
North or South.
This city has had biracial committees
for over 40 years to discuss and negotiate
problems. Jacksonville, scene of consid-
erable violence recently, has just decid-
ed to appoint such a committee. Such
tardiness lends few assurances to those
who are calling for prompt solutions to
the civil rights problems.
alone in this situation. Many large
Northern cities are only now discovering
that they too have a racial problem.
Fven worse, they are finding, to their
dismay, that they have no idea of what
to do about it.
Philadelphia, a city just beginning to
react to- any of its myriad problems, re-
cently sent a delegation to Atlanta to
discover how this city has managed to
maintain its long-standing tradition of
fairly good racial harmony. The delega-
tion was greatly surprised, even shocked,
to find whites and Negroes negotiating
onek or another.oftheir many local dif-
ferences around a conference table.
It Is at the biracial conference table,
however, that the ultimate answers to
the civil rights movement will be found.
Demonstrations, marches, sit-ins and
pickets are all important in the Negro
movement. But they are only important
inasmuch as they lead to across-the-table
discussion between the whites concern-
ed in the issues and the Negro leaders.
Give and take negotiation is the only
atmosphere in which meaningful prog-
ress can take place.
THIS DOES NOT MEAN that a city's
problems are solved with the appoint-
Ment of a biracial committee. This is a
start but little more. It is only a first
step in the creation of a Negro-white com-
"X-House" in Mary Markley has re-
cently been renamed ' "Robert Frost
House" by the Regents. It is altogether
fitting and proper that the University
honor Frost, who actually taught a course
here once.
Besides, the University must have felt
rather uncomfortable during the time
the house was named after Malcolm X.
A ciigEditorial Staff

H. NEIL BERKSON........................ Editor
KENNETH WINTER . . ............Managing Editor
EDWARD HEILSTEIN............. Editorial Director
ANN GWIRTZMAN ..............Personnel Director
MICHAEL SATTINGER .... Associate Managing Editor
JOHN KENNY ............ Assistant Managing Editor
DEBORAH BEATTIE ...... Associate Editorial Director
LOUIS!; LIND........Assistant Editorial Director in
Charge of the Magazine
Acting Sports Staff
BILL BULLARD.....................aSports Editor
TOM ROWLAND ............. Associate Sports Editor
GARY WINER ............... Associate Sports Editor
CHARLES TOWLE.......Contributing Sports Editor
Acting Business Staff
JONATHON R. WHITE ...........Business Manager
JAY GAMPEL ...,........ Associate Business Manager'
JUDY GOLDSTEIN............... Finance Manager
BARBARA JOHNSTON........... Personnel Manager
SYDNEYAUKE....T.Advertising Manager
RUTH SCHEMNITZ ................ Systems Manager

munication network that is desperately
needed in so many places.
Such a committee must rest on a broad
basis of popular Negro support and an
ability to influence white leadership. Only
then can it tackle problems with some
hope of success.
IN ATLANTA the system works such that
the many Negro groups are coordinat-
ed to some degree and, at the least,
aware of what the others are doing.
Through personal contacts or through the
many, negotiations always in progress,
the current Negro moods and plans can be
communicated to the white leadership
which, in turn, can respond to them.
Very often there have been marches,
sit-ins, pickets or boycotts, but these serve
mainly to lend a certain sense of urgen-
cy or drama to the behind-the-scenes
discussion. It is in the smoke-filled rooms,
as it were, where the white store-owner
is persuaded to hire Negro clerks. It is
here that a pressing combination of lead-
ing businessmen, city hall and Negro lead-
ers with broad Negro support convinces
a restaurateur to desegregate his busi-
ed well in Atlanta. The course of
events in other areas has not been so
promising. There are several reasons why
this city has been distinctive.
Atlanta's Negro community is very
large, 200,000 out of a population of
500,000. It has been that way for some
time and has thus developed a certain
depth and comprehensiveness. The At-
lanta University Center has provided a
rare pool of well-trained Negro leadership.
There are two Negro newspapers, a daily
and a weekly, and two Negro radio sta-
tions.- These have, especially in the last
few years, become a major source of in-
formation and impetus for the great ma-
jority of lower class Negroes.
The Negro population has developed
some sense of community interest and co-
herency, an understanding of what the
leaders are trying to do. This spirit, this
cohesiveness is lacking in most Northern
cities. The Negroes there are collected
from all over the South. They lack direc-
tion, education, leadership and the gen-
eral good will of the Southern Negro. In-
evitably there is little coherent commu-
nication emanating from the Negro side
if the tracks.
AND ALMOST NOWHERE is there ini-
tiative or guidance from the white
side of the tracks. City governments in
the North are bewildered by the Negro
demands. They don't know how to re-
spond, and their white constituency is
equally unnerved and distraught, lack-
ing any experience of living with a large
Negro population. This unsettledness is
,further compounded by the speed of the
other revolutions in today's cities: the
mass exodus of the middle class whites
and the mass influx of the lower classes,
white and Negro. The cities are swept by
the whirlwinds and are little able to see
clearly their way ahead.
By and large, the Southern city's lead-
ership is more unwilling than inexper-
ienced in dealing with the Negro de-
mands. This is not a breakdown in com-
munications but a refusal to establish
eralizations in both the North and
South. However they only serve to em-
phasize further that communications is
the critical link in translating the Negro
movement into new civil rights realities.
Given white and Negro initiative, it can
be established.

up, Up UP...
THE UNIVERSITY is clearly moving up
in the world of commencement speak-
ers. The predominant trend in the past
few years has been for our graduation
speakers to be closer and closer to the
top. There was Edward R. Murrow, then
Robert McNamara, then W. Willard Wirtz,
then Pierre Salinger.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
second in a'four-part series on the
causes, characteristics, consequences
and future of the six dilemma on
the college campus today.)
"THE RULES of the game are:
there are no rules. But there
is a firm understanding: ostenta-
tious display of virginity is strictly
The passage is from a recent
book by ex-Universityite and jour-
nalist Gael Greene called "Sex and
the College Girl," a finely detail-
ed, frank and sensitive description,
compiled from over 600 interviews
with college coeds, of the modern
university woman's sexual life.
Miss Greene continues:
"The voice of the cool coed is
speaking out at colleges and uni-
versities across the country, sound-
ing the slogans, the boasts and
the doubts of a new sex freedom.
Although definitely a minority
voice, the cool coed, as champion
of the new sex ethic, makes a loud,
impressive and persuasive noise."
All talk and no action? Not ac-
cording to numerous figures,
among them Kinsey's estimate
that at least 25 per cent of col-
lege women are not virgin when
they marry. Noted expert in the
field Lester A. Kirkendall of Ore-
gon State University is convinced,
Miss Greene says, that the inci-
dence of premarital intercourse is
increasing. And she adds that en-
gagement, not marriage, is regard-
ed as license to enjoy complete
sexual intimacy by most college
girls, and some stretch that license
to being pinned, lavaliered. going
steady or-simply-in love."
we're experiencing is not simply
an increasing incidence of pre-
marital intercourse; the change
goes much deeper, manifesting it-
self in twisting, torturous problems
for virgins, nonvirgins and doubt-
fuls alike. As Miss Greene notes:
"The fact is, morality has a
great deal to do with sex on the
American campus, but the word
'morality' is avoided. Hours are
consumed in a sober, painfully
E lections
In 1964
state of radical change. Inter-
nationally, we see the growing
depth of the colonial revolution.
In the United States, the silence
of the '50's has been decisively
broken by a rising wave of direct
action. Each of us must take a
clear stand on today's issues, par-
ticularly on four important ques-
tions facing America:
Freedom: Freedom for the Negro
people and all other minorities.
Total eradication of all forms of
segregation, North and South.
Complete equality in hiring, pay
and promotion. Full political
Democracy: Complete freedom
of speech, press, organization and
action for all. Defense of those
whose democratic rights are at-
Peace :An end to nuclear and
conventional weapon production.
An end to U.S. support of brutal
wars of colonial repression as in
Cunba, Korea, Venezuela, Angola
and Viet Nam.
Economic Welfare: A national
minimum wage for all workers.
Compensation for all who are un-
employed throughout their unem-
ployment. Greater employment
through a thirty-hour week at
forty-hour's pay. An end to slums
through public construction of low
cost housing for all families.
* $ *H *

THE 1964 presidential election
provides us with an avenue for
exposing the true role of the
Democrats and Republicans, for
clearly breaking with them, their
policies and the interests they
represent, and for counter-posing
a militant campaign based on a
program of progressive demands.
In addition to supporting all in-
dependent state and local can-
didates, independents should give
at least critical support touClifton
De Barry and Ed Shaw, national
candidates of the Socialist Work-
ers Party. De Barry and Shaw sup-
port all basic demands for free-
dom, democratic rights, peace and
economic welfare. De Berry and
Shaw clearly oppose the Demo-
cratic and Republican machines,
expose them for what they are,
and call for an independent alter-
native based in the labor and civil
rights movement.
* *i *
of De Berry and Shaw poses the
national issues and the choice as
clearly as possible:
Johnson: Southern white liberal
and union buster; head of a re-
gime resting on the war, racism
and poverty of American capital-
ism and pledged to defend it at
any cost.

candid and sometimes desperate
search for answers, for values, for
a reasonable code of behavior. But
girls do not like to call it a moral
dilemma because morality is an
absolute, and absolutes are con-
stantly under fire as part of the
education process."
It is this doubt and uneasiness
that best characterize sexual lib-
eralization today. It is a huge
question mark that college women
can resolve only temporarily, us-
ually not satisfactorily. This is the

Publicly they pretend .. .

price that is paid in every transi-
tion from constraint to freedom.
On the tongue of the modern
woman and in the intellectual
centers of her mind an old moral-
ity has been thrown off. Fear of
pregnancy, unexamined abstinence
and even the somewhat more lib-
eral warnings that premarital sex
must be carefully thought out and
then should involve only the most
serious of relationships-much of
this increasingly sounds like old
hat to today's young adults.
*' * *
mind, however, is something dif-
ferent. Childhood training-per-
haps it can be called conditioning
-is never easily overcome. Fan-
tastic and fear-filled thoughts
about sex may be so deeply em-
bedded that the modern college
woman can face the whole issue
only with the greatest pain.
Were either a definite yes or a
definite no readily available,
people would probably worry a lot
less about sex. But Miss Greene
indicates that no definite answers
are available:
"Most of the college girls I in-
terviewed are preoccupied with
sex. They do not accept it so
easily, they confess privately, as
they pretend publicly. They do
not all have the courage of their
free-love convictions. Even those
who embrace the 'sweet' life often
discover they have more courage
than conviction.
"The college girl has sexual
problems: misunderstanding and
abuse of sex freedom, guilt and
self-recrimination, the burden of
constantly re-evaluating her own
inner convictions to form and re-
form the sexual code she must
author herself . ..
The general belief towards which
college students-as well as the
whole society, though much more
slowly-tend is that advanced by
psychiatrist Dr. Walter Stokes to
an assembly of 34 educators re-
cently called at Columbia Uni-
versity on sex: "Anything that
promotes successful interpersonal
relations is moral." The problem
for youth comes in deciding what
promotes successful relations; it
seems that only the small minority
of the wholly and ,sincerely chaste
or free can avoid the tortures of
the dilemma.
* *
KINSEY GIVES an indication
of the amount of regret experienc-
ed after premarital intercourse
among the women of his sample,
showing that only about 20 per
cent feel this emotion. The exact
figures are an inverse function of
the number of coital experiences
and the number of partners.
Definite difficulties in his sam-
pling, however, militate against
accepting so low a figure. Claiming
to feel no regret may very well be,
of course, only rationalizing, a
process in which many indulge
precisely because of conflicts in-
volved in sexual freedom.
Furthermore, Kinsey tested only
those females who had had inter-
course; as Prof. Robert O. Blood
of the sociology department states
in his textbook "Marriage," "By
and large, it is those who feel
(premarital intercourse) is right
who engage in it-and consequent-
ly do not regret it."
On the other hand, many Uni-
versity administratoras, besides
generally endorsing the viewpoint
of sociologist Lester A. Kirkendall
that sex is good which promotes
better interpersonal relations, feel
that students are doing a good job
of handling their dilemma-and in
a healthy way.

Affairs James A. Lewis finds stu-
dent practices "no less wholesome
today than in the 1920's; it's still
not time to push the panic but-
PERHAPS. Final results, how-
ever, are not necessarily an in-
dication of the labrythine alleys of
the decision-making process. And
one might wonder just how con-
fidential a student will be with an
administrator. At least Gael
Greene offered her interviewees
complete anonymity and a guaran-
tee that no moral judgments would
be passed. And she wasin no po-
sition to exercise any kind of in-
fluence over them.
The women having premarital
intercourse have a wide variety of
requirements, ranging from en-
gagement to a love of the purely
animal act. The latter is usually
accompanied by serious personality
disorders and is probably felt, not
sincerely, but as a vaguely dis-
guised rebellion against Mother or
Society or even Herself.
According to Kinsey, about 53
per cent of the nonvirgins in his
sample havethad experience with
only one partner, 46 per cent with
the eventual spouse only and 41
per cent with the spouse and
others. Another study, by Profes-
sors Ernest Burgess and Paul Wal-
lin in 1953, indicates that 75 per
cent of unmarried females who
had premarital intercourse-47
per cent of the total sample-had
had it with their future spouse
On the whole, these women es-
pecially feel little regret. Burgess
and Wallin report that 28 per
cent felt justified because they
were going to be married;s20per
cent, because the affair was pri-
vate and 45 per cent, because
physical tensions were released.
TWENTY-TWO per cent feared
social disapproval, 26 per cent,
pregnancy and 16 per cent express-
ed guilt feelings.
But below the category of en-
gaged couples, affection becomes
less stable, and, where intercourse
is involved, the affection thres-
hold is much lower. Here, it seems,
many other factors begin to enter
the picture.
As the female requires less and
less affection for intercourse, her
submission more and more takes
on the nature of a conquest-by
the male it is a conquest of her
in the true sense of the word; in
the female, it is a conquest of
society and morality.
This is one of many overriding
impressions gained from Miss
Greene's book and from personal
observation. It seems that to many
girls with numbers of partners,
sex becomes a way of proving to
the world that one is really eman-
There is little reason, further--
more, to doubt that such a motiva-
tion is at least part of the drive
behind engaged women as well.
* * *
GAEL GREENE quotes English
Professor David Boroff, who says
that "sex is the politics of the '60's
-the last arena of adventure in
the quasi-welfare state in which
we live."
And immediately after that:
"Sex, says David Riesman, 'pro-
vides a kind of defense against the
threat of total apathy . . . The
other-directed person looks to it
for re-assurance that he is alive'."
Or take the comment of an
angry Brandeis coed quoted by
Miss Greene:
"We're bred to be breeders-but
we're educated to be anything
else. Then we're sent off to breed.
We're always being told that the
essential nature of woman de-
mands security, emotional com-
mitment; that the female can't
enjoy love-making otherwise. But
we're too busy proving we're equal
as we've been told we are-in bed."
* * *.
WITH the tremendous stigma
attached to sex-a stigma that

seems to belie natural instincts, in-
tellectual argument, dormitory
revelation and observation of the
adult world-intercourse cannot

but become the great forbidden
fruit, the exotic "real experience"
which the romanticist in .:ach of
us treasures and which the cynic
in us says society owes us.
Thus the very fact that sex is
considered immoralaseems to impel
Kinsey finds, for instance, that
while 89 per cent of his >;ample--
with and without coital experience
-express moral objections to pre-
marital intimacy, 50 per cent en-
gage in it.
For the girls indulging in sexual
intercourse as an unadmitted. and
perhaps unrealized rebellion, it
seems that sex must usually take
place without, or at least before
affection. Rather than a natural
concommitant of strong emotional
attachment, it becomes its own
raison d'etre. And the male be-
comes merely a vehicle for this re-
bellion-much as the female is
likely to be a vehicle for him.
AND TO ADD to this picture of
uncertainty; Miss Greene reports
that the girls in her interviews al-
most unanimously express little
but contempt for promiscuity-in
fact, rarely mention it. With the
ambiguity of the word, it would
not be hard to apply it to many of
the behavior patterns discussed
Of almost equal importance in
this discussion of sexual behavior



contemporary sexual practices and
attitudes are doubt, tension and
rebellion, coupled with a declin-
ing criterion for love and a bur-
geoning desire to grab after sig-

ston Ehrmann indicates that light
and heavy petting is the maximum
intimacy for 50 per cent of col-
lege women; 34 per cent claimed
they had never gone beyond neck-
Whatever figures are used, how-
ever, almost all the writers on the
subject agree that the dictionary
definition of virginity is becoming
less and less meaningful.
And even- if petting is consider-
ed relatively innocuous, there are
definite indications of regret on
the woman's part. Lumping all
petting under one category, Pro-
fessors Robert Bell and Leonard
Blumberg found, in a 1960 survey
at Temple University, that 54 per
cent of the women who had petted
in casual dating felt they had gone
too far. Thirty-seven per cent of
those involved in steady relation-
ships agreed, as did 26 per cent of
those engaged.
Again, however, we might expect
that actual figures are even high-
er, given the selectivity of such
samples and the subject's disin-
clination to let anyone else know
that perhaps she didn't know what
she was doing after all.


-Daily-Jeffrey Bates
ON THE SURFACE, the Arb and the beginning of a relaxed
afternoon. But what lies deeper?

is the incidence of petting among
college youth. Virgins are just not
what they used to be, as Miss
Greene puts it:
"American youth not only in-
vented and patented petting to
cope with the unique paradox of
contemporary courtship conflicts,
they are also the most promis-
cuous petters anywhere ... Several
sociologists believe that the great
increase in premarital sexual be-
havior is not in actual coitus but
rather in the intimacy, sophistica-
tion, acceptance and practice of
sexual foreplay."
The ambiguity of the term "pet-
ting" makes for some difficulties
in interpreting the available data,
of course. The term applies to any-
thing from caressing clothed
breasts to oral-genital or actual
genital-genital contact and mas-
turbation without real intercourse.
But the figures we have are the
only ones, and it can always be
argued that one thing is bound to
lead to another anyway.
The gist of Kinsey's figures is
that at least 90 per cent of college
women marrying between 20 and
30 have had petting experience;
while this figure drops to around
30 per cent for petting to orgasm,
about 80 per cent of Kinsey's wom-
en had appreciable erotic response.
Of Kinsey's whole sample, no
fewer than 70 per cent of the
females marrying between 21 and
25 had petted with at least 20
different men.
* * *
figure lower. A 1959 study by Win-

nificant experiences. Let one of
Miss Greene's coeds summarize
"How we seem to punish our-
selves . . . for going to bed. We
like to feel how wholesome and
modern sex is-how going to bed
with The Man is right, proper,
healthy. Unfortunately, you can
take the girl out of Kenosha (Wis-
consin), but you can't take Ken-
osha you know . . . Something
deep down in the back of your
head just won't let loose . . . So
then one night when you et mad
enough at the world anU really
down on your folks and you can't
stand yourself, you anesthetize
yourself with too much gin and
fall into bed with some guy, some
animal you don't even know his
name and-"
Doubtless there is, too, much
real affection, much sincere love
behind premarital intercourse, and
in these cases sex is a highly
meaningful physical expression of
emotions that are too large to stay
within the bounds of discussion,
smiles, vows and kisses. Yet in
many of these cases as well, the
tenor of the current limbo in
which students move about and
think regarding sex initiates vague
botherings in the mind.
What kinds of effects result
from this neither-here-nor-there-
ism? Is the college student, the
woman in particular, less healthy
mentally or physically?Is she less
likely to succeed in marriage men-
tally or physically?
* * *
basis of Part Three.

Music of Shakespeare's Day

r"HE CONSORT, an ensemble of
students, faculty and others
interested in performing early mu-
sic, will present a concert of Ren-
aissance and early Baroque music
tonight at 8:30 p.m., in the Rack-
ham Aud. Prof. Robert A. Warner,
the director of The Consort, has
prepared a program of English and
Italian music, both sacred and
secular, in keeping with the theme
of the current emphasis on Shake-
speare and his age.
Although the nucleus of The
Consort is the ensemble of voices
and viols, other instruments will
be featured. A brass ensemble pre-
pared for the program by Prof.
Clifford Lillya of the music school

(viola da gamba) is a fretted in-
strument with six strings, played
with a bow. It reached its matur-
ity in the 16th and 17th centuries.
and the larger bass viols (not to
be confused with the modern
double bass) were played well into
the 18th century.
Although gradually superseded
by the more powerful violins, the
viols were retained longer by the
more conservative English. The
construction, tuning and method
of playing the viol produces its
subtle, muted sound. Three sizes
of viols are used by The Consort
-from the treble to the bass-and
all are held between the knees
while being played.



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